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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C31. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensity by building size, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas
consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total floorspace of
buildings using natural gas
(million square feet)
Natural gas
energy intensity
(cubic feet/square foot)
  1,001 to
10,000
square
feet
10,001 to
100,000
square
feet
Over
100,000
feet
1,001 to
10,000
square
feet
10,001 to
100,000
square
feet
Over
100,000
feet
1,001 to
10,000
square
feet
10,001 to
100,000
square
feet
Over
100,000
feet
All buildings 491 903 799 8,575 26,906 23,244 57.3 33.6 34.4
Principal building activity                  
Education 14 140 130 376 4,483 4,661 37.1 31.1 28.0
Food sales 13 36 Q 229 484 Q 55.3 74.9 Q
Food service 184 37 N 1,087 307 N 169.7 121.8 N
Health care 10 40 208 307 821 2,164 31.8 48.9 96.3
Inpatient N 17 197 N 234 1,878 N 71.4 104.8
Outpatient 10 23 12 307 587 286 31.8 39.9 40.7
Lodging 8 103 105 152 2,303 2,462 52.7 44.6 42.5
Mercantile 50 152 82 1,003 3,922 3,568 49.9 38.9 22.9
Retail (other than mall) 20 32 21 706 1,419 1,246 28.1 22.5 16.6
Enclosed and strip malls 30 121 61 298 2,503 2,322 101.7 48.2 26.2
Office 54 121 101 1,821 4,431 4,038 29.4 27.4 24.9
Public assembly 22 65 45 544 2,007 1,337 40.2 32.5 33.5
Public order and safety 9 15 16 169 490 348 50.6 30.8 46.2
Religious worship 29 53 Q 710 2,129 Q 40.7 24.8 Q
Service 70 47 Q 1,118 1,614 Q 62.5 28.9 Q
Warehouse and storage 16 55 65 737 2,779 3,490 21.2 19.7 18.8
Other 12 30 37 221 545 612 52.5 55.2 60.6
Vacant Q 9 Q Q 592 Q Q 14.8 Q
Year constructed                  
Before 1920 28 33 24 635 1,009 677 43.9 32.7 36.1
1920 to 1945 48 55 38 838 1,778 1,175 57.6 30.8 32.7
1946 to 1959 47 79 68 959 2,585 1,849 49.5 30.4 37.0
1960 to 1969 61 142 104 1,235 3,790 2,529 49.4 37.5 41.0
1970 to 1979 80 122 130 1,256 3,393 3,330 63.4 36.0 38.9
1980 to 1989 70 148 108 1,289 4,346 4,252 54.6 34.1 25.4
1990 to 1999 69 137 124 1,191 4,276 3,694 58.0 32.1 33.6
2000 to 2003 29 62 63 456 1,963 2,303 63.3 31.6 27.4
2004 to 2007 27 56 84 323 1,980 1,793 84.7 28.5 46.8
2008 to 2012 31 69 56 392 1,786 1,643 79.3 38.5 33.9
Census region and division                  
Northeast 72 190 225 1,108 4,861 5,098 65.0 39.1 44.2
New England 12 42 54 275 1,094 872 44.6 38.0 61.9
Middle Atlantic 60 148 171 833 3,767 4,226 71.7 39.4 40.5
Midwest 135 281 211 2,504 6,995 5,527 54.1 40.1 38.1
East North Central 98 216 167 1,676 4,943 4,171 58.6 43.7 40.1
West North Central 37 65 43 828 2,052 1,356 45.0 31.5 32.0
South 174 253 173 2,802 9,274 7,824 62.1 27.3 22.1
South Atlantic 88 115 94 1,074 4,409 4,502 82.3 26.1 21.0
East South Central 19 53 29 551 1,653 1,232 35.4 31.9 23.4
West South Central 66 86 50 1,177 3,212 2,091 56.2 26.6 23.9
West 110 179 190 2,161 5,776 4,795 50.7 31.0 39.7
Mountain 38 51 Q 699 1,513 1,554 54.7 33.5 45.4
Pacific 71 129 120 1,462 4,263 3,241 48.8 30.1 37.0
Climate region1                  
Very cold/Cold 207 464 399 3,706 11,313 9,492 55.9 41.0 42.0
Mixed-humid 169 246 226 2,666 8,624 8,071 63.3 28.6 28.0
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 60 91 98 1,328 3,547 2,645 45.4 25.6 37.0
Hot-humid 42 67 58 623 2,353 2,324 67.7 28.4 24.8
Marine 13 35 19 252 1,070 712 50.3 32.8 26.4
Number of floors                  
One 343 433 121 5,693 12,525 6,278 60.2 34.6 19.2
Two 110 251 137 2,166 8,148 4,350 51.0 30.8 31.5
Three 31 113 75 590 3,186 2,309 52.9 35.5 32.4
Four to nine Q 102 323 Q 2,996 6,644 Q 34.1 48.7
Ten or more N Q 144 N Q 3,663 N Q 39.2
Number of workers (main shift)                  
Fewer than 5 172 80 Q 3,898 3,458 Q 44.2 23.0 Q
5 to 9 119 74 Q 2,360 2,644 Q 50.4 28.1 Q
10 to 19 146 137 8 1,750 4,425 624 83.4 30.9 13.0
20 to 49 53 276 40 561 8,133 1,918 95.2 33.9 20.9
50 to 99 Q 220 131 Q 5,690 4,624 Q 38.7 28.3
100 to 249 N 109 220 N 2,329 6,551 N 46.7 33.6
250 or more N 8 390 N 226 8,674 N 34.1 45.0
Weekly operating hours                  
Fewer than 40 42 48 5 1,295 1,989 421 32.2 24.2 11.8
40 to 48 80 126 46 2,295 5,059 2,606 34.8 24.9 17.7
49 to 60 100 179 81 2,401 7,322 4,282 41.8 24.4 19.0
61 to 84 117 215 127 1,192 5,492 4,810 97.8 39.1 26.4
85 to 167 105 138 97 740 2,708 3,286 141.6 50.9 29.6
Open continuously 48 197 443 652 4,336 7,839 73.3 45.5 56.5
Ownership and occupancy                  
Nongovernment owned 448 677 579 7,555 20,132 16,794 59.4 33.6 34.5
Owner occupied 245 320 303 4,137 9,422 6,983 59.3 34.0 43.3
Leased to tenant(s) 186 274 159 2,877 7,965 6,519 64.5 34.4 24.4
Owner occupied and leased 16 80 117 489 2,481 3,285 32.9 32.3 35.7
Unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 43 226 220 1,020 6,774 6,450 41.8 33.4 34.2
Federal Q Q 19 Q Q 450 Q Q 41.2
State 8 73 84 141 1,729 2,068 54.0 42.4 40.8
Local 32 145 118 815 4,690 3,933 39.1 30.9 29.9
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                 
Building owner 384 723 700 7,111 22,274 19,715 54.0 32.5 35.5
Business owner or tenant 95 153 86 1,278 4,021 2,941 74.6 38.0 29.3
Property management Q Q 9 Q Q 455 Q Q 20.6
Other Q 16 Q Q 368 Q Q 42.5 Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                 
Building owner 397 761 710 7,353 23,438 20,156 54.0 32.5 35.2
Business owner or tenant 73 116 69 968 2,798 2,258 75.9 41.4 30.4
Property management Q Q 8 Q Q 369 Q Q 21.6
Other 16 22 13 204 573 462 79.4 37.7 28.0
Number of establishments                  
One 412 588 490 6,791 17,387 12,978 60.6 33.8 37.8
2 to 5 71 171 176 1,521 5,686 5,225 46.5 30.2 33.7
6 to 10 6 63 35 172 1,827 1,094 36.4 34.7 31.9
11 to 20 Q 60 48 Q 1,372 1,357 Q 44.0 35.7
More than 20 N 16 50 N 343 2,520 N 46.0 19.7
Currently unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                  
Brick, stone, or stucco 269 494 369 4,110 14,475 10,414 65.4 34.1 35.4
Concrete (block or poured) 103 214 205 1,740 6,477 6,301 59.1 33.0 32.6
Concrete panels 8 70 126 168 1,881 3,889 47.0 37.1 32.3
Siding or shingles 57 51 Q 1,168 1,344 Q 48.7 37.6 Q
Metal panels 43 60 19 1,272 2,282 832 34.2 26.4 22.9
Window glass Q Q Q Q Q 833 Q Q 38.5
Other Q Q Q Q Q 324 Q Q 55.8
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                  
Metal surfacing 112 95 28 2,161 3,971 1,694 51.6 24.0 16.8
Synthetic or rubber 107 345 377 1,530 8,539 9,721 70.0 40.4 38.8
Built-up 67 202 299 1,217 7,081 7,728 55.0 28.6 38.7
Slate or tile shingles 47 56 8 672 1,494 Q 69.5 37.5 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
24 Q Q 312 Q Q 77.1 Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
128 175 56 2,560 5,013 2,323 50.0 34.9 24.0
Concrete Q Q 13 Q Q 522 Q Q 25.2
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                  
Roof tilt                  
Flat 207 573 640 2,947 15,811 17,074 70.1 36.3 37.5
Shallow pitch 166 179 125 3,244 6,462 4,794 51.1 27.7 26.0
Steeper pitch 119 151 35 2,384 4,632 1,376 49.8 32.5 25.3
Cool roof 80 208 300 1,175 4,821 8,357 68.0 43.2 35.8
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any type of renovation 219 455 526 3,651 13,315 13,978 59.9 34.2 37.6
Addition or annex 50 133 273 768 3,942 5,396 65.3 33.8 50.7
Reduction in floorspace 9 8 Q 144 378 862 65.8 20.3 58.7
Roof replacement 94 247 323 1,796 6,469 7,887 52.6 38.2 40.9
Exterior wall replacement 23 34 70 316 1,286 1,793 71.7 26.3 38.9
Interior wall reconfiguration 90 224 315 1,623 6,683 7,769 55.6 33.4 40.5
Window replacement 66 129 183 1,020 4,026 4,239 64.9 31.9 43.2
HVAC equipment upgrade 120 292 409 1,959 8,407 10,072 61.3 34.8 40.6
Lighting upgrade 110 288 392 1,784 7,317 10,197 61.6 39.4 38.4
Electrical upgrade 92 156 289 1,415 4,559 6,400 65.1 34.3 45.1
Plumbing system upgrade 82 163 257 1,197 4,203 5,150 68.7 38.7 50.0
Insulation upgrade 42 80 141 755 2,375 2,764 55.0 33.5 51.1
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 70 181 304 1,177 4,833 7,217 59.2 37.5 42.1
Structural upgrade 23 37 88 309 1,078 1,447 74.4 34.3 60.6
Other Q Q 6 Q Q 370 Q Q 16.0
No renovations 241 379 218 4,531 11,805 7,623 53.2 32.1 28.5
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 31 69 56 392 1,786 1,643 79.3 38.5 33.9
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 491 903 799 8,575 26,906 23,244 57.3 33.6 34.4
Natural gas 491 903 799 8,575 26,906 23,244 57.3 33.6 34.4
Fuel oil 17 146 445 292 3,316 10,055 56.8 44.2 44.3
District heat Q 6 99 Q 289 2,553 Q 19.2 38.6
District chilled water Q 10 113 Q 338 2,071 Q 30.2 54.6
Propane 9 66 68 176 1,321 1,899 49.9 49.9 35.8
Other 8 43 55 157 1,132 1,349 51.0 37.8 40.8
Space-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 421 819 683 7,665 23,741 18,104 54.9 34.5 37.7
Natural gas main 364 738 623 6,851 19,975 16,161 53.2 37.0 38.6
Natural gas secondary 57 80 60 814 3,766 1,943 69.5 21.3 30.9
Other excluding natural gas 57 75 114 764 2,956 4,897 74.9 25.3 23.2
Buildings without heating 13 Q Q 145 Q Q 89.4 Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                 
Electricity 109 143 75 1,469 5,956 4,124 74.3 24.0 18.2
Natural gas 364 738 623 6,851 19,975 16,161 53.2 37.0 38.6
Fuel oil Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District heat Q 6 96 Q 289 2,484 Q 19.2 38.8
Propane Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                  
Natural gas Q Q 50 Q Q 564 Q Q 88.6
Other excluding natural gas 460 861 747 7,806 25,771 22,589 58.9 33.4 33.1
Buildings without cooling 30 36 Q 739 996 Q 40.4 36.0 Q
Water-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 350 715 662 4,890 18,829 15,804 71.7 38.0 41.9
Other excluding natural gas 115 177 136 3,078 7,307 7,111 37.3 24.3 19.1
Buildings without water heating 26 10 Q 607 770 Q 42.4 13.2 Q
Cooking energy sources                  
Natural gas 241 401 566 2,070 8,921 13,779 116.2 44.9 41.1
Other excluding natural gas 36 101 63 994 3,042 2,220 36.3 33.3 28.3
Buildings without cooking 214 401 170 5,510 14,943 7,246 38.9 26.8 23.5
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                 
Buildings with space heating 478 894 797 8,430 26,698 23,001 56.7 33.5 34.7
Buildings with cooling 461 867 797 7,836 25,910 23,153 58.9 33.5 34.4
Buildings with water heating 465 893 798 7,968 26,136 22,915 58.4 34.2 34.8
Buildings with cooking 277 502 629 3,065 11,963 15,998 90.3 41.9 39.3
Buildings with manufacturing 24 55 41 444 1,990 1,306 53.2 27.8 31.6
Buildings with electricity
generation
31 241 561 518 5,673 14,080 60.7 42.5 39.9
Percent of floorspace heated                  
Not heated 13 Q Q 145 Q Q 89.4 Q Q
1 to 50 33 54 33 1,060 2,784 1,872 31.2 19.3 17.8
51 to 99 92 188 153 1,404 4,719 5,025 65.3 39.8 30.4
100 353 652 611 5,966 19,195 16,104 59.2 34.0 37.9
Percent of floorspace cooled                  
Not cooled 30 36 Q 739 996 Q 40.4 36.0 Q
1 to 50 98 176 134 2,147 6,350 4,533 45.7 27.7 29.6
51 to 99 106 296 248 1,622 7,521 7,963 65.5 39.4 31.2
100 257 395 414 4,067 12,039 10,656 63.2 32.8 38.9
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heat pumps 44 84 114 565 3,730 3,266 78.2 22.4 34.8
Furnaces 70 115 54 1,813 3,890 1,343 38.7 29.5 39.9
Individual space heaters 111 220 201 2,244 6,828 6,735 49.3 32.3 29.8
District heat Q 6 98 Q 289 2,526 Q 19.2 39.0
Boilers 70 358 532 716 8,322 10,981 98.2 43.0 48.5
Packaged heating units 332 596 399 5,514 18,291 13,763 60.1 32.6 29.0
Other Q 31 18 Q 702 424 Q 44.5 41.8
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Residential-type central air
conditioners
165 181 61 3,413 5,569 1,522 48.2 32.4 39.9
Heat pumps 55 97 99 702 3,996 3,319 77.7 24.3 29.7
Individual air conditioners 47 155 164 1,021 3,850 4,266 45.8 40.1 38.4
District chilled water Q 10 113 Q 338 2,071 Q 30.2 54.6
Central chillers Q 147 432 Q 3,421 10,220 Q 42.9 42.3
Packaged air conditioning units 243 578 465 3,489 16,858 14,570 69.6 34.3 31.9
Swamp coolers 21 22 27 181 706 649 114.9 31.0 41.0
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 217 345 209 3,648 10,175 7,234 59.5 33.9 28.9
Cooling 223 350 287 3,734 10,478 8,880 59.7 33.4 32.3
Water-heating equipment                  
Centralized system 374 567 439 6,349 16,787 10,869 58.9 33.7 40.4
Distributed system 48 111 92 1,043 3,636 3,532 45.6 30.5 26.1
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
44 215 266 576 5,713 8,514 75.9 37.7 31.3
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                 
Snack bar or concession stand 11 67 278 173 1,475 6,219 61.8 45.5 44.6
Fast food or small restaurant 31 130 202 300 2,393 5,652 102.3 54.2 35.8
Cafeteria or large restaurant Q 128 443 Q 3,359 9,663 Q 38.1 45.9
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
14 217 425 367 4,851 8,864 38.4 44.8 48.0
Small kitchen area 46 156 196 1,300 4,701 4,882 35.6 33.2 40.2
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                 
Economizer cycle 75 330 585 746 8,815 15,122 101.2 37.4 38.7
Regular HVAC maintenance 357 805 780 5,425 23,040 22,226 65.8 35.0 35.1
Building automation system (BAS)2 64 353 656 992 9,711 17,118 64.9 36.3 38.3
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                 
Multipaned windows 332 710 666 5,349 20,051 18,374 62.1 35.4 36.3
Tinted window glass 193 488 577 3,140 14,413 15,078 61.4 33.9 38.3
Reflective window glass 52 191 285 984 4,845 6,221 52.4 39.4 45.8
External overhangs or awnings 221 405 380 3,286 10,445 9,489 67.2 38.8 40.0
Skylights or atriums 37 220 407 783 6,146 9,816 47.7 35.8 41.4
Light scheduling 116 352 437 1,574 9,154 12,381 73.6 38.5 35.3
Occupancy sensors 66 398 577 1,046 10,434 15,492 63.5 38.2 37.2
Multi-level lighting or dimming 60 206 294 583 4,359 6,762 102.9 47.2 43.4
Daylight harvesting 9 64 120 116 1,537 3,268 78.2 41.6 36.6
Demand responsive lighting 16 53 56 270 1,523 1,885 58.8 34.5 29.5
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 17 126 184 240 3,116 6,045 70.5 40.5 30.4
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 381 666 588 6,786 21,648 18,384 56.1 30.8 32.0
Cooling 367 655 582 6,401 20,876 18,450 57.3 31.4 31.5
Lighting 465 841 747 8,153 25,244 21,636 57.1 33.3 34.5
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                 
1,000 or less 44 7 0 3,379 2,499 1,074 13.1 2.7 0.2
1,001 to 5,000 176 97 2 3,877 8,034 1,425 45.3 12.1 1.6
5,001 to 10,000 92 132 7 678 5,307 2,002 136.0 24.9 3.7
10,001 to 25,000 143 270 35 570 6,561 4,026 251.1 41.1 8.7
25,001 to 50,000 Q 202 78 Q 3,067 4,037 Q 65.9 19.4
50,001 to 100,000 Q 123 142 Q 1,048 4,211 Q 117.7 33.8
Over 100,000 N Q 534 N Q 6,469 N Q 82.5
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.