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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C38. District heat consumption and expenditure intensities, 2012

Released: May 2016

District heat consumption District heat expenditures
  per
building
(million
Btu)
per
square foot
(thousand Btu)
per
worker
(million
Btu)
per
building
(thousand
dollars)
per
square foot
(dollars)
per
million
Btu
(dollars)
All buildings 7,132 57.1 41.4 139.8 1.12 19.60
Building floorspace (square feet)            
1,001 to 25,000 806 75.0 50.9 17.3 1.61 21.42
25,001 to 50,000 2,940 79.8 71.9 55.3 1.50 18.80
50,001 to 100,000 4,997 73.3 64.2 84.2 1.23 16.84
100,001 to 200,000 8,650 59.0 Q 187.5 1.28 21.68
200,001 to 500,000 17,418 56.2 45.7 333.4 1.08 19.14
Over 500,000 49,493 46.9 27.5 976.0 0.93 19.72
Principal building activity            
Education 5,215 56.2 85.2 85.8 0.92 16.46
Food sales N N N N N N
Food service Q Q Q Q Q Q
Health care 33,123 99.3 50.3 597.1 1.79 18.03
Inpatient 49,661 108.4 58.3 903.2 1.97 18.19
Outpatient Q Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging 7,723 49.4 128.4 165.5 1.06 21.43
Mercantile Q Q Q Q Q Q
Retail (other than mall) Q Q Q Q Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls Q Q Q Q Q Q
Office 6,130 42.3 17.3 144.4 1.00 23.55
Public assembly 9,513 71.8 102.5 165.0 1.25 17.35
Public order and safety Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious worship N N N N N N
Service Q Q Q Q Q Q
Warehouse and storage Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed            
Before 1920 5,028 47.1 40.6 103.6 0.97 20.60
1920 to 1945 5,497 44.8 25.0 124.0 1.01 22.56
1946 to 1959 Q 65.8 54.6 108.1 1.20 18.32
1960 to 1969 7,330 65.5 54.5 132.3 1.18 18.04
1970 to 1979 7,574 78.9 39.0 171.0 1.78 22.57
1980 to 1989 9,499 36.9 21.9 184.6 0.72 19.44
1990 to 1999 7,851 35.9 31.5 142.9 0.65 18.21
2000 to 2003 7,079 60.7 70.7 110.2 0.94 15.57
2004 to 2007 14,439 62.6 73.9 247.5 1.07 17.14
2008 to 2012 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census region and division            
Northeast 7,661 60.0 29.3 196.7 1.54 25.67
New England Q 106.4 Q Q 1.80 16.92
Middle Atlantic 9,227 49.9 23.3 274.2 1.48 29.71
Midwest 8,553 63.8 69.3 135.1 1.01 15.79
East North Central 10,913 56.6 56.9 154.8 0.80 14.18
West North Central 6,694 76.1 96.1 119.6 1.36 17.86
South 6,483 54.2 52.6 106.9 0.89 16.49
South Atlantic 6,901 50.8 42.5 118.8 0.87 17.22
East South Central Q Q 72.7 Q Q 17.98
West South Central Q 59.3 66.5 102.7 0.86 14.54
West 6,309 51.0 41.5 105.1 0.85 16.66
Mountain Q 48.3 43.6 Q 0.72 15.00
Pacific 4,130 54.3 39.6 76.1 1.00 18.42
Climate region1            
Very cold/Cold 7,830 71.3 61.6 129.5 1.18 16.53
Mixed-humid 7,412 50.4 30.9 175.3 1.19 23.66
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry Q 53.8 51.2 98.5 0.71 13.25
Hot-humid 4,057 48.8 51.6 71.0 0.85 17.51
Marine Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of floors            
One Q Q Q Q Q Q
Two Q 67.7 Q Q 1.91 28.22
Three 4,951 87.3 76.4 81.7 1.44 16.50
Four to nine 9,805 61.1 60.9 168.6 1.05 17.20
Ten or more 22,931 40.7 21.4 544.5 0.97 23.74
Number of workers (main shift)            
Fewer than 5 Q Q Q Q Q Q
5 to 9 Q Q Q Q Q Q
10 to 19 Q Q Q Q Q Q
20 to 49 3,890 68.5 119.0 74.1 1.30 19.04
50 to 99 5,265 56.5 82.9 81.6 0.87 15.50
100 to 249 9,759 61.1 65.7 151.7 0.95 15.54
250 or more 26,182 55.4 27.1 583.8 1.24 22.30
Weekly operating hours            
Fewer than 40 Q Q Q Q Q Q
40 to 48 2,711 47.7 35.4 52.1 0.92 19.20
49 to 60 4,345 45.3 28.7 75.9 0.79 17.46
61 to 84 3,573 36.6 22.7 70.1 0.72 19.63
85 to 167 9,108 92.6 119.3 167.1 1.70 18.35
Open continuously 15,674 63.8 44.3 324.8 1.32 20.72
Ownership and occupancy            
Nongovernment owned 7,796 53.5 37.4 150.7 1.03 19.33
Owner occupied 8,721 62.5 66.8 151.2 1.08 17.34
Leased to tenant(s) Q 34.8 13.5 Q 0.89 25.57
Owner occupied and leased 11,621 48.9 30.8 254.7 1.07 21.91
Unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q
Government owned 6,588 61.1 46.2 130.8 1.21 19.86
Federal 24,285 37.5 28.3 503.2 0.78 20.72
State 5,724 68.2 54.5 110.5 1.32 19.30
Local 6,069 70.9 47.1 125.7 1.47 20.71
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
           
Building owner 7,113 56.1 40.7 137.8 1.09 19.37
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
           
Building owner 7,123 56.6 41.3 137.5 1.09 19.30
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of establishments            
One 5,813 61.1 50.7 110.5 1.16 19.01
2 to 5 12,148 67.5 60.0 239.6 1.33 19.73
6 to 10 7,050 30.4 15.5 174.0 0.75 24.68
11 to 20 Q Q Q Q Q Q
More than 20 26,183 33.9 12.7 545.0 0.71 20.81
Currently unoccupied Q Q N Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material            
Brick, stone, or stucco 6,406 59.3 47.5 112.6 1.04 17.57
Concrete (block or poured) 6,479 48.1 30.6 174.1 1.29 26.87
Concrete panels 16,644 51.7 41.8 329.6 1.02 19.80
Siding or shingles Q Q Q Q Q Q
Metal panels Q Q Q Q Q Q
Window glass Q 62.4 27.0 Q 0.93 14.95
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material            
Metal surfacing Q Q Q Q Q Q
Synthetic or rubber 5,959 57.1 45.2 112.1 1.07 18.81
Built-up 7,532 51.9 30.9 180.7 1.24 23.99
Slate or tile shingles 8,588 65.1 67.0 126.2 0.96 14.70
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
7,436 73.0 47.1 141.8 1.39 19.07
Concrete Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics            
Roof tilt            
Flat 6,559 53.9 35.9 138.6 1.14 21.13
Shallow pitch 8,838 57.2 60.7 145.9 0.94 16.51
Steeper pitch 8,310 76.7 Q 139.1 1.28 16.74
Cool roof 9,339 52.8 33.9 217.6 1.23 23.30
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
           
Any type of renovation 8,747 60.1 40.1 179.0 1.23 20.46
Addition or annex 20,860 72.7 71.2 393.8 1.37 18.88
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 10,453 62.5 37.6 234.2 1.40 22.41
Exterior wall replacement 22,742 50.1 25.6 488.8 1.08 21.49
Interior wall reconfiguration 11,243 60.3 40.3 220.6 1.18 19.62
Window replacement 10,669 46.7 28.2 234.4 1.02 21.97
HVAC equipment upgrade 10,714 59.0 36.7 237.5 1.31 22.17
Lighting upgrade 9,919 58.8 43.6 181.1 1.07 18.26
Electrical upgrade 10,806 56.7 38.2 219.5 1.15 20.31
Plumbing system upgrade 11,195 52.4 33.9 229.4 1.07 20.49
Insulation upgrade 9,661 56.2 41.3 182.1 1.06 18.85
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 9,617 54.9 36.1 191.6 1.09 19.92
Structural upgrade Q 41.0 42.6 Q 0.76 18.47
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 4,544 48.9 41.6 78.7 0.85 17.31
Buildings constructed 2008 or later Q Q Q Q Q Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 7,132 57.1 41.4 139.8 1.12 19.60
Natural gas 10,172 60.5 38.2 208.1 1.24 20.46
Fuel oil 16,949 55.1 38.5 328.2 1.07 19.36
District heat 7,132 57.1 41.4 139.8 1.12 19.60
District chilled water 9,135 63.2 48.5 171.1 1.18 18.73
Propane Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 11,668 44.0 58.2 205.3 0.77 17.60
Space-heating energy sources            
District heat 7,123 57.3 41.6 139.6 1.12 19.60
District heat main 7,163 58.3 42.0 140.4 1.14 19.61
District heat secondary Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding district heat Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings without heating Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
           
Electricity Q Q Q Q Q Q
Natural gas Q Q Q Q Q Q
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q
District heat 7,163 58.3 42.0 140.4 1.14 19.61
Propane N N N N N N
Other N N N N N N
Cooling energy sources            
District heat 24,774 91.8 36.6 612.0 2.27 24.70
Other excluding district heat 7,278 55.5 41.4 140.6 1.07 19.32
Buildings without cooling Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating energy sources            
District heat 11,012 61.3 43.8 214.7 1.19 19.50
Other excluding district heat 2,957 45.0 31.4 56.9 0.87 19.23
Buildings without water heating Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources            
District heat Q 81.6 39.4 Q 1.81 22.18
Other excluding district heat 9,834 42.6 25.2 195.2 0.84 19.85
Buildings without cooking 4,993 60.4 66.6 91.3 1.10 18.28
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
           
Buildings with space heating 7,132 57.1 41.4 139.8 1.12 19.60
Buildings with cooling 7,648 57.1 41.0 150.6 1.12 19.69
Buildings with water heating 7,524 57.7 41.1 146.4 1.12 19.45
Buildings with cooking 12,402 54.2 30.1 259.2 1.13 20.90
Buildings with manufacturing Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
13,761 55.5 42.2 256.8 1.03 18.66
Percent of floorspace heated            
Not heated Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 Q Q Q Q Q Q
51 to 99 5,887 35.0 23.4 134.6 0.80 22.87
100 7,448 63.6 46.2 142.8 1.22 19.18
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
           
Heat pumps 10,088 48.0 31.5 202.9 0.96 20.12
Furnaces Q Q Q Q Q Q
Individual space heaters 7,322 46.3 33.4 141.1 0.89 19.26
District heat 7,123 57.3 41.6 139.6 1.12 19.60
Boilers Q Q Q Q Q Q
Packaged heating units 12,810 60.0 35.4 248.8 1.17 19.42
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating equipment            
Centralized system 7,504 63.1 47.7 144.1 1.21 19.21
Distributed system 3,797 46.4 23.5 88.0 1.07 23.18
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
10,340 49.8 35.2 197.4 0.95 19.09
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
           
Snack bar or concession stand 25,743 50.1 32.7 473.8 0.92 18.41
Fast food or small restaurant 26,948 51.1 28.3 504.2 0.96 18.71
Cafeteria or large restaurant 18,411 57.7 28.9 396.2 1.24 21.52
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
24,004 62.0 38.6 538.2 1.39 22.42
Small kitchen area 17,389 48.0 25.3 319.0 0.88 18.34
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
           
Economizer cycle 10,862 59.9 39.5 225.6 1.24 20.76
Regular HVAC maintenance 7,865 56.7 39.8 157.1 1.13 19.98
Building automation system (BAS)2 8,974 53.1 41.1 169.6 1.00 18.90
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
           
Heating 6,402 51.6 34.9 138.6 1.12 21.64
Cooling 6,687 51.6 34.0 141.6 1.09 21.18
Lighting 7,097 57.7 40.9 139.3 1.13 19.63
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and D of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.