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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C28. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensity by Census division (part 2), 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas
consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total floorspace of
buildings using natural gas
(million square feet)
Natural gas
energy intensity
(cubic feet/square foot)
  West
North
Central
South
Atlantic
East
South
Central
West
North
Central
South
Atlantic
East
South
Central
West
North
Central
South
Atlantic
East
South
Central
All buildings 145 298 101 4,236 9,984 3,436 34.3 29.8 29.4
Building floorspace (square feet)                  
1,001 to 5,000 22 45 11 381 487 258 57.6 91.6 40.8
5,001 to 10,000 15 44 9 447 587 292 34.2 74.6 30.6
10,001 to 25,000 23 37 19 656 1,119 597 35.1 33.1 32.4
25,001 to 50,000 15 32 17 700 1,303 349 21.8 24.8 48.2
50,001 to 100,000 26 46 Q 696 1,986 708 37.8 23.0 23.4
100,001 to 200,000 20 35 8 522 2,036 455 38.4 17.1 17.3
200,001 to 500,000 13 33 9 504 1,332 460 25.8 24.5 20.6
Over 500,000 Q 27 12 Q 1,134 Q Q 23.8 Q
Principal building activity                  
Education 22 28 9 755 1,867 384 29.1 15.1 22.5
Food sales Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Food service 13 50 14 93 296 96 144.9 170.0 149.8
Health care 21 30 19 262 426 248 80.8 71.2 75.4
Inpatient Q 30 18 Q 383 184 Q 77.1 95.8
Outpatient Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging 9 33 Q 218 1,023 Q 43.0 31.9 40.4
Mercantile 12 44 10 424 1,628 523 28.1 27.0 18.2
Retail (other than mall) 4 7 Q 180 365 Q 21.0 19.6 Q
Enclosed and strip malls Q 37 Q Q 1,263 Q Q 29.1 Q
Office 16 22 10 566 1,427 388 28.1 15.7 24.7
Public assembly 12 11 Q 323 497 Q 36.5 22.2 Q
Public order and safety Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious worship 6 Q Q 220 399 Q 29.3 32.5 Q
Service 13 24 Q 420 407 Q 31.2 58.9 Q
Warehouse and storage 8 16 Q 651 1,269 Q 12.4 12.7 Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                  
Before 1920 5 9 Q 252 220 Q 21.6 41.3 Q
1920 to 1945 13 8 Q 281 289 Q 46.3 28.1 Q
1946 to 1959 14 20 6 369 1,009 218 38.2 19.7 27.2
1960 to 1969 29 37 17 893 939 582 32.7 39.0 28.6
1970 to 1979 21 35 19 548 931 404 38.0 37.7 47.5
1980 to 1989 19 51 18 602 1,972 793 31.4 26.0 22.3
1990 to 1999 18 43 19 634 1,322 836 28.3 32.6 23.0
2000 to 2003 7 24 Q 294 1,070 Q 25.0 22.1 Q
2004 to 2007 9 34 Q 234 1,185 Q 36.9 29.0 Q
2008 to 2012 Q 36 Q Q 1,048 Q Q 34.7 Q
Climate region1                  
Very cold/Cold 109 N N 3,185 N N 34.3 N N
Mixed-humid 36 251 79 1,050 8,542 2,813 34.3 29.4 28.0
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry N N N N N N N N N
Hot-humid N 47 Q N 1,442 Q N 32.5 35.6
Marine N N N N N N N N N
Number of floors                  
One 59 144 45 1,664 4,522 1,617 35.2 31.9 27.7
Two 34 52 21 1,180 2,133 901 28.7 24.4 23.4
Three 23 27 8 710 751 275 32.1 36.0 28.9
Four to nine 26 59 20 606 2,045 512 43.5 28.7 38.7
Ten or more Q 15 Q Q 532 Q Q 28.9 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                  
Fewer than 5 24 28 14 798 892 612 30.6 31.4 22.8
5 to 9 16 35 9 471 783 395 33.3 44.3 22.6
10 to 19 18 55 15 447 1,077 325 41.2 51.5 46.9
20 to 49 25 48 16 803 1,531 813 31.3 31.3 20.0
50 to 99 16 57 23 567 2,539 540 28.8 22.4 41.7
100 to 249 31 36 7 706 1,969 358 43.3 18.0 18.5
250 or more 15 39 18 443 1,193 392 32.8 32.8 44.7
Weekly operating hours                  
Fewer than 40 8 Q 6 380 340 363 21.2 26.2 16.1
40 to 48 19 27 13 715 1,519 829 26.8 17.8 15.5
49 to 60 31 48 16 1,113 2,632 632 27.7 18.3 24.7
61 to 84 29 63 15 842 1,940 390 34.5 32.2 39.7
85 to 167 22 54 11 612 1,140 Q 36.5 47.0 Q
Open continuously 36 97 40 572 2,411 886 62.3 40.4 44.9
Ownership and occupancy                  
Nongovernment owned 106 243 73 3,174 7,732 2,372 33.4 31.4 31.0
Owner occupied 67 112 46 1,757 3,144 1,270 38.3 35.5 36.0
Leased to tenant(s) 27 106 19 954 3,411 883 27.8 31.1 21.5
Owner occupied and leased 11 25 9 419 1,169 207 27.5 21.7 41.7
Unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 39 55 28 1,061 2,253 1,064 36.7 24.3 25.9
Federal Q 7 Q Q 280 Q Q 23.6 Q
State Q 13 16 Q 345 Q Q 38.7 29.7
Local 32 35 9 858 1,628 434 37.1 21.3 21.7
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                 
Building owner 127 222 85 3,695 7,789 2,874 34.3 28.5 29.5
Business owner or tenant 15 65 13 420 1,865 Q 34.9 34.9 29.8
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                 
Building owner 132 234 88 3,877 8,220 3,008 34.1 28.4 29.1
Business owner or tenant 10 52 9 265 1,449 Q 38.8 35.8 Q
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of establishments                  
One 101 197 76 2,758 5,945 2,223 36.5 33.1 34.0
2 to 5 30 56 14 1,062 2,245 755 27.8 24.8 18.9
6 to 10 Q 15 Q Q 552 Q Q 28.0 Q
11 to 20 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 31.4 Q
More than 20 Q 11 Q Q 620 Q Q 17.2 Q
Currently unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                  
Brick, stone, or stucco 75 158 68 2,118 5,076 1,995 35.3 31.2 34.2
Concrete (block or poured) 26 87 17 695 2,718 731 37.5 31.9 22.9
Concrete panels 16 24 Q 384 1,055 Q 41.0 22.4 Q
Siding or shingles 7 8 Q 267 168 Q 27.9 49.1 Q
Metal panels 21 15 8 699 712 281 29.7 20.6 27.0
Window glass N Q Q N Q Q N Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                  
Metal surfacing 21 39 19 906 1,258 683 23.6 31.2 27.3
Synthetic or rubber 55 97 39 1,586 2,958 1,153 34.5 32.7 33.7
Built-up 41 74 24 918 3,055 728 44.7 24.3 33.2
Slate or tile shingles Q 14 Q Q 699 Q Q Q Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
23 53 14 636 1,649 647 36.9 32.2 21.9
Concrete Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q N Q Q N Q Q N Q
Roof characteristics                  
Roof tilt                  
Flat 94 187 62 2,460 6,194 1,662 38.2 30.2 37.1
Shallow pitch 33 64 21 1,235 2,553 1,002 26.5 25.2 21.2
Steeper pitch 18 46 18 540 1,238 773 34.0 37.4 23.4
Cool roof 30 67 37 859 2,480 1,107 34.7 26.9 33.8
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any type of renovation 86 127 68 2,548 4,501 2,101 33.7 28.3 32.2
Addition or annex 40 55 32 1,166 1,536 678 34.6 36.0 47.4
Reduction in floorspace Q 9 Q Q 273 Q Q 34.1 Q
Roof replacement 55 59 43 1,564 1,916 1,359 34.9 30.9 31.8
Exterior wall replacement 14 13 Q 356 551 Q 39.9 24.3 Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 45 59 32 1,271 1,964 886 35.7 30.2 36.5
Window replacement 28 36 23 747 1,378 476 37.7 25.9 48.5
HVAC equipment upgrade 53 85 50 1,451 2,819 1,206 36.7 30.0 41.6
Lighting upgrade 58 72 47 1,465 2,661 1,116 39.8 27.1 42.3
Electrical upgrade 42 52 26 981 1,627 734 42.8 31.8 36.0
Plumbing system upgrade 32 45 33 792 1,418 618 40.3 32.1 53.1
Insulation upgrade 22 21 Q 752 779 Q 29.7 26.6 Q
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 39 58 36 805 1,806 650 48.8 31.9 55.6
Structural upgrade 11 14 Q 224 453 Q 50.0 30.1 Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 50 134 32 1,560 4,436 1,229 31.9 30.2 26.1
Buildings constructed 2008 or later Q 36 Q Q 1,048 Q Q 34.7 Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 145 298 101 4,236 9,984 3,436 34.3 29.8 29.4
Natural gas 145 298 101 4,236 9,984 3,436 34.3 29.8 29.4
Fuel oil 44 80 26 1,035 2,732 574 42.9 29.2 45.2
District heat Q 4 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District chilled water Q 7 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Propane Q 10 Q Q 419 Q Q 24.6 Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Space-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 141 227 92 3,909 7,309 2,662 36.1 31.0 34.6
Natural gas main 131 183 80 3,497 5,694 2,067 37.5 32.2 38.7
Natural gas secondary 10 43 12 412 1,615 595 24.3 26.7 20.3
Other excluding natural gas 4 61 9 326 2,405 773 11.8 25.4 11.6
Buildings without heating N 10 0 N 270 2 N 36.3 25.8
Primary space-heating
energy source
                 
Electricity 11 99 18 451 3,456 1,096 23.9 28.7 16.2
Natural gas 131 183 80 3,497 5,694 2,067 37.5 32.2 38.7
Fuel oil N 1 0 N 9 25 N 116.0 9.5
District heat Q 4 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Propane Q N N Q N N Q N N
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                  
Natural gas Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other excluding natural gas 141 292 99 4,085 9,807 3,364 34.5 29.7 29.5
Buildings without cooling 4 Q Q 146 Q Q 25.3 Q Q
Water-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 112 219 79 2,705 5,651 2,103 41.2 38.8 37.7
Other excluding natural gas 31 69 21 1,386 3,860 1,228 22.2 17.8 16.8
Buildings without water heating Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources                  
Natural gas 64 185 58 1,349 4,427 1,487 47.4 41.9 39.0
Other excluding natural gas 25 22 11 602 1,145 344 41.0 19.4 33.2
Buildings without cooking 56 90 32 2,284 4,412 1,605 24.7 20.4 19.7
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                 
Buildings with space heating 145 288 101 4,236 9,714 3,434 34.3 29.6 29.4
Buildings with cooling 141 295 101 4,089 9,861 3,418 34.6 29.9 29.5
Buildings with water heating 142 288 100 4,090 9,511 3,331 34.8 30.3 30.0
Buildings with cooking 89 208 69 1,951 5,573 1,831 45.4 37.2 37.9
Buildings with manufacturing 10 9 Q 351 561 Q 29.5 15.5 Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
49 104 38 1,247 4,207 832 39.3 24.7 45.6
Percent of floorspace heated                  
Not heated N Q Q N 270 Q N 36.3 Q
1 to 50 4 20 7 392 974 308 10.1 20.1 Q
51 to 99 18 73 20 476 2,212 867 38.3 32.9 22.6
100 123 196 74 3,368 6,528 2,259 36.5 30.0 32.9
Percent of floorspace cooled                  
Not cooled 4 Q Q 146 Q Q 25.3 Q Q
1 to 50 26 37 13 1,201 1,601 743 21.9 23.1 18.1
51 to 99 30 90 31 901 2,960 1,215 33.5 30.5 25.3
100 85 168 57 1,987 5,301 1,460 42.7 31.6 38.8
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heat pumps 7 64 11 279 2,640 492 23.9 24.1 21.8
Furnaces 14 32 15 480 928 434 29.4 34.8 35.5
Individual space heaters 47 51 26 1,473 2,322 922 31.8 21.9 28.5
District heat Q 4 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Boilers 62 101 38 1,396 2,879 1,034 44.7 35.1 36.8
Packaged heating units 92 189 72 2,809 6,570 2,439 32.9 28.7 29.3
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Residential-type central air
conditioners
33 44 19 1,084 1,114 662 30.8 39.5 29.1
Heat pumps 6 77 8 252 2,765 461 25.6 27.9 17.5
Individual air conditioners 20 47 22 560 1,636 644 35.9 28.8 34.7
District chilled water Q 7 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Central chillers 43 86 31 765 2,820 749 55.9 30.6 41.3
Packaged air conditioning units 80 185 65 2,423 6,065 2,170 33.0 30.5 30.1
Swamp coolers N 5 N N 129 N N 39.1 N
Other Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 61 103 47 1,942 3,318 1,310 31.5 30.9 35.6
Cooling 68 116 51 1,967 3,882 1,407 34.4 29.8 36.2
Water-heating equipment                  
Centralized system 103 178 64 2,676 5,148 1,869 38.3 34.6 34.3
Distributed system 12 25 4 552 1,282 300 20.9 19.7 13.4
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
28 85 32 863 3,082 1,161 32.6 27.5 27.5
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                 
Snack bar or concession stand 19 52 13 498 1,735 277 37.9 30.1 47.1
Fast food or small restaurant 20 62 16 394 1,733 520 51.3 35.5 30.9
Cafeteria or large restaurant 36 81 29 781 2,799 591 46.5 29.0 49.5
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
38 93 30 803 3,095 615 47.7 30.0 48.7
Small kitchen area 34 49 21 928 1,520 848 36.5 32.2 24.4
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                 
Economizer cycle 72 99 32 1,921 3,549 779 37.3 27.9 41.4
Regular HVAC maintenance 122 261 81 3,472 8,810 2,579 35.3 29.6 31.3
Building automation system (BAS)2 69 134 39 1,750 5,137 1,497 39.5 26.1 26.4
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                 
Multipaned windows 130 232 77 3,761 7,939 2,479 34.5 29.2 30.9
Tinted window glass 79 182 62 2,099 6,128 1,860 37.6 29.7 33.6
Reflective window glass 35 69 22 913 1,879 606 38.8 36.6 37.0
External overhangs or awnings 60 158 46 1,745 4,489 1,381 34.5 35.1 33.5
Skylights or atriums 31 83 25 1,081 3,049 729 28.5 27.2 33.9
Light scheduling 45 107 28 1,196 3,740 981 37.7 28.5 28.6
Occupancy sensors 56 126 30 1,540 4,604 1,036 36.5 27.4 29.1
Multi-level lighting or dimming 28 93 26 635 2,385 701 44.0 39.2 37.2
Daylight harvesting 10 22 Q 323 644 Q 29.7 34.3 Q
Demand responsive lighting 9 31 Q 387 882 Q 24.2 34.9 Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 22 43 8 570 1,767 323 38.7 24.3 26.1
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 109 217 63 3,235 7,783 2,649 33.6 27.9 23.7
Cooling 106 227 64 3,131 8,092 2,650 33.7 28.0 24.3
Lighting 139 275 98 4,047 9,350 3,154 34.4 29.4 31.2
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                 
1,000 or less 6 5 5 455 1,359 558 12.4 3.7 8.6
1,001 to 5,000 27 36 15 1,097 2,387 848 24.5 15.2 17.4
5,001 to 10,000 16 40 14 473 1,432 710 33.1 27.7 20.3
10,001 to 25,000 36 84 15 1,034 2,073 573 34.4 40.7 26.3
25,001 to 50,000 12 44 15 310 1,169 342 37.6 37.7 43.3
50,001 to 100,000 22 35 Q 450 870 Q 49.9 39.7 Q
Over 100,000 27 54 27 418 694 220 65.3 77.4 121.6
         
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.