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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E10. Fuel oil consumption and energy intensities (gallons) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total fuel oil consumption
(million gallons)
Fuel oil energy intensity1
(gallons/square foot in buildings
using fuel oil for the end use)
  Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Other Total Space
heating
Water
heating
Other
All buildings 974.2 672.9 5.9 295.5 48.2 156.7 3.1 18.2
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000 151.3 140.3 Q Q 250.4 340.6 Q Q
5,001 to 10,000 74.5 70.3 Q 4.1 133.2 191.8 Q 20.6
10,001 to 25,000 146.9 127.9 Q 18.4 130.8 179.6 Q 46.5
25,001 to 50,000 101.5 70.9 Q 30.3 68.1 124.1 Q 30.9
50,001 to 100,000 170.8 119.5 Q 50.5 60.5 171.3 Q 22.0
100,001 to 200,000 146.5 102.6 0.7 43.3 51.3 187.4 2.8 18.1
200,001 to 500,000 98.2 20.2 0.3 77.8 18.3 33.5 Q 16.2
Over 500,000 84.4 21.1 0.2 63.1 15.7 55.0 1.0 12.6
Principal building activity                
Education 205.4 164.6 1.1 39.8 94.0 156.5 1.6 29.3
Food sales Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Food service Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Health care 142.4 79.7 0.8 61.8 51.3 166.9 2.4 24.2
Inpatient 117.0 68.9 0.8 47.3 51.9 169.9 3.3 22.8
Outpatient Q Q Q Q 48.7 Q Q Q
Lodging 61.1 Q Q 26.5 29.8 Q Q 14.4
Mercantile 68.7 58.3 Q 10.3 61.4 199.0 Q 13.7
Retail (other than mall) 52.9 50.1 Q Q 116.5 206.1 Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls Q Q Q 7.6 Q Q Q 13.4
Office 131.4 65.4 Q 65.9 24.7 116.9 Q 14.0
Public assembly 47.8 Q Q 17.8 28.7 Q Q 11.9
Public order and safety 16.8 Q Q 12.1 18.5 Q Q 13.5
Religious worship 38.9 Q Q Q 99.5 Q Q Q
Service 118.5 112.3 Q 6.2 161.7 285.8 Q 16.5
Warehouse and storage 38.4 Q Q 18.2 21.6 Q Q 14.4
Other 71.0 Q Q 23.8 96.2 Q Q 49.1
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                
Before 1920 119.0 112.9 Q 3.8 108.2 181.4 Q 9.6
1920 to 1945 104.6 77.8 Q 26.5 72.3 141.3 Q 26.1
1946 to 1959 132.8 111.1 0.5 21.2 86.8 188.0 1.7 20.9
1960 to 1969 143.6 112.8 0.8 30.1 59.7 162.3 2.1 16.8
1970 to 1979 118.4 71.0 Q 46.8 45.3 121.4 Q 21.4
1980 to 1989 113.9 54.8 Q 58.4 29.9 130.0 Q 17.6
1990 to 1999 98.4 54.1 Q 43.9 30.8 147.9 Q 14.9
2000 to 2003 75.2 Q Q 21.2 51.3 Q Q 16.8
2004 to 2007 22.2 Q Q 17.0 14.8 Q Q 12.3
2008 to 2012 46.1 Q Q 26.6 40.6 Q Q 27.3
Census region and division                
Northeast 651.8 532.5 3.2 116.1 107.2 188.2 2.3 31.2
New England 343.7 304.6 1.5 37.6 184.2 240.0 2.2 44.3
Middle Atlantic 308.0 227.9 1.7 78.5 73.1 146.1 2.4 27.3
Midwest 107.8 65.9 Q 41.6 27.4 98.8 Q 12.7
East North Central 69.6 Q Q 26.8 26.6 Q Q 11.8
West North Central 38.2 23.2 Q 14.8 29.0 Q Q 14.8
South 166.7 63.9 Q 100.4 23.6 87.7 Q 16.0
South Atlantic 117.8 49.7 Q 65.7 26.7 115.3 Q 16.7
East South Central 21.3 Q Q 9.5 26.7 Q Q 13.4
West South Central 27.5 Q Q 25.2 15.0 Q Q 15.4
West 48.0 Q Q 37.3 15.3 Q Q 12.4
Mountain Q Q Q Q 12.8 Q Q 12.0
Pacific 34.1 Q Q 24.8 16.7 Q Q 12.6
Climate region2                
Very cold/Cold 592.2 459.3 2.1 130.8 74.0 193.4 1.9 21.9
Mixed-humid 313.9 213.0 3.7 97.2 43.1 127.7 5.2 17.0
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 17.9 Q Q 17.9 11.2 Q Q 11.4
Hot-humid 42.5 Q Q 42.2 16.4 Q Q 18.1
Marine 7.6 Q Q 7.3 10.8 Q Q 10.9
Number of floors                
One 305.9 227.4 Q 77.2 73.9 166.2 3.6 25.9
Two 232.9 178.2 0.7 54.0 69.0 184.9 1.8 21.4
Three 166.5 139.6 1.0 25.9 79.7 193.7 2.0 18.8
Four to nine 207.0 110.7 Q 93.5 33.1 115.6 Q 17.2
Ten or more 61.8 Q Q 44.8 14.2 59.7 Q 11.4
Number of workers (main shift)                
Fewer than 5 226.9 213.3 Q 13.3 152.4 213.7 1.0 27.9
5 to 9 65.0 59.1 Q 3.0 90.7 169.7 Q 9.7
10 to 19 82.8 66.4 Q Q 108.3 213.6 Q 33.0
20 to 49 122.4 82.5 Q 39.4 67.1 152.2 Q 28.3
50 to 99 153.3 101.2 Q 51.2 48.9 129.6 Q 20.4
100 to 249 161.3 89.1 0.5 71.7 39.9 129.6 1.5 20.4
250 or more 162.4 61.3 0.7 100.5 19.7 98.0 2.0 13.3
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 70.1 62.8 Q Q 130.3 185.2 Q Q
40 to 48 193.8 155.0 0.3 38.5 72.6 154.1 0.8 22.0
49 to 60 181.2 134.9 Q 45.7 46.3 144.9 Q 15.9
61 to 84 142.9 103.5 Q 38.9 46.0 127.1 Q 16.6
85 to 167 64.1 Q Q 32.6 34.3 Q Q 19.4
Open continuously 322.2 185.2 4.4 132.6 39.7 192.3 8.0 17.8
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 662.9 455.6 4.7 202.5 47.2 161.7 4.3 17.8
Owner occupied 410.9 304.2 2.2 104.5 65.1 180.9 2.9 21.0
Leased to tenant(s) 170.7 119.5 Q 48.8 36.0 162.9 Q 12.6
Owner occupied and leased 79.1 30.5 Q 48.5 27.0 81.5 Q 19.5
Unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Government owned 311.3 217.2 1.2 92.9 50.7 147.2 1.5 19.0
Federal Q Q Q 14.3 Q Q Q 13.6
State 38.7 Q Q 17.8 27.7 Q Q 15.9
Local 250.3 188.6 0.9 60.8 68.4 164.3 1.6 22.3
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
               
Building owner 878.6 605.8 5.6 267.2 48.5 153.6 3.2 18.3
Business owner or tenant 70.0 52.2 Q 17.4 49.2 175.4 Q 16.0
Property management 6.9 Q Q 6.9 15.2 Q Q 15.8
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 895.4 619.9 5.6 270.0 49.0 152.3 3.2 18.4
Business owner or tenant 46.7 Q Q 14.3 40.9 Q Q 15.4
Property management 11.9 Q Q 6.5 33.7 Q Q 20.3
Other 20.2 Q Q 4.8 48.8 Q Q 13.4
Number of establishments                
One 715.6 538.3 5.7 171.6 62.0 173.6 3.8 19.2
2 to 5 178.8 96.1 0.2 82.5 36.2 116.8 0.7 19.8
6 to 10 37.6 Q Q Q 43.1 Q Q 24.2
11 to 20 7.7 Q Q 6.7 8.7 Q Q 9.1
More than 20 32.3 Q N 16.6 17.1 Q N 9.8
Currently unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Predominant exterior wall material                
Brick, stone, or stucco 431.7 284.8 4.1 142.8 49.1 138.5 3.6 19.8
Concrete (block or poured) 203.2 129.1 0.9 73.2 45.5 155.1 2.2 19.2
Concrete panels 51.5 Q Q 44.1 17.1 Q Q 16.3
Siding or shingles 154.1 145.0 Q 8.2 141.1 220.3 2.7 16.9
Metal panels 97.9 87.5 Q 10.4 81.9 209.6 Q 13.9
Window glass 16.3 Q Q 9.0 18.8 Q Q 11.7
Other Q Q N Q 25.0 Q N Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                
Metal surfacing 166.9 146.7 Q 19.7 82.5 188.6 Q 15.0
Synthetic or rubber 287.9 176.7 0.7 110.4 36.1 132.1 0.9 16.4
Built-up 229.1 135.1 3.2 90.8 39.6 131.6 Q 18.5
Slate or tile shingles 32.4 Q Q 10.7 44.8 Q Q 17.3
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
195.1 151.5 1.2 42.4 75.9 190.7 3.9 23.0
Concrete 22.3 Q Q Q 36.0 Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                
Roof tilt                
Flat 496.2 281.8 4.0 210.4 34.5 111.6 3.3 17.4
Shallow pitch 247.5 188.9 Q 57.8 63.6 196.8 3.3 19.4
Steeper pitch 230.4 202.2 Q 27.2 119.5 250.3 Q 23.0
Cool roof 237.3 153.0 0.5 83.9 39.0 169.0 1.1 15.7
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
               
Any type of renovation 583.9 394.8 5.1 183.9 46.5 148.0 3.9 18.0
Addition or annex 248.1 162.8 1.3 84.1 53.6 149.2 1.8 21.0
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q 7.6 Q Q Q 19.0
Roof replacement 397.8 289.2 1.5 107.1 53.9 154.9 1.5 18.6
Exterior wall replacement 81.8 61.0 Q 20.2 50.0 139.7 Q 16.0
Interior wall reconfiguration 283.1 160.6 3.4 119.2 37.2 123.7 4.5 18.4
Window replacement 254.9 190.7 3.4 60.9 60.1 172.6 4.6 18.6
HVAC equipment upgrade 349.9 199.6 4.3 145.9 39.7 128.5 4.5 19.5
Lighting upgrade 378.2 231.7 3.8 142.8 43.8 154.0 4.0 19.1
Electrical upgrade 277.3 173.6 3.2 100.5 49.6 144.0 4.1 21.2
Plumbing system upgrade 243.1 164.8 3.2 75.1 49.5 161.1 4.9 18.7
Insulation upgrade 96.2 54.6 Q 39.0 38.3 101.6 Q 17.9
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 283.5 171.0 3.6 108.8 41.8 138.1 4.7 19.0
Structural upgrade 67.5 36.8 Q 30.5 38.9 100.7 Q 19.8
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 344.2 258.6 0.8 84.9 52.8 168.6 1.3 16.7
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 46.1 Q Q 26.6 40.6 Q Q 27.3
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 974.2 672.9 5.9 295.5 48.2 156.7 3.1 18.2
Natural gas 298.1 127.1 0.9 170.0 21.8 68.5 1.4 14.3
Fuel oil 974.2 672.9 5.9 295.5 48.2 156.7 3.1 18.2
District heat 46.6 Q Q 44.5 15.0 Q Q 14.9
District chilled water 31.8 Q Q 31.6 14.9 Q Q 15.1
Propane 313.5 232.9 4.0 76.5 101.8 185.3 4.9 35.1
Other 58.9 30.1 Q 28.4 52.0 96.8 Q 31.0
Space-heating energy sources                
Fuel oil 753.4 672.9 2.9 77.7 173.1 156.7 1.8 60.3
Fuel oil main 714.8 644.3 2.6 67.9 281.2 253.4 2.1 118.3
Fuel oil secondary 38.7 28.6 Q 9.8 21.4 16.3 Q 13.8
Other excluding fuel oil 207.4 N Q 204.4 13.5 N Q 14.0
Buildings without heating 13.4 N Q 13.3 25.3 N Q 30.9
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 70.7 3.0 Q 65.0 15.2 7.2 Q 15.3
Natural gas 116.6 15.4 0.2 101.1 12.9 14.4 0.4 12.8
Fuel oil 714.8 644.3 2.6 67.9 281.2 253.4 2.1 118.3
District heat 37.9 Q Q 37.7 12.7 Q Q 13.1
Propane Q Q N Q Q Q N Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding fuel oil 794.2 507.7 5.3 281.2 41.3 143.2 3.2 17.5
Buildings without cooling 161.5 157.1 Q Q 181.2 227.2 Q Q
Water-heating energy sources                
Fuel oil 433.5 352.5 5.9 75.0 226.8 218.0 3.1 83.3
Other excluding fuel oil 477.2 268.0 N 209.2 26.8 108.8 N 13.8
Buildings without water heating 63.6 52.3 N Q 129.1 245.7 N Q
Cooking energy sources                
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding fuel oil 540.1 361.0 5.0 174.1 42.8 152.3 3.6 16.4
Buildings without cooking 423.2 307.5 Q 114.9 56.4 162.1 Q 20.6
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 960.8 672.9 5.8 282.1 48.8 156.7 3.2 17.8
Buildings with cooling 812.7 515.7 5.4 291.7 42.1 143.2 3.1 18.1
Buildings with water heating 910.7 620.6 5.9 284.2 46.2 152.1 3.1 17.7
Buildings with cooking 551.0 365.4 5.1 180.5 43.4 152.5 3.6 16.9
Buildings with manufacturing 46.6 Q Q 24.5 54.0 Q Q 47.3
Buildings with electricity
generation
491.5 210.5 1.9 279.1 28.8 131.7 1.9 17.5
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 13.4 N Q 13.3 25.3 N Q 30.9
1 to 50 69.3 44.2 Q 25.0 34.5 58.8 Q 19.3
51 to 99 132.4 82.1 0.3 49.9 34.7 136.7 0.8 15.7
100 759.2 546.5 5.4 207.2 54.8 185.8 4.2 18.2
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Heat pumps 88.1 31.7 Q 53.6 28.9 62.7 Q 19.4
Furnaces 53.7 42.9 Q 10.7 61.8 234.3 Q 14.9
Individual space heaters 275.3 196.8 1.1 77.4 46.9 121.1 2.0 17.0
District heat 44.1 Q Q 42.0 14.3 Q Q 14.1
Boilers 582.7 417.0 2.8 162.9 62.4 165.8 1.9 22.3
Packaged heating units 335.5 212.9 0.8 121.8 35.0 123.2 1.5 14.9
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 615.7 460.7 4.8 150.2 56.1 161.9 3.6 17.9
Distributed system 97.8 53.9 Q 43.8 39.0 105.1 Q 22.1
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
197.1 105.9 1.1 90.2 31.7 146.9 2.3 16.0
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar or concession stand 114.4 53.2 0.6 60.6 23.5 101.1 1.5 13.7
Fast food or small restaurant 59.7 Q Q 41.8 16.5 Q Q 12.6
Cafeteria or large restaurant 306.3 193.6 2.0 110.7 43.2 146.5 2.3 18.5
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
236.7 133.8 3.6 99.3 35.4 120.2 5.5 17.0
Small kitchen area 224.8 163.3 0.7 60.8 48.2 179.5 1.4 15.7
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 313.2 145.1 1.1 167.0 27.8 101.4 1.4 16.4
Regular HVAC maintenance 809.0 515.9 5.6 287.6 42.8 148.9 3.1 18.1
Building automation system (BAS)3 422.8 209.6 1.6 211.7 30.5 133.1 1.9 16.9
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
               
Heating 672.7 486.4 4.1 182.2 47.5 152.1 2.9 16.6
Cooling 566.4 376.1 3.9 186.4 40.6 142.0 3.0 16.3
Lighting 896.9 618.3 5.4 273.2 47.4 153.0 2.9 18.0
Annual consumption
(gallons)
               
1,000 or less 98.5 59.1 Q 38.4 10.9 39.8 Q 5.5
1,001 to 5,000 238.9 173.2 Q 63.2 49.5 165.9 Q 16.1
5,001 to 10,000 189.7 129.7 Q 59.5 75.1 282.0 Q 26.9
10,001 to 25,000 156.3 99.9 0.3 56.1 67.9 194.7 0.8 28.7
Over 25,000 290.8 210.9 1.6 78.3 194.1 266.5 3.1 64.6
 
1The fuel oil intensity calculation (fuel oil consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use fuel oil for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used fuel oil. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total fuel oil intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.