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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C37. Total district heat consumption and expenditures, 2012

Released: May 2016

All buildings
using district heat
District heat consumption District heat
expenditures
  Number of buildings (thousand) Total
floorspace
(million
square feet)
Floorspace
per building
(thousand
square feet)
Total
(trillion
Btu)
Total
(million
dollars)
All buildings 48 5,964 124.9 341 6,675
Building floorspace (square feet)          
1,001 to 25,000 16 169 10.7 13 272
25,001 to 50,000 6 213 36.8 17 320
50,001 to 100,000 10 704 68.2 52 870
100,001 to 200,000 9 1,313 146.7 77 1,678
200,001 to 500,000 5 1,565 309.9 88 1,683
Over 500,000 2 2,001 1054.3 94 1,852
Principal building activity          
Education 12 1,155 92.8 65 1,068
Food sales N N N N N
Food service Q Q Q Q Q
Health care 2 684 333.6 68 1,225
Inpatient 1 576 458.0 62 1,136
Outpatient Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging 4 630 156.5 31 667
Mercantile Q Q Q Q Q
Retail (other than mall) Q Q Q Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls Q Q Q Q Q
Office 12 1,794 144.9 76 1,787
Public assembly 7 888 132.5 64 1,106
Public order and safety Q Q Q Q Q
Religious worship N N N N N
Service Q Q Q Q Q
Warehouse and storage Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed          
Before 1920 5 540 106.8 25 523
1920 to 1945 7 888 122.7 40 898
1946 to 1959 5 446 89.7 29 538
1960 to 1969 9 1,002 111.9 66 1,185
1970 to 1979 10 930 96.1 73 1,655
1980 to 1989 2 449 257.8 17 321
1990 to 1999 3 642 218.8 23 420
2000 to 2003 4 Q 116.7 Q Q
2004 to 2007 2 Q Q 23 Q
2008 to 2012 Q Q Q Q Q
Census region and division          
Northeast 16 1,981 127.8 119 3,049
New England Q Q Q Q Q
Middle Atlantic 9 1,628 184.9 81 2,414
Midwest 7 906 134.2 58 912
East North Central 3 574 192.9 32 461
West North Central 4 332 87.9 Q Q
South 18 2,191 119.5 119 1,960
South Atlantic 9 1,159 135.9 59 1,013
East South Central Q Q 88.1 Q Q
West South Central 5 646 119.2 Q 557
West 7 886 123.7 45 753
Mountain Q 482 Q 23 Q
Pacific 5 404 76.1 22 404
Climate region1          
Very cold/Cold 18 1,926 109.8 137 2,271
Mixed-humid 20 3,012 147.2 152 3,589
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 4 Q 138.1 Q Q
Hot-humid Q 374 83.2 18 319
Marine Q Q Q Q Q
Number of floors          
One Q Q Q Q Q
Two 11 Q 44.5 Q Q
Three 10 544 56.7 47 784
Four to nine 18 2,830 160.5 173 2,973
Ten or more 3 1,900 564.0 77 1,834
Number of workers (main shift)          
Fewer than 5 Q Q Q Q Q
5 to 9 Q Q Q Q Q
10 to 19 Q Q Q Q Q
20 to 49 11 623 56.8 43 813
50 to 99 7 669 93.3 38 585
100 to 249 7 1,096 159.8 67 1,040
250 or more 7 3,082 472.6 171 3,808
Weekly operating hours          
Fewer than 40 Q Q Q Q Q
40 to 48 7 403 56.8 19 369
49 to 60 11 1,099 95.9 50 869
61 to 84 9 844 97.6 31 607
85 to 167 6 631 98.3 58 1,072
Open continuously 11 2,815 245.6 180 3,722
Ownership and occupancy          
Nongovernment owned 22 3,135 145.6 168 3,244
Owner occupied 13 1,842 139.5 115 1,997
Leased to tenant(s) Q 730 Q 25 649
Owner occupied and leased 2 557 237.6 27 597
Unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 26 2,829 107.9 173 3,431
Federal 1 708 647.1 27 550
State 18 1,538 84.0 105 2,023
Local 7 584 85.6 41 858
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
         
Building owner 46 5,776 126.9 324 6,273
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
         
Building owner 46 5,733 125.8 325 6,263
Business owner or tenant Q Q Q Q Q
Property management Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q
Number of establishments          
One 36 3,410 95.2 208 3,958
2 to 5 8 1,457 180.0 98 1,940
6 to 10 Q 357 232.3 11 267
11 to 20 Q Q Q Q Q
More than 20 1 447 771.9 15 315
Currently unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material          
Brick, stone, or stucco 32 3,423 107.9 203 3,569
Concrete (block or poured) 9 1,166 134.8 56 1,506
Concrete panels 2 730 321.9 38 747
Siding or shingles Q Q Q Q Q
Metal panels Q Q Q Q Q
Window glass Q 214 Q 13 199
Other Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material          
Metal surfacing Q Q Q Q Q
Synthetic or rubber 19 1,958 104.3 112 2,104
Built-up 13 1,893 145.1 98 2,357
Slate or tile shingles 6 Q 131.9 Q 775
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
5 552 101.9 40 768
Concrete Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics          
Roof tilt          
Flat 34 4,172 121.6 225 4,754
Shallow pitch 7 1,120 154.6 64 1,057
Steeper pitch 6 672 108.4 Q 863
Cool roof 10 1,779 177.0 94 2,187
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
         
Any type of renovation 27 3,993 145.7 240 4,905
Addition or annex 4 1,256 286.9 91 1,725
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 12 2,021 167.3 126 2,829
Exterior wall replacement 1 369 454.4 18 397
Interior wall reconfiguration 14 2,600 186.6 157 3,075
Window replacement 6 1,447 228.7 68 1,483
HVAC equipment upgrade 17 3,005 181.5 177 3,934
Lighting upgrade 18 3,055 168.8 180 3,279
Electrical upgrade 11 2,051 190.6 116 2,361
Plumbing system upgrade 8 1,724 213.5 90 1,852
Insulation upgrade 6 1,070 172.1 60 1,132
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 12 2,092 175.2 115 2,288
Structural upgrade Q 697 Q 29 528
Other Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 19 1,770 92.9 87 1,499
Buildings constructed 2008 or later Q Q Q Q Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 48 5,964 124.9 341 6,675
Natural gas 17 2,860 168.1 173 3,541
Fuel oil 10 3,110 307.5 171 3,319
District heat 48 5,964 124.9 341 6,675
District chilled water 26 3,730 144.5 236 4,417
Propane Q Q Q Q Q
Other 1 335 265.1 15 259
Space-heating energy sources          
District heat 48 5,925 124.3 340 6,656
District heat main 47 5,797 122.9 338 6,627
District heat secondary Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding district heat Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings without heating Q Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
         
Electricity Q Q Q Q Q
Natural gas Q Q Q Q Q
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q
District heat 47 5,797 122.9 338 6,627
Propane N N N N N
Other N N N N N
Cooling energy sources          
District heat 1 251 269.9 23 570
Other excluding district heat 43 5,651 131.1 314 6,064
Buildings without cooling Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating energy sources          
District heat 25 4,551 179.7 279 5,437
Other excluding district heat 19 1,271 65.7 57 1,099
Buildings without water heating Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources          
District heat Q 942 Q 77 1,706
Other excluding district heat 10 2,212 231.1 94 1,868
Buildings without cooking 34 2,810 82.7 170 3,101
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
         
Buildings with space heating 48 5,962 124.9 341 6,673
Buildings with cooling 44 5,903 134.0 337 6,634
Buildings with water heating 45 5,822 130.4 336 6,537
Buildings with cooking 14 3,154 228.7 171 3,574
Buildings with manufacturing Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
15 3,749 248.2 208 3,879
Percent of floorspace heated          
Not heated Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 Q Q Q Q Q
51 to 99 7 1,126 168.2 39 901
100 40 4,720 117.1 300 5,758
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
         
Heat pumps 3 556 210.3 27 536
Furnaces Q Q Q Q Q
Individual space heaters 9 1,354 158.2 63 1,207
District heat 48 5,925 124.3 340 6,656
Boilers Q Q Q Q Q
Packaged heating units 3 742 213.3 45 865
Other Q Q Q Q Q
Water-heating equipment          
Centralized system 30 3,596 119.0 227 4,357
Distributed system 6 501 81.9 23 539
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
8 1,725 207.5 86 1,641
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
         
Snack bar or concession stand 3 1,613 513.4 81 1,489
Fast food or small restaurant 2 1,195 527.7 61 1,142
Cafeteria or large restaurant 6 1,828 319.1 105 2,269
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
4 1,562 387.2 97 2,170
Small kitchen area 3 1,138 362.6 55 1,001
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
         
Economizer cycle 23 4,090 181.3 245 5,088
Regular HVAC maintenance 41 5,630 138.8 319 6,375
Building automation system (BAS)2 30 5,006 169.0 266 5,023
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
         
Heating 32 4,027 124.2 208 4,494
Cooling 31 4,045 129.7 209 4,419
Lighting 45 5,507 122.9 318 6,240
   
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and D of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.