U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
‹ Consumption & Efficiency

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

‹ BACK TO ALL 2012 CBECS TABLES

Table C27. Natural gas consumption and conditional energy intensity by Census division (part 1), 2012

Released: May 2016

Total natural gas
consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total floorspace of
buildings using natural gas
(million square feet)
Natural gas
energy intensity
(cubic feet/square foot)
  New
England
Middle
Atlantic
East
North
Central
New
England
Middle
Atlantic
East
North
Central
New
England
Middle
Atlantic
East
North
Central
All buildings 108 379 482 2,241 8,827 10,790 48.1 43.0 44.6
Building floorspace (square feet)                  
1,001 to 5,000 Q 35 43 Q 384 745 Q 90.5 57.5
5,001 to 10,000 Q 25 55 Q 449 931 Q 55.6 59.5
10,001 to 25,000 12 47 58 459 1,149 1,530 25.6 40.7 38.0
25,001 to 50,000 Q 30 85 Q 830 1,928 Q 36.2 43.9
50,001 to 100,000 14 71 73 330 1,789 1,485 41.9 39.9 49.4
100,001 to 200,000 8 93 49 230 1,925 1,344 35.9 48.1 36.6
200,001 to 500,000 34 42 78 492 1,225 1,886 68.2 34.1 41.6
Over 500,000 Q 37 40 Q 1,077 941 Q 34.3 42.1
Principal building activity                  
Education Q 60 84 Q 1,247 1,979 Q 48.5 42.5
Food sales Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Food service Q 20 35 Q 116 208 Q 169.4 170.2
Health care Q 50 41 Q 745 460 Q 66.8 88.4
Inpatient Q 36 36 Q 337 306 Q 106.1 116.3
Outpatient Q 14 5 Q 407 154 Q 34.2 33.2
Lodging Q 28 32 Q 681 620 Q 41.0 51.5
Mercantile Q 43 68 Q 1,000 1,429 Q 43.3 47.4
Retail (other than mall) Q 12 26 Q 495 689 Q 25.2 37.3
Enclosed and strip malls Q 31 42 Q 505 740 Q 61.0 56.7
Office 11 82 68 399 2,304 1,969 28.1 35.4 34.6
Public assembly Q 22 42 Q 523 993 Q 42.4 41.8
Public order and safety Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious worship Q 15 21 Q 560 484 Q 26.3 43.2
Service Q 17 34 Q 222 803 Q 76.8 41.8
Warehouse and storage Q 17 29 Q 949 1,169 Q 17.9 24.7
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                  
Before 1920 Q 17 22 Q 725 491 Q 24.0 44.7
1920 to 1945 Q 44 40 Q 1,048 998 Q 41.6 40.4
1946 to 1959 Q 50 47 Q 876 1,078 Q 57.4 43.6
1960 to 1969 Q 52 63 Q 1,464 1,346 Q 35.5 46.5
1970 to 1979 11 76 73 287 1,266 1,562 39.1 59.7 46.5
1980 to 1989 10 32 80 326 822 1,541 31.9 39.2 52.2
1990 to 1999 Q 63 62 Q 1,282 1,619 Q 48.8 38.1
2000 to 2003 Q 18 35 Q 563 874 Q 31.6 40.2
2004 to 2007 Q Q 27 Q Q 743 Q Q 36.9
2008 to 2012 Q Q 32 Q Q 539 Q Q 60.1
Climate region1                  
Very cold/Cold 108 215 452 2,241 5,018 9,944 48.1 42.9 45.5
Mixed-humid N 164 Q N 3,809 Q N 43.1 34.9
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry N N N N N N N N N
Hot-humid N N N N N N N N N
Marine N N N N N N N N N
Number of floors                  
One 22 98 204 426 2,144 4,366 51.7 45.7 46.6
Two 29 113 108 789 2,357 2,863 36.2 48.0 37.6
Three 13 43 69 379 1,231 1,402 34.3 35.0 49.5
Four to nine 35 97 75 523 2,140 1,519 66.1 45.5 49.6
Ten or more Q 28 26 Q 955 640 Q 29.2 40.0
Number of workers (main shift)                  
Fewer than 5 5 44 63 240 998 1,734 21.7 44.4 36.1
5 to 9 Q 25 39 213 646 1,004 45.3 38.0 38.6
10 to 19 Q 28 70 Q 844 1,174 Q 33.4 59.7
20 to 49 Q 44 92 Q 1,045 2,094 Q 42.4 43.8
50 to 99 Q 68 89 Q 1,443 1,843 Q 47.2 48.1
100 to 249 25 75 52 527 1,671 1,422 48.3 44.7 36.9
250 or more 21 95 77 312 2,180 1,518 66.4 43.7 50.9
Weekly operating hours                  
Fewer than 40 Q 12 28 Q 411 828 Q 30.1 33.9
40 to 48 6 38 64 256 1,197 1,832 24.9 31.5 34.8
49 to 60 13 60 90 521 1,952 2,468 24.5 30.5 36.5
61 to 84 27 87 115 694 1,906 2,301 39.0 45.9 49.9
85 to 167 Q 66 65 Q 1,236 1,185 Q 53.7 55.2
Open continuously 30 116 119 386 2,124 2,175 77.9 54.6 54.9
Ownership and occupancy                  
Nongovernment owned 86 272 368 1,711 6,805 7,865 50.4 39.9 46.8
Owner occupied 28 143 198 601 3,185 3,945 45.8 44.9 50.1
Leased to tenant(s) 30 101 113 661 2,643 2,714 44.8 38.1 41.8
Owner occupied and leased 29 27 56 421 945 1,127 69.0 28.9 49.3
Unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 22 108 114 530 2,022 2,924 40.9 53.3 38.9
Federal N Q Q N Q Q N Q Q
State Q Q 31 Q 809 667 Q 71.7 46.6
Local 20 47 78 444 1,154 2,063 45.1 40.7 37.6
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                 
Building owner 88 309 423 1,807 7,541 9,384 48.9 41.0 45.1
Business owner or tenant 12 63 51 347 1,074 1,153 33.2 58.4 44.3
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                 
Building owner 91 315 431 1,867 7,629 9,569 48.8 41.3 45.1
Business owner or tenant Q 51 38 Q 830 884 Q 61.2 43.5
Property management Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of establishments                  
One 54 275 316 1,235 5,598 7,021 43.8 49.2 45.0
2 to 5 31 62 112 511 1,694 2,396 60.9 36.5 46.9
6 to 10 Q 12 20 Q 435 518 Q 27.6 38.6
11 to 20 Q 19 21 Q 458 354 Q 41.8 59.5
More than 20 Q 11 11 Q 610 420 Q 17.6 26.3
Currently unoccupied Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                  
Brick, stone, or stucco 65 193 269 1,351 4,694 5,371 48.0 41.1 50.0
Concrete (block or poured) 18 99 108 423 2,289 2,684 43.6 43.4 40.2
Concrete panels Q 26 47 Q 556 968 Q 46.7 48.2
Siding or shingles Q 13 29 Q 366 653 Q 35.8 44.5
Metal panels Q Q 18 Q 388 625 Q Q 28.4
Window glass Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other N Q Q N Q Q N Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                  
Metal surfacing Q 18 41 Q 683 1,187 Q 26.7 34.3
Synthetic or rubber 76 137 202 1,385 3,233 4,463 55.1 42.3 45.3
Built-up 11 126 110 305 2,642 2,519 36.2 47.8 43.5
Slate or tile shingles Q 24 10 Q 442 254 Q 54.2 39.4
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
10 54 107 268 1,427 2,041 38.2 37.8 52.2
Concrete Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                  
Roof tilt                  
Flat 73 284 293 1,572 6,328 6,373 46.5 44.9 46.1
Shallow pitch 23 52 100 339 1,117 2,612 66.9 46.2 38.3
Steeper pitch Q 44 88 329 1,382 1,805 36.5 31.8 48.7
Cool roof 18 109 113 427 1,970 2,337 43.1 55.3 48.4
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any type of renovation 76 233 254 1,517 5,427 5,758 50.1 42.8 44.1
Addition or annex 30 68 101 535 1,413 2,171 55.3 48.2 46.6
Reduction in floorspace Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 47 144 141 804 3,270 2,932 58.6 44.2 48.1
Exterior wall replacement Q 17 19 Q 554 525 Q 30.9 37.0
Interior wall reconfiguration 36 120 130 983 3,008 3,008 37.1 39.8 43.3
Window replacement 31 63 73 569 1,793 1,821 53.9 34.9 40.1
HVAC equipment upgrade 45 171 164 1,073 3,927 4,023 41.8 43.6 40.8
Lighting upgrade 59 138 165 1,076 3,542 3,625 55.0 38.9 45.5
Electrical upgrade 35 103 100 748 2,407 2,182 47.3 43.0 45.8
Plumbing system upgrade 37 94 89 694 1,985 2,027 52.8 47.4 43.8
Insulation upgrade 15 46 45 437 941 1,032 34.3 48.8 43.2
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 43 108 103 879 2,661 2,333 49.0 40.5 44.0
Structural upgrade Q 11 16 Q 310 509 Q 36.0 31.7
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No renovations 30 126 195 654 2,818 4,493 45.5 44.7 43.5
Buildings constructed 2008 or later Q Q 32 Q Q 539 Q Q 60.1
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 108 379 482 2,241 8,827 10,790 48.1 43.0 44.6
Natural gas 108 379 482 2,241 8,827 10,790 48.1 43.0 44.6
Fuel oil 38 115 106 558 2,950 2,036 68.6 39.1 52.2
District heat Q Q Q Q 897 220 Q Q 18.2
District chilled water Q Q 5 Q Q 220 Q Q 20.8
Propane Q 13 32 Q 419 555 Q 30.4 57.5
Other Q Q 15 Q 598 439 Q 48.4 33.4
Space-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 103 337 473 1,990 7,362 10,122 51.7 45.8 46.7
Natural gas main 98 318 453 1,811 6,555 9,587 54.3 48.6 47.3
Natural gas secondary Q 19 19 Q 806 535 Q 23.0 36.2
Other excluding natural gas 5 Q 9 251 1,458 645 20.0 Q 13.7
Buildings without heating N 2 0 N 7 23 N 214.2 10.1
Primary space-heating
energy source
                 
Electricity Q 21 25 Q 1,007 934 Q 21.4 26.4
Natural gas 98 318 453 1,811 6,555 9,587 54.3 48.6 47.3
Fuel oil Q 4 N Q 336 N Q Q N
District heat Q Q Q Q 870 205 Q Q Q
Propane Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources                  
Natural gas Q 20 Q Q 216 Q Q 93.6 Q
Other excluding natural gas 98 344 448 2,071 8,223 10,148 47.2 41.9 44.2
Buildings without cooling Q 15 15 Q 387 425 Q 38.2 35.5
Water-heating energy sources                  
Natural gas 90 320 400 1,492 6,042 7,910 60.0 53.0 50.6
Other excluding natural gas 17 57 78 684 2,676 2,716 25.5 21.2 28.6
Buildings without water heating Q Q 4 Q Q 163 Q Q 22.5
Cooking energy sources                  
Natural gas 52 229 231 1,015 4,341 4,293 51.4 52.8 53.7
Other excluding natural gas Q 27 53 Q 935 1,316 Q 28.9 40.3
Buildings without cooking 50 123 198 1,049 3,550 5,181 48.1 34.6 38.2
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                 
Buildings with space heating 108 378 481 2,241 8,819 10,767 48.1 42.8 44.7
Buildings with cooling 105 365 466 2,160 8,439 10,364 48.6 43.2 45.0
Buildings with water heating 107 377 478 2,176 8,718 10,626 49.2 43.2 45.0
Buildings with cooking 57 256 284 1,192 5,276 5,609 48.2 48.6 50.6
Buildings with manufacturing Q 15 18 Q 462 657 Q 33.2 28.0
Buildings with electricity
generation
59 182 154 918 3,941 3,510 63.9 46.1 43.9
Percent of floorspace heated                  
Not heated N Q Q N Q Q N Q Q
1 to 50 Q 13 10 Q 508 503 Q 26.0 19.2
51 to 99 40 62 68 444 1,651 1,478 91.1 37.5 45.8
100 64 303 404 1,701 6,660 8,786 37.4 45.4 46.0
Percent of floorspace cooled                  
Not cooled Q 15 15 Q 387 425 Q 38.2 35.5
1 to 50 36 74 123 615 2,089 3,006 58.0 35.3 41.0
51 to 99 39 140 144 722 2,978 3,188 53.6 47.1 45.3
100 31 151 199 823 3,372 4,171 37.1 44.7 47.7
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heat pumps 13 31 20 291 803 493 43.0 38.7 39.7
Furnaces Q 27 70 Q 812 1,615 Q 32.8 43.3
Individual space heaters 43 92 129 830 2,698 3,361 51.8 34.1 38.2
District heat Q Q Q Q 897 220 Q Q 18.2
Boilers 67 217 244 1,038 4,149 4,787 64.2 52.3 50.9
Packaged heating units 58 183 299 1,359 4,721 6,585 42.4 38.8 45.3
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Residential-type central air
conditioners
10 54 113 240 1,074 2,760 40.2 50.4 41.1
Heat pumps 13 32 22 309 884 458 41.0 35.7 47.8
Individual air conditioners 43 103 71 581 2,256 1,660 73.2 45.6 42.5
District chilled water Q Q 5 Q Q 220 Q Q 20.8
Central chillers 31 97 142 511 2,228 3,021 59.9 43.7 47.2
Packaged air conditioning units 73 200 299 1,399 5,388 6,192 52.0 37.0 48.2
Swamp coolers N 3 6 N 18 74 N 184.1 81.3
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 33 142 170 919 3,140 3,901 36.2 45.1 43.5
Cooling 36 158 199 942 3,877 4,336 38.2 40.8 45.9
Water-heating equipment                  
Centralized system 50 264 324 1,306 5,455 6,813 38.6 48.4 47.5
Distributed system Q 38 56 Q 1,343 1,502 Q 28.4 37.2
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
34 74 98 539 1,919 2,311 63.0 38.8 42.5
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                 
Snack bar or concession stand Q 64 72 Q 1,354 1,452 Q 47.6 49.3
Fast food or small restaurant Q 57 59 Q 1,263 1,154 Q 45.0 51.0
Cafeteria or large restaurant 27 121 107 535 2,458 2,336 50.1 49.4 45.7
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
37 127 140 696 2,029 2,853 52.9 62.5 49.1
Small kitchen area 16 79 90 368 2,062 2,120 43.9 38.3 42.6
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                 
Economizer cycle 52 211 218 1,032 4,618 4,910 50.2 45.6 44.5
Regular HVAC maintenance 101 341 439 2,003 7,844 9,446 50.5 43.4 46.4
Building automation system (BAS)2 62 184 216 1,208 4,277 4,817 51.2 43.0 44.8
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                 
Multipaned windows 98 281 407 1,955 6,509 8,803 50.3 43.2 46.2
Tinted window glass 47 205 252 1,076 4,109 5,434 43.5 50.0 46.4
Reflective window glass 12 83 111 302 1,510 2,465 40.5 55.0 45.1
External overhangs or awnings 28 162 200 721 2,704 3,833 39.3 60.0 52.3
Skylights or atriums 41 123 112 1,006 2,292 2,534 40.9 53.5 44.4
Light scheduling 59 154 206 1,019 3,766 4,570 57.4 40.9 45.0
Occupancy sensors 82 189 231 1,474 4,532 5,106 55.7 41.8 45.2
Multi-level lighting or dimming 25 73 106 474 1,493 1,972 52.3 48.6 53.6
Daylight harvesting Q 38 38 Q 654 987 Q 58.3 38.3
Demand responsive lighting Q 22 22 Q 405 491 Q 54.6 44.1
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 24 66 64 409 1,415 1,555 57.6 47.0 41.3
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 74 310 390 1,869 7,326 8,751 39.7 42.4 44.5
Cooling 81 298 369 1,813 7,042 8,263 44.5 42.3 44.6
Lighting 107 350 455 2,193 8,217 10,107 49.0 42.6 45.0
Annual consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
                 
1,000 or less 1 4 11 209 476 789 5.5 8.7 13.4
1,001 to 5,000 12 37 56 578 1,546 2,121 20.5 23.8 26.2
5,001 to 10,000 Q 36 45 Q 1,300 1,264 Q 27.4 35.3
10,001 to 25,000 13 52 93 276 1,556 2,159 47.9 33.3 43.3
25,001 to 50,000 Q 63 83 Q 1,361 1,586 Q 46.1 52.3
50,001 to 100,000 Q 53 62 Q 1,075 1,218 Q 49.0 50.7
Over 100,000 45 136 133 391 1,513 1,653 114.0 89.6 80.2
         
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and C of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.