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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C32. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensity by year constructed, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas
consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total floorspace of
buildings using natural gas
(million square feet)
Natural gas
energy intensity
(cubic feet/square foot)
  1959 or
before
1960 to
1989
1990 to
2012
1959 or
before
1960 to
1989
1990 to
2012
1959 or
before
1960 to
1989
1990 to
2012
All buildings 421 965 807 11,504 25,420 21,801 36.6 38.0 37.0
Building floorspace (square feet)                  
1,001 to 5,000 69 98 82 1,196 1,475 1,086 58.0 66.4 75.5
5,001 to 10,000 54 113 74 1,236 2,305 1,276 43.9 49.1 58.3
10,001 to 25,000 59 152 86 2,187 3,785 2,852 27.0 40.0 30.2
25,001 to 50,000 51 134 93 1,497 3,851 2,800 33.8 34.7 33.1
50,001 to 100,000 57 127 146 1,688 3,893 4,354 33.7 32.7 33.5
100,001 to 200,000 40 138 105 1,476 3,732 4,207 27.1 36.9 25.0
200,001 to 500,000 65 115 122 1,549 3,800 2,944 42.1 30.2 41.5
Over 500,000 26 89 99 675 2,578 2,281 38.5 34.4 43.4
Principal building activity                  
Education 79 114 91 2,357 3,729 3,434 33.5 30.6 26.5
Food sales Q 20 27 Q 317 421 Q 62.4 63.6
Food service 47 95 80 409 532 453 114.4 179.0 176.3
Health care 32 111 116 440 1,493 1,359 72.2 74.4 85.1
Inpatient 25 96 93 245 1,045 822 101.1 91.7 113.0
Outpatient 7 15 23 194 448 537 35.6 33.9 42.3
Lodging 24 104 87 594 2,356 1,968 40.0 44.3 44.3
Mercantile 23 139 121 863 3,679 3,952 27.0 37.9 30.7
Retail (other than mall) 12 22 39 554 959 1,858 21.0 22.5 21.1
Enclosed and strip malls Q 118 82 Q 2,720 2,094 Q 43.3 39.2
Office 79 135 62 2,220 5,169 2,901 35.5 26.1 21.2
Public assembly 32 49 51 1,154 1,250 1,485 27.8 39.3 34.1
Public order and safety Q 15 17 Q 296 507 Q 50.2 33.4
Religious worship 27 34 24 968 1,100 949 27.4 31.0 25.5
Service 30 55 34 601 1,348 841 50.4 40.8 40.1
Warehouse and storage 29 53 53 916 3,166 2,925 32.0 16.8 18.2
Other Q 33 42 Q 570 441 Q 58.5 94.2
Vacant 3 6 Q 307 415 Q 8.9 15.2 Q
Census region and division                  
Northeast 139 195 154 3,248 4,442 3,378 42.7 43.8 45.6
New England 27 35 46 599 890 752 45.6 39.3 60.6
Middle Atlantic 111 160 108 2,649 3,552 2,626 42.0 45.0 41.3
Midwest 142 285 200 3,470 6,491 5,064 40.9 43.8 39.5
East North Central 109 216 157 2,568 4,448 3,774 42.6 48.5 41.5
West North Central 33 69 44 902 2,042 1,291 36.1 33.8 33.8
South 80 281 239 2,971 8,467 8,463 27.0 33.2 28.3
South Atlantic 37 123 138 1,518 3,841 4,625 24.4 32.0 29.7
East South Central 17 53 31 413 1,778 1,245 40.6 30.1 24.8
West South Central 26 105 71 1,040 2,847 2,593 25.3 36.8 27.3
West 61 204 214 1,815 6,020 4,897 33.4 33.9 43.7
Mountain 18 61 81 453 1,636 1,677 39.4 37.1 48.2
Pacific 43 144 133 1,362 4,384 3,220 31.4 32.8 41.4
Climate region1                  
Very cold/Cold 242 441 388 5,494 10,241 8,776 44.0 43.0 44.2
Mixed-humid 128 282 232 3,891 7,885 7,585 32.8 35.7 30.5
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 30 117 102 1,179 3,609 2,731 25.6 32.4 37.3
Hot-humid 14 93 59 645 2,621 2,034 22.4 35.5 29.0
Marine 7 32 27 295 1,064 675 25.1 30.3 39.9
Number of floors                  
One 109 436 351 3,220 10,817 10,460 33.9 40.3 33.6
Two 106 216 177 2,680 6,987 4,998 39.4 31.0 35.4
Three 72 78 69 1,907 2,169 2,008 37.7 36.0 34.3
Four to nine 113 161 159 2,957 3,304 3,504 38.1 48.7 45.4
Ten or more 22 74 Q 742 2,142 831 29.7 34.5 62.0
Number of workers (main shift)                  
Fewer than 5 95 99 64 2,703 3,128 2,027 35.3 31.5 31.6
5 to 9 42 97 58 1,204 2,450 1,702 34.5 39.7 34.1
10 to 19 42 128 120 1,109 3,058 2,632 38.2 41.9 45.7
20 to 49 53 188 128 1,558 4,792 4,262 34.0 39.2 30.1
50 to 99 82 141 129 2,100 4,162 4,058 38.9 34.0 31.7
100 to 249 46 129 153 1,379 3,442 4,059 33.5 37.6 37.7
250 or more 61 182 155 1,451 4,388 3,062 42.2 41.5 50.6
Weekly operating hours                  
Fewer than 40 37 38 19 1,343 1,498 864 27.9 25.3 22.5
40 to 48 63 109 80 2,590 4,055 3,315 24.3 27.0 24.1
49 to 60 94 147 119 2,888 6,270 4,847 32.6 23.5 24.6
61 to 84 79 207 172 1,990 5,167 4,337 39.6 40.2 39.6
85 to 167 68 130 141 1,046 2,493 3,196 65.5 52.3 44.1
Open continuously 80 332 276 1,647 5,937 5,243 48.3 56.0 52.6
Ownership and occupancy                  
Nongovernment owned 305 741 658 8,210 19,434 16,837 37.2 38.1 39.1
Owner occupied 168 352 349 4,470 7,901 8,171 37.5 44.5 42.7
Leased to tenant(s) 87 284 248 2,221 8,388 6,752 39.0 33.8 36.7
Owner occupied and leased 50 103 60 1,419 3,011 1,823 35.1 34.3 33.2
Unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 116 224 149 3,294 5,986 4,964 35.2 37.4 30.0
Federal 6 11 12 174 328 365 36.9 34.0 32.5
State 41 86 38 997 1,836 1,105 41.3 46.7 34.7
Local 68 127 99 2,123 3,821 3,493 32.2 33.3 28.3
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                 
Building owner 368 791 648 10,282 21,073 17,745 35.8 37.5 36.5
Business owner or tenant 45 153 136 1,026 3,747 3,467 44.0 40.8 39.3
Property management Q 13 9 Q 382 333 Q 35.2 27.3
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                 
Building owner 375 820 673 10,490 22,166 18,291 35.8 37.0 36.8
Business owner or tenant 38 117 103 789 2,564 2,672 47.8 45.7 38.6
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q 21 24 Q 468 600 Q 44.1 40.7
Number of establishments                  
One 294 630 566 7,344 15,383 14,430 40.0 40.9 39.3
2 to 5 94 185 139 2,794 5,174 4,463 33.7 35.7 31.1
6 to 10 15 49 41 575 1,540 977 25.8 32.0 41.5
11 to 20 Q 59 45 Q 1,269 1,259 Q 46.5 35.4
More than 20 11 38 16 452 1,829 581 24.1 21.0 27.6
Currently unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                  
Brick, stone, or stucco 281 483 367 7,889 11,765 9,345 35.6 41.1 39.3
Concrete (block or poured) 84 282 155 2,148 7,316 5,053 39.2 38.6 30.7
Concrete panels 7 70 125 233 2,446 3,260 32.1 28.8 38.5
Siding or shingles 28 52 51 839 1,027 1,022 33.4 50.7 49.6
Metal panels Q 46 59 Q 2,032 2,121 Q 22.8 27.8
Window glass Q 17 Q Q 501 489 Q 33.0 Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                  
Metal surfacing 22 101 112 843 2,773 4,209 25.9 36.4 26.7
Synthetic or rubber 160 299 371 3,819 7,977 7,994 41.8 37.5 46.4
Built-up 97 317 154 2,911 8,611 4,503 33.5 36.8 34.1
Slate or tile shingles 47 34 31 1,057 844 900 44.3 39.8 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q 24 Q Q 323 Q Q 73.9 Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
78 165 116 2,421 3,978 3,497 32.2 41.4 33.1
Concrete Q 10 10 Q 436 321 Q 24.1 32.5
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                  
Roof tilt                  
Flat 260 674 485 6,996 17,364 11,473 37.2 38.8 42.3
Shallow pitch 83 180 206 2,194 5,550 6,757 38.0 32.5 30.5
Steeper pitch 78 110 116 2,315 2,506 3,571 33.6 43.9 32.6
Cool roof 96 233 258 2,249 5,907 6,196 42.6 39.5 41.7
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any type of renovation 287 641 272 7,880 16,531 6,534 36.4 38.8 41.6
Addition or annex 92 230 134 2,139 5,167 2,799 43.2 44.6 47.9
Reduction in floorspace 11 Q Q 312 929 Q 34.3 52.6 Q
Roof replacement 167 400 98 4,365 9,503 2,284 38.2 42.1 42.8
Exterior wall replacement 31 61 35 1,143 1,567 685 26.9 38.9 50.4
Interior wall reconfiguration 154 308 167 4,283 8,326 3,466 36.0 37.0 48.2
Window replacement 131 178 68 3,642 4,565 1,079 36.1 38.9 63.5
HVAC equipment upgrade 201 453 167 5,589 11,473 3,376 35.9 39.5 49.6
Lighting upgrade 206 412 172 5,374 10,406 3,518 38.4 39.6 48.9
Electrical upgrade 175 251 112 4,200 6,121 2,052 41.5 41.0 54.5
Plumbing system upgrade 147 246 109 3,418 5,200 1,931 42.9 47.4 56.5
Insulation upgrade 68 116 78 1,756 2,823 1,315 38.5 41.1 59.7
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 153 297 105 3,806 7,246 2,174 40.1 41.0 48.3
Structural upgrade 27 65 Q 706 1,333 796 38.1 48.4 70.8
Other Q 9 Q Q 371 Q Q 23.0 Q
No renovations 135 323 380 3,624 8,888 11,446 37.1 36.4 33.2
Buildings constructed 2008 or later N N 156 N N 3,821 N N 40.7
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 421 965 807 11,504 25,420 21,801 36.6 38.0 37.0
Natural gas 421 965 807 11,504 25,420 21,801 36.6 38.0 37.0
Fuel oil 86 251 271 2,179 6,182 5,302 39.4 40.6 51.2
District heat 9 Q Q 598 1,174 1,088 14.6 48.9 Q
District chilled water 5 61 Q 191 1,151 1,089 27.7 52.8 Q
Propane 13 53 77 318 1,387 1,692 40.9 38.2 45.3
Other 30 48 28 616 1,141 881 48.6 42.1 31.5
Space-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 395 836 692 10,080 21,118 18,313 39.2 39.6 37.8
Natural gas main 373 749 604 9,209 18,153 15,625 40.6 41.3 38.6
Natural gas secondary 22 87 88 871 2,965 2,688 25.0 29.3 32.8
Other excluding natural gas 21 117 108 1,328 3,964 3,325 16.0 29.5 32.4
Buildings without heating Q 12 Q Q 337 Q Q 35.5 Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                 
Electricity 32 139 157 1,294 5,320 4,935 24.7 26.1 31.7
Natural gas 373 749 604 9,209 18,153 15,625 40.6 41.3 38.6
Fuel oil Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
District heat 8 Q Q 573 1,162 1,056 13.7 48.7 Q
Propane Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                  
Natural gas Q 22 Q Q 282 Q Q 79.4 Q
Other excluding natural gas 377 914 777 10,587 24,422 21,158 35.6 37.4 36.7
Buildings without cooling 24 29 16 666 716 444 35.5 40.1 35.6
Water-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 330 770 627 7,294 17,542 14,687 45.3 43.9 42.7
Other excluding natural gas 81 179 168 3,459 7,370 6,666 23.4 24.3 25.2
Buildings without water heating 10 16 12 751 507 448 13.1 30.8 26.9
Cooking energy sources                  
Natural gas 212 534 462 4,443 10,793 9,534 47.7 49.5 48.4
Other excluding natural gas 50 81 69 1,606 2,226 2,425 31.4 36.4 28.3
Buildings without cooking 159 350 277 5,456 12,400 9,842 29.1 28.2 28.2
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                 
Buildings with space heating 416 953 800 11,408 25,082 21,639 36.5 38.0 36.9
Buildings with cooling 398 936 791 10,838 24,703 21,357 36.7 37.9 37.1
Buildings with water heating 411 949 795 10,753 24,912 21,353 38.3 38.1 37.2
Buildings with cooking 262 615 530 6,049 13,019 11,959 43.4 47.2 44.3
Buildings with manufacturing 29 51 41 929 1,708 1,102 30.9 29.8 36.9
Buildings with electricity
generation
101 333 401 2,370 8,638 9,263 42.5 38.5 43.3
Percent of floorspace heated                  
Not heated Q 12 Q Q 337 Q Q 35.5 Q
1 to 50 25 52 43 1,225 2,815 1,676 20.5 18.5 25.7
51 to 99 90 180 161 2,596 4,465 4,086 34.8 40.4 39.5
100 301 720 595 7,586 17,802 15,877 39.7 40.5 37.5
Percent of floorspace cooled                  
Not cooled 24 29 16 666 716 444 35.5 40.1 35.6
1 to 50 131 170 107 3,266 5,893 3,871 40.0 28.9 27.7
51 to 99 113 269 269 3,589 7,057 6,460 31.6 38.0 41.6
100 154 497 415 3,983 11,753 11,025 38.6 42.3 37.6
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heat pumps 45 97 99 1,372 3,133 3,055 33.0 30.9 32.5
Furnaces 51 107 80 1,384 3,372 2,290 36.8 31.9 35.0
Individual space heaters 129 247 156 3,778 6,951 5,079 34.2 35.5 30.6
District heat 9 Q Q 581 1,174 1,078 14.9 48.9 Q
Boilers 226 403 330 5,001 8,675 6,342 45.3 46.5 52.1
Packaged heating units 215 601 511 6,313 16,317 14,940 34.0 36.8 34.2
Other Q 18 31 Q 434 663 Q 42.4 46.4
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Residential-type central air
conditioners
89 192 124 2,359 4,918 3,226 37.8 39.1 38.5
Heat pumps 49 108 93 1,563 3,371 3,083 31.5 31.9 30.3
Individual air conditioners 121 171 73 2,976 3,997 2,164 40.7 42.8 33.7
District chilled water 5 61 Q 191 1,151 1,089 27.7 52.8 Q
Central chillers 102 261 221 2,549 6,386 4,810 40.0 40.8 46.0
Packaged air conditioning units 215 579 492 6,027 15,288 13,602 35.7 37.9 36.1
Swamp coolers 16 35 18 248 654 634 65.6 52.9 29.1
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 228 543 N 6,646 14,412 N 34.3 37.7 N
Cooling 255 605 N 7,506 15,587 N 34.0 38.8 N
Water-heating equipment                  
Centralized system 273 580 526 6,713 14,556 12,735 40.7 39.8 41.3
Distributed system 62 111 78 1,601 3,867 2,743 38.6 28.7 28.4
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
76 259 191 2,439 6,489 5,875 31.3 39.8 32.5
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                 
Snack bar or concession stand 40 151 164 1,005 3,527 3,336 40.2 42.8 49.2
Fast food or small restaurant 31 163 169 835 3,777 3,733 36.7 43.1 45.4
Cafeteria or large restaurant 95 256 222 2,339 5,996 4,708 40.7 42.6 47.1
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
102 294 261 2,336 6,195 5,552 43.6 47.4 47.0
Small kitchen area 100 159 140 2,801 4,183 3,899 35.7 38.0 36.0
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                 
Economizer cycle 129 412 450 3,553 10,587 10,543 36.2 38.9 42.7
Regular HVAC maintenance 343 862 738 8,859 22,036 19,796 38.7 39.1 37.3
Building automation system (BAS)2 147 428 498 3,844 11,380 12,598 38.3 37.6 39.5
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                 
Multipaned windows 284 704 721 7,427 17,931 18,416 38.2 39.3 39.2
Tinted window glass 186 575 498 4,794 14,758 13,079 38.7 39.0 38.1
Reflective window glass 63 207 258 1,552 5,264 5,234 40.7 39.3 49.2
External overhangs or awnings 149 459 397 3,300 10,776 9,143 45.3 42.6 43.4
Skylights or atriums 87 303 274 2,293 7,732 6,721 37.8 39.2 40.8
Light scheduling 130 376 399 3,256 9,678 10,175 39.8 38.8 39.3
Occupancy sensors 161 431 449 3,951 11,337 11,684 40.8 38.1 38.4
Multi-level lighting or dimming 68 215 277 1,580 4,699 5,425 42.7 45.7 51.1
Daylight harvesting 28 84 81 522 2,047 2,351 53.2 41.0 34.3
Demand responsive lighting 21 57 47 383 1,722 1,574 54.7 32.9 29.6
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 45 114 168 847 3,612 4,942 52.8 31.6 34.0
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 335 706 593 9,145 20,019 17,654 36.7 35.3 33.6
Cooling 319 695 590 8,684 19,680 17,362 36.7 35.3 34.0
Lighting 407 905 743 11,022 23,946 20,065 36.9 37.8 37.0
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                 
1,000 or less 17 21 13 1,561 3,247 2,143 10.9 6.6 6.0
1,001 to 5,000 82 113 81 3,106 5,498 4,731 26.4 20.5 17.0
5,001 to 10,000 54 109 68 1,945 3,411 2,631 27.9 32.0 26.0
10,001 to 25,000 78 195 175 1,849 4,816 4,491 42.2 40.4 39.0
25,001 to 50,000 51 139 114 1,234 2,948 2,974 41.2 47.1 38.4
50,001 to 100,000 32 131 115 664 2,339 2,275 47.5 56.2 50.6
Over 100,000 108 257 241 1,144 3,161 2,556 94.2 81.3 94.3
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.