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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C3. Sum of major fuel consumption and expenditures, 2012

Released: May 2016

All buildings Sum of major fuel consumption Sum of major fuel expenditures
  Number of buildings (thousand) Total
floorspace
(million
square feet)
Floorspace
per building
(thousand
square feet)
Total
(trillion
Btu)
Total
(million
dollars)
All buildings 5,557 87,093 15.7 6,963 149,059
Building floorspace (square feet)          
1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 2.9 723 16,343
5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 7.2 646 14,230
10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 16.0 876 19,921
25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 35.9 823 17,299
50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 69.9 1,067 22,523
100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 137.9 1,035 21,907
200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 284.2 1,026 20,880
Over 500,000 8 7,074 885.0 767 15,956
Principal building activity          
Education 389 12,239 31.5 842 16,819
Food sales 177 1,252 7.1 262 6,167
Food service 380 1,819 4.8 514 9,956
Health care 157 4,155 26.5 718 13,072
Inpatient 10 2,374 247.8 549 9,373
Outpatient 147 1,781 12.1 169 3,699
Lodging 158 5,826 36.9 564 10,997
Mercantile 602 11,330 18.8 1,008 22,704
Retail (other than mall) 438 5,439 12.4 364 8,982
Enclosed and strip malls 164 5,890 35.9 644 13,722
Office 1,012 15,952 15.8 1,241 30,781
Public assembly 352 5,559 15.8 480 10,217
Public order and safety 84 1,440 17.2 133 2,766
Religious worship 412 4,557 11.1 173 3,338
Service 619 4,630 7.5 272 5,614
Warehouse and storage 796 13,077 16.4 429 9,696
Other 125 2,002 16.0 286 5,958
Vacant 296 3,256 11.0 41 974
Year constructed          
Before 1920 362 3,983 11.0 238 5,194
1920 to 1945 488 6,025 12.3 418 9,699
1946 to 1959 599 7,381 12.3 537 11,016
1960 to 1969 639 10,362 16.2 902 18,387
1970 to 1979 684 10,846 15.9 1,012 20,601
1980 to 1989 915 15,230 16.6 1,164 26,174
1990 to 1999 845 13,803 16.3 1,102 23,763
2000 to 2003 375 7,215 19.2 579 12,599
2004 to 2007 347 6,524 18.8 528 11,308
2008 to 2012 303 5,723 18.9 484 10,318
Census region and division          
Northeast 805 15,534 19.3 1,459 34,917
New England 302 4,302 14.3 368 9,321
Middle Atlantic 504 11,232 22.3 1,092 25,596
Midwest 1,237 18,919 15.3 1,566 27,379
East North Central 735 12,742 17.3 1,131 19,718
West North Central 502 6,178 12.3 435 7,661
South 2,247 34,279 15.3 2,566 54,780
South Atlantic 1,091 17,981 16.5 1,358 31,285
East South Central 370 4,904 13.3 369 7,478
West South Central 786 11,394 14.5 839 16,017
West 1,267 18,360 14.5 1,372 31,983
Mountain 338 4,981 14.7 417 7,695
Pacific 929 13,379 14.4 954 24,288
Climate region1          
Very cold/Cold 2,031 31,898 15.7 2,746 52,579
Mixed-humid 1,743 27,873 16.0 2,270 49,440
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 12,037 14.4 804 20,480
Hot-humid 799 12,831 16.1 947 21,883
Marine 147 2,454 16.7 197 4,677
Number of floors          
One 3,836 39,809 10.4 2,831 62,436
Two 1,158 20,206 17.5 1,460 31,065
Three 374 8,140 21.8 668 14,050
Four to nine 177 13,535 76.6 1,432 28,310
Ten or more 13 5,404 429.2 572 13,198
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
         
Any elevators 405 32,120 79.3 3,183 66,070
Number of elevators          
One 272 11,158 41.1 884 17,859
Two to five 118 12,817 109.0 1,242 26,106
Six or more 16 8,145 506.8 1,058 22,105
Any escalators 10 3,654 377.5 377 8,114
Number of workers (main shift)          
Fewer than 5 2,892 17,751 6.1 756 16,883
5 to 9 1,085 8,973 8.3 598 13,631
10 to 19 731 9,623 13.2 772 16,355
20 to 49 513 14,514 28.3 1,188 25,414
50 to 99 206 13,476 65.6 1,150 23,977
100 to 249 93 10,941 117.1 1,058 21,742
250 or more 37 11,815 318.3 1,441 31,057
Weekly operating hours          
Fewer than 40 1,149 8,220 7.2 229 4,800
40 to 48 1,346 15,828 11.8 832 19,174
49 to 60 1,244 20,529 16.5 1,258 28,917
61 to 84 764 15,867 20.8 1,370 30,071
85 to 167 479 9,395 19.6 1,098 22,874
Open continuously 575 17,253 30.0 2,177 43,224
Ownership and occupancy          
Nongovernment owned 4,781 67,550 14.1 5,375 116,648
Owner occupied 2,466 30,637 12.4 2,615 53,282
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 26,115 15.0 2,041 47,461
Owner occupied and leased 349 8,873 25.4 709 15,672
Unoccupied 221 1,925 8.7 10 233
Government owned 776 19,543 25.2 1,588 32,411
Federal 33 1,573 47.7 137 3,098
State 185 5,539 30.0 555 10,649
Local 558 12,431 22.3 896 18,664
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
         
Building owner 4,715 73,702 15.6 5,808 123,188
Business owner or tenant 724 11,309 15.6 983 21,926
Property management 54 1,250 23.0 96 2,229
Other 64 832 12.9 75 1,715
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
         
Building owner 4,876 76,271 15.6 5,984 127,298
Business owner or tenant 540 8,256 15.3 766 16,900
Property management 35 880 25.5 61 1,499
Other 106 1,686 15.9 153 3,361
Number of establishments          
One 4,205 54,994 13.1 4,485 93,466
2 to 5 862 17,756 20.6 1,400 30,532
6 to 10 147 4,425 30.1 364 8,231
11 to 20 68 3,704 54.8 355 8,081
More than 20 27 3,821 140.9 347 8,483
Currently unoccupied 248 2,393 9.6 13 266
Predominant exterior wall material          
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 40,463 17.5 3,457 72,280
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 20,726 18.5 1,720 37,773
Concrete panels 210 8,693 41.4 664 14,004
Siding or shingles 905 5,750 6.4 400 9,387
Metal panels 933 8,673 9.3 428 9,203
Window glass 17 1,340 78.6 170 3,634
Other 37 856 23.0 79 1,813
No one major type 21 592 27.6 45 965
Predominant roof material          
Metal surfacing 1,672 15,916 9.5 865 19,379
Synthetic or rubber 911 25,817 28.3 2,442 49,992
Built-up 836 21,835 26.1 1,862 39,989
Slate or tile shingles 406 4,306 10.6 371 8,128
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 1,139 7.3 92 1,885
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 15,104 10.2 1,105 24,366
Concrete 51 1,642 32.2 132 3,275
Other 24 678 28.6 58 1,259
No one major type 18 657 36.4 35 787
Roof characteristics          
Roof tilt          
Flat 1,960 49,623 25.3 4,476 94,637
Shallow pitch 2,148 23,853 11.1 1,597 35,264
Steeper pitch 1,449 13,617 9.4 890 19,158
Cool roof 740 19,630 26.5 1,837 38,636
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
         
Any type of renovation 2,094 42,216 20.2 3,762 79,130
Addition or annex 444 13,022 29.3 1,292 24,824
Reduction in floorspace 71 1,753 24.6 226 4,708
Roof replacement 987 20,917 21.2 1,986 40,812
Exterior wall replacement 194 4,230 21.8 399 8,144
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 21,340 24.0 2,056 43,350
Window replacement 560 12,265 21.9 1,090 22,649
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 26,779 24.3 2,545 53,298
Lighting upgrade 982 25,503 26.0 2,440 50,024
Electrical upgrade 747 16,160 21.6 1,608 33,090
Plumbing system upgrade 644 13,828 21.5 1,397 28,545
Insulation upgrade 382 7,607 19.9 771 15,243
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 17,196 27.9 1,685 35,026
Structural upgrade 152 3,913 25.8 424 8,258
Other 39 848 21.7 69 1,701
No renovations 3,160 39,154 12.4 2,718 59,611
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 5,723 18.9 484 10,318
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 5,234 84,869 16.2 6,963 149,059
Natural gas 2,933 58,725 20.0 5,544 109,664
Fuel oil 467 20,200 43.3 2,231 47,354
District heat 48 5,964 124.9 808 17,326
District chilled water 54 4,608 85.4 665 12,725
Propane 510 7,706 15.1 583 13,179
Other 172 3,826 22.2 301 6,452
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 2,858 49,030 17.2 3,898 86,351
Natural gas 2,612 49,511 19.0 4,446 85,944
Fuel oil 270 4,351 16.1 360 8,473
District heat 48 5,925 124.3 804 17,232
Propane 342 3,067 9.0 151 3,604
Other 101 1,010 10.0 48 1,162
Primary space-heating
energy source
         
Electricity 1,819 26,205 14.4 1,846 45,007
Natural gas 2,322 42,988 18.5 3,871 74,273
Fuel oil 205 2,542 12.4 187 5,022
District heat 47 5,797 122.9 794 17,056
Propane 261 1,948 7.5 63 1,663
Other 67 598 8.9 21 583
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 4,413 76,034 17.2 6,322 136,319
Natural gas 12 732 61.5 97 1,627
District chilled water 54 4,608 85.4 665 12,725
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 2,658 42,755 16.1 3,102 72,423
Natural gas 1,758 39,523 22.5 4,029 77,507
Fuel oil 77 1,911 24.7 174 4,349
District heat 25 4,551 179.7 652 13,755
Propane 142 1,575 11.1 87 2,562
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
         
Electricity 1,010 25,151 24.9 2,511 52,305
Natural gas 740 24,770 33.5 3,015 58,012
Propane 144 2,001 13.9 167 4,512
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
         
Buildings with space heating 4,722 80,078 17.0 6,782 143,605
Buildings with cooling 4,461 79,294 17.8 6,774 144,768
Buildings with water heating 4,423 79,015 17.9 6,798 144,637
Buildings with cooking 1,589 38,546 24.3 4,079 83,495
Buildings with manufacturing 259 5,078 19.6 360 7,891
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 25,642 62.5 2,803 57,892
Percent of floorspace heated          
Not heated 835 7,015 8.4 181 5,454
1 to 50 697 10,130 14.5 468 11,572
51 to 99 727 14,650 20.2 1,298 28,357
100 3,298 55,298 16.8 5,016 103,676
Percent of floorspace cooled          
Not cooled 1,096 7,799 7.1 189 4,291
1 to 50 1,173 18,891 16.1 989 20,397
51 to 99 897 22,728 25.3 2,143 46,520
100 2,391 37,676 15.8 3,642 77,851
Percent lit when open          
Zero 70 322 4.6 4 135
1 to 50 1,099 12,628 11.5 642 13,891
51 to 99 1,666 34,814 20.9 3,049 63,760
100 2,222 35,726 16.1 3,244 70,791
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 3,603 7.2 24 482
Percent lit during off hours          
Zero 2,489 24,746 9.9 1,293 30,433
1 to 50 2,441 50,753 20.8 4,346 91,998
51 to 100 202 6,926 34.3 1,018 19,923
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 2,443 23.9 306 6,705
Electricity not used 323 2,225 6.9 N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
         
Heat pumps 628 11,846 18.9 899 20,389
Furnaces 755 8,654 11.5 615 12,617
Individual space heaters 1,247 20,766 16.6 1,572 33,023
District heat 48 5,925 124.3 804 17,232
Boilers 544 22,443 41.3 2,262 43,404
Packaged heating units 2,802 49,188 17.6 4,083 86,846
Other 62 1,574 25.5 191 3,924
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
         
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 14,765 9.5 1,086 23,162
Heat pumps 692 12,538 18.1 939 21,321
Individual air conditioners 709 12,420 17.5 1,013 21,552
District chilled water 54 4,608 85.4 665 12,725
Central chillers 163 17,041 104.6 1,853 38,074
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 45,153 23.6 3,972 84,882
Swamp coolers 109 1,918 17.5 176 3,620
Other Q 328 Q 45 1,009
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
         
Heating 1,874 27,558 14.7 2,164 45,544
Cooling 1,971 30,702 15.6 2,521 54,227
Water-heating equipment          
Centralized system 3,348 47,534 14.2 4,210 88,167
Distributed system 690 12,688 18.4 832 19,356
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 18,793 48.8 1,756 37,115
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
         
Incandescent 1,826 38,406 21.0 3,540 72,871
Standard fluorescent 4,649 80,081 17.2 6,714 143,245
Compact fluorescent 2,302 53,816 23.4 5,094 106,552
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 23,396 44.5 2,187 45,359
Halogen 905 28,059 31.0 2,695 56,323
LED 473 22,071 46.6 2,363 49,526
Other 10 446 45.2 59 1,288
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
         
Any refrigeration 3,984 73,645 18.5 6,471 137,069
Walk-in units 811 28,361 35.0 3,525 71,295
Cases or cabinets 915 28,719 31.4 3,316 68,861
Large cold storage areas 78 4,171 53.4 530 10,736
Commercial ice makers 846 32,734 38.7 3,731 75,848
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 62,381 18.4 5,183 109,536
Vending machines 960 43,936 45.8 4,178 87,026
No refrigeration 1,573 13,448 8.5 492 11,990
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
         
Desktop computers 3,977 77,063 19.4 6,586 140,644
With flat screen monitors 3,847 76,160 19.8 6,523 139,323
With multiple monitors 911 30,946 34.0 2,942 62,497
Laptop computers 2,730 63,486 23.3 5,466 116,037
Dedicated servers 1,748 53,369 30.5 4,784 102,388
Laser printers 2,339 54,256 23.2 4,795 101,943
Inkjet printers 2,187 36,235 16.6 2,903 63,200
FAX machines 3,185 66,682 20.9 5,706 122,287
Photocopiers 2,163 59,277 27.4 5,110 108,985
Number of desktop computers          
None 1,581 10,030 6.3 377 8,415
1 to 4 2,039 15,669 7.7 1,184 25,282
5 to 9 821 9,422 11.5 738 15,649
10 to 19 482 9,388 19.5 676 15,507
20 to 49 355 13,094 36.9 1,121 23,764
50 to 99 143 8,284 57.8 645 13,985
100 to 249 92 9,728 105.6 961 19,760
250 or more 44 11,478 258.3 1,261 26,697
Number of laptop computers          
None 2,827 23,607 8.4 1,497 33,022
1 to 4 1,944 21,161 10.9 1,516 32,556
5 to 9 350 8,345 23.9 698 14,898
10 to 19 181 8,343 46.0 719 15,453
20 to 49 144 9,643 67.2 907 18,640
50 to 99 58 5,234 91.0 506 10,692
100 to 249 35 5,217 150.9 525 10,633
250 or more 20 5,542 280.8 596 13,165
Number of dedicated servers          
None 3,809 33,724 8.9 2,179 46,671
1 to 4 1,562 34,097 21.8 2,718 58,557
5 to 9 97 6,241 64.3 565 11,694
10 to 19 50 5,711 113.6 593 13,085
20 to 49 25 3,758 147.4 396 8,074
50 or more 13 3,562 271.4 512 10,978
Number of photocopiers          
None 3,394 27,816 8.2 1,854 40,074
One 1,325 17,080 12.9 1,202 25,620
2 to 4 648 20,312 31.4 1,596 34,204
5 to 9 116 8,863 76.7 784 16,569
10 or more 75 13,022 174.7 1,527 32,592
Number of TVs or video displays          
None 2,718 24,339 9.0 1,214 27,735
One 1,145 9,990 8.7 697 14,677
2 to 4 1,035 16,465 15.9 1,311 28,609
5 to 9 314 8,148 25.9 777 17,015
10 to 19 154 8,168 53.1 810 16,990
20 to 49 106 8,058 76.1 717 16,023
50 to 99 48 4,378 90.9 432 8,966
100 or more 37 7,547 201.5 1,006 19,044
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
         
Snack bar or concession stand 153 9,884 64.6 1,112 22,669
Fast food or small restaurant 173 9,787 56.5 1,206 25,388
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 15,222 117.1 1,624 32,102
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 16,150 57.2 1,798 35,118
Small kitchen area 736 14,054 19.1 1,187 24,674
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
         
Data center or server farm 97 11,105 115.1 1,356 28,418
Computer-based training room 244 17,723 72.7 1,696 35,069
Student or public computer center 238 14,341 60.1 1,275 24,649
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
         
Economizer cycle 601 30,749 51.2 3,142 64,942
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 69,244 21.8 6,203 131,733
Building automation system (BAS)2 781 37,051 47.5 3,709 78,304
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
         
Multipaned windows 3,012 60,362 20.0 5,250 109,145
Tinted window glass 1,875 45,025 24.0 3,973 83,408
Reflective window glass 549 15,908 29.0 1,652 34,327
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 32,188 17.2 3,089 64,414
Skylights or atriums 591 22,261 37.6 2,010 41,021
Light scheduling 918 30,263 33.0 2,930 63,371
Occupancy sensors 813 35,871 44.1 3,434 72,679
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 14,534 41.7 1,618 32,911
Daylight harvesting 125 6,114 48.8 619 13,036
Demand responsive lighting 176 4,738 26.9 410 9,636
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 208 12,068 57.9 1,201 26,570
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
         
Heating 3,699 63,167 17.1 5,022 108,440
Cooling 3,517 62,516 17.8 5,008 108,878
Lighting 4,757 78,594 16.5 6,426 137435.0
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. •See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use.• HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A, C, D, E, and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.