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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C10. Consumption and gross energy intensity by climate region for sum of major fuels, 2012

Released: May 2016

Sum of major fuel
consumption
(trillion Btu)
Total floorspace
of buildings
(million square feet)
Energy intensity for
sum of major fuels
(thousand Btu/square foot)
  Very
cold/
cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
Very
cold/
cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
Very
cold/
cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
All buildings 2,746 2,270 804 947 197 31,898 27,873 12,037 12,831 2,454 86.1 81.4 66.8 73.8 80.2
Building floorspace (square feet)                              
1,001 to 5,000 248 266 81 113 15 2,913 2,741 1,034 1,148 Q 85.0 97.0 78.2 98.8 72.5
5,001 to 10,000 236 206 103 84 17 3,193 2,637 1,630 1,222 218 73.8 78.2 63.2 68.8 78.8
10,001 to 25,000 361 248 104 125 38 5,437 3,870 2,439 1,929 429 66.4 64.1 42.5 65.0 89.0
25,001 to 50,000 325 239 107 126 Q 4,358 3,163 1,922 2,099 375 74.6 75.6 55.9 60.1 66.1
50,001 to 100,000 477 339 83 138 30 5,001 4,817 1,480 2,204 416 95.4 70.4 55.8 62.6 73.0
100,001 to 200,000 377 359 126 144 29 4,264 4,215 1,666 2,004 265 88.3 85.2 75.9 71.6 109.6
200,001 to 500,000 425 308 149 122 23 4,336 3,445 1,328 1,287 327 97.9 89.3 112.4 94.5 70.8
Over 500,000 299 304 50 95 Q 2,396 2,984 536 938 Q 124.7 101.9 94.0 100.9 Q
Principal building activity                              
Education 354 306 60 111 Q 4,739 4,426 1,075 1,878 Q 74.7 69.1 55.4 59.2 Q
Food sales 114 75 Q 27 Q 540 326 Q 135 Q 211.6 229.3 Q 197.0 Q
Food service 162 205 64 72 Q 636 636 229 250 Q 254.1 322.4 277.8 288.9 Q
Health care 293 224 Q 106 19 1,754 1,218 398 686 100 166.8 183.9 193.2 153.9 185.6
Inpatient 200 188 Q 76 Q 878 790 268 364 Q 228.0 238.3 251.2 208.7 Q
Outpatient 92 36 10 30 Q 876 427 130 322 Q 105.5 83.2 74.0 91.9 Q
Lodging 230 185 66 72 Q 1,999 1,929 836 917 Q 115.0 96.1 79.1 78.2 Q
Mercantile 376 276 142 184 Q 3,920 3,444 1,652 1,979 335 95.9 80.1 86.1 92.8 89.7
Retail (other than mall) 147 94 46 67 Q 1,986 1,623 699 924 Q 74.2 58.0 65.3 72.2 Q
Enclosed and strip malls 229 182 97 117 Q 1,934 1,821 953 1,054 Q 118.3 99.7 101.4 110.9 Q
Office 515 426 110 128 62 6,033 5,496 1,873 1,776 774 85.3 77.6 58.8 72.0 80.1
Public assembly 194 131 69 68 Q 2,351 1,479 834 622 Q 82.4 88.6 82.8 109.4 Q
Public order and safety 39 61 Q Q Q 477 597 Q Q Q 82.8 102.5 Q Q Q
Religious worship 69 62 17 23 Q 1,623 1,698 461 674 Q 42.6 36.5 37.0 33.5 Q
Service 117 101 18 27 Q 1,957 1,503 582 512 Q 59.7 67.2 30.2 53.3 Q
Warehouse and storage 157 109 74 84 Q 4,121 3,740 2,932 2,066 Q 38.1 29.2 25.3 40.6 Q
Other 109 99 Q Q Q 793 677 249 Q Q 136.9 146.4 194.5 Q Q
Vacant 19 9 Q Q Q 956 705 540 953 Q 19.5 Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                              
Before 1920 127 100 Q Q Q 2,324 1,232 Q Q Q 54.5 80.9 Q Q Q
1920 to 1945 178 166 40 27 Q 2,562 2,193 669 478 Q 69.7 75.7 59.4 55.7 Q
1946 to 1959 274 151 56 49 Q 3,072 2,489 1,023 604 Q 89.2 60.5 54.7 80.3 Q
1960 to 1969 336 311 144 84 26 4,115 3,440 1,514 974 318 81.7 90.4 95.3 86.6 80.7
1970 to 1979 408 360 103 124 16 4,190 3,137 1,690 1,598 232 97.4 114.9 61.0 77.7 68.9
1980 to 1989 382 322 124 285 51 4,352 4,411 2,334 3,397 737 87.8 73.0 53.3 83.8 68.5
1990 to 1999 424 352 119 169 39 4,884 4,458 1,565 2,553 344 86.8 78.9 75.8 66.0 114.4
2000 to 2003 230 178 56 98 Q 2,397 2,313 954 1,390 Q 95.9 76.9 59.0 70.4 Q
2004 to 2007 212 152 73 67 Q 1,987 2,190 Q 876 Q 106.6 69.2 57.2 76.6 Q
2008 to 2012 175 178 Q 39 Q 2,016 2,011 908 724 Q 86.9 88.7 94.8 54.5 Q
Census region and division                              
Northeast 933 526 N N N 10,510 5,024 N N N 88.8 104.7 N N N
New England 368 N N N N 4,302 N N N N 85.5 N N N N
Middle Atlantic 565 526 N N N 6,208 5,024 N N N 91.1 104.7 N N N
Midwest 1,360 206 N N N 16,172 2,748 N N N 84.1 74.9 N N N
East North Central 1,041 Q N N N 11,683 Q N N N 89.1 Q N N N
West North Central 319 116 N N N 4,488 1,689 N N N 71.1 68.5 N N N
South N 1,537 Q 941 N N 20,101 Q 12,632 N N 76.5 56.7 74.5 N
South Atlantic N 1,022 N 336 N N 13,349 N 4,632 N N 76.6 N 72.6 N
East South Central N 279 N Q N N 3,810 N Q N N 73.2 N 82.6 N
West South Central N 237 Q 515 N N 2,942 Q 6,906 N N 80.5 56.7 74.5 N
West 453 N 716 Q 197 5,217 N 10,490 Q 2,454 86.9 N 68.3 Q 80
Mountain 296 N 122 N N 3,381 N 1,600 N N 87.4 N 76.1 N N
Pacific 158 N 594 Q 197 1,836 N 8,890 Q 2,454 85.8 N 66.9 Q 80
Number of floors                              
One 975 867 388 523 77 12,175 12,382 6,815 7,485 952 80.1 70.1 57.0 69.9 81.0
Two 641 475 147 153 44 8,343 6,124 2,492 2,556 690 76.9 77.6 58.8 59.8 64.1
Three 378 190 45 45 Q 4,460 2,292 697 527 Q 84.7 82.8 64.5 85.3 Q
Four to nine 534 493 184 173 47 5,340 4,616 1,577 1,581 420 100.1 106.8 116.7 109.6 112.4
Ten or more 218 244 40 53 Q 1,580 2,459 455 682 Q 137.9 99.1 87.5 77.5 Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any elevators 1,331 1,078 327 349 98 12,877 10,763 3,357 4,030 1,093 103.4 100.2 97.3 86.7 89.4
Number of elevators                              
One 423 287 55 93 26 4,970 3,463 1,052 1,322 351 85.0 83.0 52.1 70.6 73.0
Two to five 516 391 159 135 41 5,329 3,899 1,476 1,667 446 96.8 100.1 107.9 81.3 91.5
Six or more 393 401 113 121 31 2,578 3,400 829 1,042 296 152.3 117.8 135.9 115.8 105.6
Any escalators 159 139 27 43 Q 1,386 1,366 373 377 Q 114.4 102.0 73.1 113.8 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                              
Fewer than 5 309 263 81 86 17 6,604 5,458 2,616 2,720 354 46.8 48.2 30.8 31.8 48.1
5 to 9 210 194 84 95 Q 3,165 2,519 1,537 1,505 Q 66.4 76.9 54.5 63.4 59.8
10 to 19 297 245 110 102 17 3,373 2,883 1,708 1,382 277 88.2 84.9 64.6 74.1 63.2
20 to 49 459 345 137 191 57 5,387 4,280 2,115 2,154 577 85.1 80.6 64.7 88.5 98.6
50 to 99 491 359 97 178 25 4,891 4,634 1,441 2,209 302 100.3 77.5 67.6 80.4 83.5
100 to 249 428 328 171 115 Q 4,203 3,744 1,554 1,211 Q 101.7 87.7 110.2 95.1 Q
250 or more 553 536 124 180 49 4,276 4,356 1,066 1,651 466 129.3 123.1 115.9 108.8 105.1
Weekly operating hours                              
Fewer than 40 109 69 25 22 Q 3,055 2,381 1,208 1,461 Q 35.6 29.1 20.9 15.2 Q
40 to 48 322 236 132 115 27 5,337 5,121 2,617 2,295 459 60.4 46.1 50.4 50.1 58.2
49 to 60 531 426 99 152 49 7,436 6,972 2,481 2,845 796 71.4 61.1 39.8 53.6 62.1
61 to 84 550 418 173 194 34 6,211 4,709 2,305 2,189 453 88.6 88.8 75.3 88.6 75.3
85 to 167 483 347 97 133 38 4,106 2,684 1,278 1,045 282 117.7 129.1 75.9 127.6 134.9
Open continuously 751 773 277 330 45 5,754 6,007 2,148 2,997 348 130.5 128.8 129.1 110.1 129.9
Ownership and occupancy                              
Nongovernment owned 2,090 1,684 682 759 160 24,295 20,730 10,197 10,246 2,081 86.0 81.2 66.9 74.1 76.8
Owner occupied 1,053 793 319 395 56 12,072 9,096 4,141 4,636 693 87.2 87.2 76.9 85.3 80.5
Leased to tenant(s) 724 669 286 279 83 8,401 8,427 4,430 3,831 1,026 86.2 79.4 64.6 72.8 81.0
Owner occupied and leased 309 221 75 84 20 3,199 2,804 1,313 1,225 332 96.7 78.7 56.8 68.9 59.9
Unoccupied 5 Q Q Q Q 624 404 313 554 Q 7.5 Q Q Q Q
Government owned 656 585 122 188 37 7,603 7,143 1,840 2,585 372 86.3 82.0 66.2 72.7 98.7
Federal 41 77 Q Q Q 402 996 Q Q Q 102.2 76.9 Q Q Q
State 249 201 37 54 Q 2,300 1,891 468 747 Q 108.2 106.2 78.8 72.2 Q
Local 366 308 77 123 22 4,901 4,256 1,305 1,743 225 74.7 72.4 59.3 70.3 96.5
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                             
Building owner 2,352 1,870 633 786 167 27,853 23,423 9,534 10,766 2,126 84.4 79.8 66.4 73.0 78.5
Business owner or tenant 341 326 155 134 Q 3,457 3,571 2,323 1,657 301 98.7 91.3 66.8 80.6 91.3
Property management 19 47 Q Q Q 259 572 Q Q Q 72.4 81.4 Q Q Q
Other 34 27 Q Q N 330 308 Q Q N 104.1 87.1 Q Q N
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                             
Building owner 2,417 1,921 671 801 174 28,624 24,219 10,141 11,096 2,190 84.4 79.3 66.1 72.2 79.5
Business owner or tenant 255 258 119 113 Q 2,511 2,602 1,688 1,220 236 101.6 99.0 70.7 92.8 90.1
Property management 19 23 Q Q Q 210 344 Q Q Q 91.7 67.9 Q Q Q
Other 55 68 Q 22 Q 553 709 Q 274 Q 99.3 95.5 Q 79.4 Q
Number of establishments                              
One 1,749 1,503 543 582 107 20,812 17,729 7,610 7,606 1,237 84.0 84.8 71.4 76.5 86.5
2 to 5 643 391 127 193 47 6,741 5,626 2,299 2,427 663 95.3 69.6 55.3 79.3 70.2
6 to 10 129 121 36 54 Q 1,402 1,453 570 731 Q 91.9 83.4 62.8 74.2 Q
11 to 20 122 129 37 58 Q 1,234 1,289 470 629 Q 98.6 100.3 78.9 91.9 Q
More than 20 98 122 58 60 Q 1,026 1,280 690 666 Q 95.1 95.6 83.7 89.8 Q
Currently unoccupied 7 2 Q Q Q 682 498 397 773 Q 9.8 Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                              
Brick, stone, or stucco 1,347 1,301 351 389 68 14,702 14,570 4,963 5,387 842 91.6 89.3 70.8 72.3 81.3
Concrete (block or poured) 594 523 213 321 68 6,755 6,122 3,206 3,882 762 87.9 85.4 66.5 82.7 89.6
Concrete panels 320 133 98 91 22 2,796 2,059 2,045 1,428 366 114.5 64.5 47.8 64.1 60.4
Siding or shingles 204 79 Q 33 13 3,098 1,243 804 414 190 65.9 63.4 88.2 80.3 66.6
Metal panels 178 137 24 82 Q 3,342 3,122 636 1,421 Q 53.2 43.8 38.5 57.7 Q
Window glass 60 62 Q Q Q 509 388 Q Q Q 117.7 159.5 Q Q Q
Other 20 Q Q Q Q 371 Q Q Q Q 54.8 Q Q Q Q
No one major type 23 Q Q Q Q 325 Q Q Q Q 71.4 Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                              
Metal surfacing 282 321 71 171 Q 5,083 5,810 1,707 3,085 Q 55.5 55.2 41.9 55.4 85.0
Synthetic or rubber 1,256 708 202 228 47 12,726 7,830 2,268 2,342 651 98.7 90.5 89.1 97.5 71.6
Built-up 583 676 232 294 77 6,579 7,113 3,610 3,677 855 88.6 95.1 64.1 80.1 90.4
Slate or tile shingles 93 107 102 48 Q 1,101 1,302 1,156 572 Q 84.0 82.4 88.6 84.2 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
24 34 20 Q Q 295 245 394 Q Q 82.7 139.3 51.9 Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
457 339 136 150 24 5,463 4,707 2,291 2,253 390 83.7 72.0 59.2 66.4 60.6
Concrete Q 49 22 39 Q Q 480 343 654 Q Q 102.2 64.9 59.7 Q
Other Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                              
Roof tilt                              
Flat 1,737 1,445 557 603 135 18,184 15,185 7,385 7,336 1,533 95.5 95.2 75.4 82.1 87.8
Shallow pitch 584 543 182 240 48 7,711 8,183 3,505 3,804 649 75.7 66.3 51.9 63.1 73.9
Steeper pitch 425 281 65 104 14 6,003 4,505 1,146 1,692 272 70.9 62.4 57.0 61.7 51.8
Cool roof 628 592 270 286 61 6,532 6,115 3,102 3,274 607 96.1 96.8 87.1 87.4 100.6
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any type of renovation 1,615 1,218 327 490 112 17,148 13,955 4,178 5,570 1,364 94.2 87.3 78.2 88.0 81.9
Addition or annex 644 412 71 148 Q 6,116 4,451 798 1,501 Q 105.3 92.5 89.4 98.4 Q
Reduction in floorspace 49 Q Q Q Q 411 905 Q Q Q 119.7 160.7 Q Q Q
Roof replacement 891 672 138 240 45 9,063 6,963 1,660 2,584 647 98.3 96.5 82.9 92.8 70.0
Exterior wall replacement 142 137 48 58 Q 1,548 1,382 564 593 Q 91.4 99.1 85.4 98.3 Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 918 622 180 260 76 9,328 6,574 2,165 2,421 854 98.4 94.6 83.1 107.5 89.2
Window replacement 503 369 57 131 29 5,604 4,202 822 1,180 457 89.8 87.9 69.5 111.4 63.8
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,076 862 202 337 68 11,032 9,024 2,268 3,688 768 97.5 95.5 88.9 91.5 88.7
Lighting upgrade 1,095 743 230 305 67 10,972 8,103 2,525 3,126 777 99.8 91.6 91.1 97.7 85.9
Electrical upgrade 724 519 127 188 50 7,063 5,181 1,326 2,072 519 102.5 100.2 96.0 90.6 96.3
Plumbing system upgrade 623 451 130 153 39 5,878 4,633 1,347 1,523 447 106.0 97.4 96.8 100.5 87.0
Insulation upgrade 366 228 55 100 Q 3,675 2,432 559 772 Q 99.7 93.9 98.5 129.3 Q
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 717 556 143 207 63 7,237 5,618 1,558 2,136 648 99.1 98.9 91.6 97.1 96.5
Structural upgrade 191 106 46 65 Q 1,736 1,091 464 440 Q 110.3 97.1 98.6 147.7 Q
Other 22 Q Q Q Q 272 Q Q Q Q 79.8 Q Q Q Q
No renovations 956 873 391 417 80 12,734 11,907 6,951 6,537 1,025 75.1 73.3 56.2 63.8 78.3
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 175 178 Q 39 Q 2,016 2,011 908 724 Q 86.9 88.7 94.8 54.5 Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 2,746 2,270 804 947 197 31,286 27,422 11,743 12,002 2,416 87.8 82.8 68.4 78.9 81.4
Natural gas 2,356 1,796 648 565 179 24,511 19,361 7,520 5,300 2,033 96.1 92.7 86.2 106.6 88.0
Fuel oil 917 762 198 284 71 8,008 7,287 1,605 2,597 703 114.5 104.6 123.3 109.4 100.3
District heat 295 366 Q 56 Q 1,926 3,012 Q 374 Q 153.3 121.6 147.3 149.5 Q
District chilled water 206 295 Q 76 Q 1,227 2,027 Q 752 Q 167.5 145.7 147.1 100.9 Q
Propane 315 121 39 103 Q 3,594 2,183 842 998 Q 87.6 55.6 46.5 103.1 Q
Other 142 76 53 Q Q 2,011 1,017 496 Q Q 70.8 74.3 107.3 Q Q
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 1,359 1,321 461 655 102 15,252 17,288 6,815 8,300 1,374 89.1 76.4 67.6 79.0 74.1
Natural gas 2,086 1,386 513 319 143 22,436 15,774 6,268 3,316 1,717 93.0 87.9 81.8 96.1 83.0
Fuel oil 184 156 Q Q Q 2,375 1,721 Q Q Q 77.3 90.7 Q Q Q
District heat 295 364 Q 55 Q 1,926 3,002 Q 362 Q 153.3 121.4 147.3 150.9 Q
Propane 75 52 15 Q Q 1,520 1,056 389 Q Q 49.3 49.1 39.3 Q Q
Other 27 Q Q N Q 677 Q Q N Q 40.0 Q Q N Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                             
Electricity 355 662 267 526 35 4,771 9,282 4,600 6,969 583 74.4 71.4 58.1 75.4 60.6
Natural gas 1,914 1,139 430 253 136 20,554 12,884 5,252 2,710 1,588 93.1 88.4 81.8 93.2 85.6
Fuel oil 122 65 N N N 1,623 919 N N N 75.0 71.2 N N N
District heat 290 360 Q 55 Q 1,884 2,916 Q 362 Q 153.8 123.6 147.3 150.9 Q
Propane 34 21 Q Q N 1,096 658 Q Q N 31.3 32.5 Q Q N
Other 19 Q N N N 541 Q N N N 34.8 Q N N N
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 2,494 2,031 747 880 170 27,377 24,968 10,490 11,043 2,157 91.1 81.3 71.2 79.7 78.9
Natural gas 49 37 Q Q Q 403 272 Q Q Q 122.8 135.9 Q Q Q
District chilled water 206 295 Q 76 Q 1,227 2,027 Q 752 Q 167.5 145.7 147.1 100.9 Q
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 1,072 1,011 344 591 84 13,252 14,954 5,678 7,690 1,180 80.9 67.6 60.7 76.8 71.1
Natural gas 1,726 1,276 526 382 119 16,960 11,896 5,927 3,447 1,294 101.8 107.2 88.8 110.7 91.9
Fuel oil 84 79 Q Q Q 1,111 711 Q Q Q 76.0 110.7 Q Q Q
District heat 244 301 Q 31 Q 1,515 2,304 Q Q Q 161.0 130.8 Q 125.4 Q
Propane 36 27 Q Q N 768 482 Q Q N 47.1 56.3 Q Q N
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 983 854 265 342 68 9,761 9,042 2,299 3,437 612 100.7 94.4 115.2 99.5 110.9
Natural gas 1,168 1,030 381 343 92 9,670 8,466 3,055 2,873 706 120.8 121.7 124.8 119.5 129.7
Propane 98 33 Q 29 Q 1,008 503 Q 391 Q 97.0 65.1 Q 72.8 Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                             
Buildings with space heating 2,733 2,251 772 837 189 30,469 26,716 10,484 10,090 2,319 89.7 84.3 73.7 82.9 81.5
Buildings with cooling 2,636 2,230 792 941 175 28,228 26,365 10,887 11,624 2,190 93.4 84.6 72.7 81.0 80.1
Buildings with water heating 2,704 2,219 776 910 189 29,567 25,772 10,585 10,837 2,255 91.4 86.1 73.3 83.9 84.0
Buildings with cooking 1,597 1,402 451 518 113 14,975 13,469 4,029 5,098 975 106.6 104.1 111.9 101.5 115.5
Buildings with manufacturing 160 66 32 87 Q 2,133 1,273 786 684 Q 75.1 51.7 40.1 127.6 Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
1,175 935 285 318 89 10,597 8,525 2,471 3,168 880 110.9 109.7 115.4 100.5 101.3
Percent of floorspace heated                              
Not heated 13 18 32 110 Q 1,430 1,157 1,553 2,741 Q Q 16.0 20.3 40.2 Q
1 to 50 101 118 138 84 26 2,315 2,485 3,165 1,752 414 43.8 47.7 43.7 48.0 61.7
51 to 99 392 438 212 210 46 4,050 5,425 2,434 2,146 595 96.8 80.8 87.2 97.8 77.2
100 2,240 1,694 422 543 117 24,104 18,806 4,885 6,193 1,310 92.9 90.1 86.3 87.7 89.6
Percent of floorspace cooled                              
Not cooled 111 39 12 6 21 3,670 1,508 1,150 1,208 263 30.1 26.1 10.6 Q 81.0
1 to 50 507 242 138 77 25 7,561 5,220 3,505 2,191 415 67.1 46.4 39.3 35.2 59.8
51 to 99 873 743 240 227 60 8,314 8,333 2,734 2,562 785 105.0 89.1 87.9 88.5 76.7
100 1,255 1,245 414 637 90 12,354 12,812 4,648 6,871 990 101.6 97.2 89.0 92.8 91.2
Percent lit when open                              
Zero Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 280 196 73 79 15 4,637 3,702 2,225 1,689 377 60.3 53.0 32.9 46.7 38.8
51 to 99 1,263 911 375 408 92 13,284 10,873 4,849 4,790 1,018 95.1 83.8 77.4 85.1 90.3
100 1,187 1,157 352 459 89 12,498 12,453 4,432 5,359 984 95.0 92.9 79.4 85.6 90.4
Building never open/electricity
not used
17 3 Q Q Q 1,339 766 502 928 Q 12.5 Q Q Q Q
Percent lit during off hours                              
Zero 559 370 167 151 47 9,716 6,918 4,237 3,080 796 57.6 53.4 39.4 48.9 59.0
1 to 50 1,743 1,404 450 622 127 18,723 17,279 6,139 7,216 1,397 93.1 81.2 73.3 86.2 90.9
51 to 100 362 368 155 113 Q 2,252 2,373 1,009 1,102 Q 160.7 155.2 154.0 102.7 Q
Building always open with
no "off hours"
82 128 32 61 Q 595 852 359 604 Q 137.3 150.3 88.8 100.7 Q
Electricity not used N N N N N 612 451 294 830 Q N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Heat pumps 187 435 126 119 32 2,150 6,182 1,669 1,387 458 87.1 70.4 75.4 85.4 69.8
Furnaces 262 221 69 55 Q 3,558 3,009 995 937 Q 73.5 73.5 69.4 59.1 Q
Individual space heaters 813 456 109 142 52 10,128 6,697 1,703 1,607 631 80.2 68.1 64.0 88.1 82.2
District heat 295 364 Q 55 Q 1,926 3,002 Q 362 Q 153.3 121.4 147.3 150.9 Q
Boilers 1,128 704 214 162 55 11,556 7,029 1,777 1,499 581 97.6 100.1 120.3 108.2 94.1
Packaged heating units 1,586 1,259 527 592 119 17,640 15,485 7,351 7,217 1,495 89.9 81.3 71.7 82.0 79.3
Other 97 55 Q Q Q 824 487 Q Q Q 117.3 112.2 Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Residential-type central air
conditioners
442 320 170 146 Q 5,468 4,620 2,250 2,319 Q 80.8 69.3 75.7 63.1 Q
Heat pumps 207 452 113 123 45 2,457 6,173 1,876 1,451 581 84.4 73.2 60.0 84.6 76.9
Individual air conditioners 443 395 67 88 20 5,046 4,683 1,025 1,344 322 87.7 84.4 65.3 65.6 61.8
District chilled water 206 295 Q 76 Q 1,227 2,027 Q 752 Q 167.5 145.7 147.1 100.9 Q
Central chillers 759 633 156 243 61 6,757 5,913 1,348 2,474 549 112.3 107.1 115.4 98.4 111.7
Packaged air conditioning units 1,576 1,256 474 563 103 16,452 14,627 6,306 6,449 1,318 95.8 85.9 75.2 87.3 78.5
Swamp coolers 66 Q 61 Q Q 680 Q 710 Q Q 97.6 Q 86.1 Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                             
Heating 896 723 217 271 56 10,930 8,958 3,528 3,255 887 82.0 80.8 61.6 83.3 63.0
Cooling 1,019 852 243 349 57 11,402 10,471 3,633 4,345 850 89.4 81.3 66.9 80.4 67.6
Water-heating equipment                              
Centralized system 1,744 1,413 447 515 91 18,894 15,231 6,259 5,983 1,168 92.3 92.8 71.4 86.1 77.8
Distributed system 314 212 141 149 16 4,184 3,619 2,221 2,298 366 74.9 58.6 63.6 64.7 45.1
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
646 594 187 246 82 6,489 6,922 2,105 2,556 721 99.6 85.8 89.1 96.3 113.7
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                             
Incandescent 1,471 1,216 325 440 88 14,837 13,429 4,139 4,769 1,232 99.1 90.6 78.5 92.3 71.7
Standard fluorescent 2,660 2,205 777 889 184 29,315 26,407 11,018 11,096 2,246 90.7 83.5 70.5 80.1 81.9
Compact fluorescent 2,061 1,659 570 649 155 20,485 17,410 6,692 7,285 1,944 100.6 95.3 85.2 89.1 79.7
High-intensity discharge (HID) 925 770 189 262 41 8,734 8,547 2,661 3,035 420 105.9 90.1 71.0 86.2 98.8
Halogen 1,069 886 280 380 79 10,366 9,391 3,257 4,152 893 103.2 94.4 86.0 91.6 87.9
LED 1,040 726 234 299 64 9,156 6,936 2,514 2,733 732 113.6 104.7 92.9 109.3 87.5
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any refrigeration 2,553 2,137 732 876 174 27,633 24,268 9,429 10,299 2,015 92.4 88.1 77.7 85.0 86.2
Walk-in units 1,356 1,232 368 473 95 10,742 10,079 2,842 3,922 775 126.3 122.2 129.6 120.7 122.8
Cases or cabinets 1,323 1,112 389 398 93 11,215 9,694 3,232 3,856 722 118.0 114.7 120.2 103.2 129.3
Large cold storage areas 191 168 74 78 Q 1,531 1,297 554 701 Q 125.0 129.4 134.1 111.3 Q
Commercial ice makers 1,409 1,308 381 524 110 11,045 12,168 3,441 5,199 881 127.6 107.5 110.6 100.7 125.0
Residential-type or compact units 2,120 1,685 583 640 154 23,817 20,411 8,210 8,180 1,762 89.0 82.5 71.0 78.3 87.6
Vending machines 1,681 1,382 439 561 116 16,400 15,132 5,131 6,115 1,157 102.5 91.3 85.5 91.7 100.0
No refrigeration 194 133 71 71 23 4,265 3,605 2,607 2,533 439 45.4 36.8 27.3 28.2 52.2
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Desktop computers 2,590 2,158 754 896 187 28,233 25,161 10,487 10,929 2,252 91.7 85.8 71.9 82.0 83.1
With flat screen monitors 2,566 2,132 751 888 186 27,828 24,907 10,407 10,799 2,220 92.2 85.6 72.2 82.2 84.0
With multiple monitors 1,134 978 347 392 91 11,074 10,043 4,291 4,365 1,173 102.4 97.3 80.9 89.9 77.5
Laptop computers 2,188 1,787 602 741 149 23,554 21,132 8,003 8,961 1,836 92.9 84.5 75.2 82.6 81.3
Dedicated servers 1,865 1,578 568 634 139 19,394 17,637 7,303 7,388 1,648 96.1 89.5 77.8 85.8 84.3
Laser printers 1,960 1,562 539 612 122 20,318 17,516 7,372 7,492 1,558 96.5 89.2 73.1 81.7 78.4
Inkjet printers 1,109 957 341 407 88 13,171 12,084 4,887 5,087 1,006 84.2 79.2 69.8 80.1 87.8
FAX machines 2,274 1,911 556 799 165 24,671 22,169 8,441 9,504 1,897 92.2 86.2 65.9 84.1 87.2
Photocopiers 2,088 1,660 563 653 146 22,559 19,141 7,727 8,118 1,732 92.5 86.7 72.9 80.5 84.2
Number of desktop computers                              
None 156 111 50 51 10 3,665 2,712 1,549 1,903 202 42.6 41.0 32.0 26.6 47.6
1 to 4 414 425 142 171 32 5,646 5,258 2,339 2,070 355 73.4 80.8 60.6 82.8 90.7
5 to 9 296 224 77 108 33 3,424 2,748 1,522 1,332 396 86.6 81.6 50.3 81.0 82.6
10 to 19 297 167 97 89 Q 3,387 2,625 1,707 1,369 300 87.6 63.6 56.9 65.1 86.9
20 to 49 441 344 125 191 20 4,627 4,189 1,675 2,254 349 95.4 82.1 74.4 84.8 56.4
50 to 99 271 174 98 96 Q 3,047 2,542 1,181 1,371 Q 88.8 68.3 83.1 69.9 Q
100 to 249 420 360 69 84 28 4,104 3,474 785 1,041 324 102.4 103.5 87.5 80.7 87.9
250 or more 451 466 147 157 41 3,998 4,326 1,278 1,491 384 112.7 107.6 115.3 105.2 106.1
Number of laptop computers                              
None 559 483 202 206 47 8,345 6,741 4,033 3,871 617 67.0 71.6 50.0 53.3 76.9
1 to 4 611 459 168 228 49 8,025 6,735 3,030 2,736 636 76.2 68.2 55.5 83.4 77.8
5 to 9 244 257 76 113 Q 2,577 2,712 1,332 1,555 Q 94.9 95.0 56.7 72.7 Q
10 to 19 261 221 138 83 Q 2,950 2,525 1,426 1,289 Q 88.4 87.3 96.9 64.5 Q
20 to 49 427 259 89 109 23 3,880 2,992 925 1,505 341 110.0 86.6 95.8 72.7 68.1
50 to 99 212 146 56 79 Q 2,116 1,753 511 710 Q 100.3 83.5 109.1 111.8 Q
100 to 249 187 215 Q 47 27 1,978 1,979 Q 508 234 94.4 108.9 94.4 91.7 116.7
250 or more 245 229 27 81 Q 2,028 2,436 261 657 Q 120.9 93.9 102.2 123.1 Q
Number of dedicated servers                              
None 882 691 235 313 58 12,504 10,236 4,734 5,444 806 70.5 67.5 49.7 57.5 71.7
1 to 4 1,049 916 314 375 64 12,362 11,333 4,780 4,808 814 84.8 80.8 65.8 77.9 79.2
5 to 9 236 152 90 73 Q 2,387 1,795 1,008 872 Q 99.1 84.9 89.7 83.8 Q
10 to 19 270 187 42 77 Q 2,098 1,914 506 901 Q 128.8 97.5 82.2 85.6 Q
20 to 49 160 125 30 70 Q 1,509 1,172 418 530 Q 105.9 107.0 70.9 132.2 Q
50 or more 149 198 Q 39 33 1,039 1,422 591 277 234 143.8 139.4 156.4 140.2 140.2
Number of photocopiers                              
None 659 610 241 294 51 9,339 8,732 4,310 4,714 721 70.5 69.9 55.9 62.3 70.6
One 518 348 154 142 41 6,535 4,855 2,974 2,181 535 79.2 71.6 51.8 65.0 76.4
2 to 4 692 449 165 257 33 8,011 6,177 2,444 3,211 469 86.4 72.8 67.3 79.9 71.2
5 to 9 332 278 72 81 Q 3,691 2,880 932 1,146 Q 90.0 96.4 77.8 70.9 Q
10 or more 546 585 172 174 51 4,322 5,230 1,377 1,579 514 126.3 111.9 124.9 109.9 99.0
Number of TVs or video displays                              
None 530 367 125 146 45 9,031 6,956 3,927 3,718 706 58.7 52.8 31.9 39.4 63.7
One 284 234 75 82 Q 3,519 3,628 1,380 1,241 223 80.8 64.5 54.4 66.4 95.3
2 to 4 548 373 135 219 36 6,455 4,739 1,934 2,811 527 84.9 78.7 70.0 77.8 67.8
5 to 9 304 226 96 131 Q 3,076 2,532 1,031 1,266 Q 98.8 89.3 93.5 103.8 Q
10 to 19 297 296 82 109 Q 2,949 2,763 923 1,269 Q 100.5 107.2 89.2 86.2 Q
20 to 49 248 243 110 94 Q 2,788 2,778 1,200 1,066 Q 89.0 87.3 91.3 88.5 Q
50 to 99 153 156 Q 44 Q 1,479 1,507 Q 504 Q 103.5 103.8 89.6 86.6 Q
100 or more 382 374 106 121 24 2,601 2,970 815 957 203 147.0 125.8 129.7 126.1 117.6
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                             
Snack bar or concession stand 464 355 110 147 36 3,820 3,535 914 1,321 294 121.6 100.5 120.3 111.2 121.4
Fast food or small restaurant 434 362 154 219 37 3,257 2,893 1,425 1,867 345 133.3 125.1 107.7 117.3 108.4
Cafeteria or large restaurant 633 624 147 180 40 5,691 6,145 1,161 1,894 331 111.3 101.6 126.3 95.0 121.8
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
738 629 174 210 48 6,504 5,737 1,478 2,066 365 113.4 109.6 117.9 101.6 131.7
Small kitchen area 537 362 101 162 25 5,783 4,646 1,313 2,027 286 92.8 77.8 77.0 80.1 89.2
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                             
Data center or server farm 556 425 184 136 55 4,065 3,890 1,414 1,230 505 136.7 109.3 130.3 110.5 108.1
Computer-based training room 673 540 192 256 35 6,406 6,036 2,207 2,756 318 105.1 89.5 86.9 92.9 109.3
Student or public computer center 545 438 Q 146 Q 5,892 5,069 1,359 1,892 Q 92.4 86.4 98.2 76.9 Q
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                             
Economizer cycle 1,429 994 364 249 107 13,546 9,729 3,821 2,347 1,305 105.5 102.2 95.3 106.0 81.6
Regular HVAC maintenance 2,480 1,998 705 855 166 25,864 22,200 9,200 10,031 1,949 95.9 90.0 76.6 85.2 85.0
Building automation system (BAS)2 1,501 1,134 447 514 114 14,019 11,822 4,473 5,501 1,235 107.1 95.9 99.9 93.4 92.1
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                             
Multipaned windows 2,323 1,713 465 611 137 25,545 20,529 5,963 6,872 1,452 90.9 83.4 78.0 89.0 94.6
Tinted window glass 1,434 1,258 505 633 144 14,326 14,451 7,261 7,364 1,623 100.1 87.1 69.5 85.9 88.4
Reflective window glass 678 464 228 228 54 6,109 4,317 2,556 2,426 500 111.1 107.5 89.0 94.1 108.2
External overhangs or awnings 1,094 1,038 379 463 116 10,679 10,394 4,503 5,453 1,160 102.4 99.8 84.1 84.8 100.0
Skylights or atriums 769 657 246 259 79 7,671 7,033 3,828 2,788 941 100.3 93.4 64.3 93.0 83.6
Light scheduling 1,219 833 355 411 113 11,334 8,922 4,291 4,597 1,119 107.5 93.3 82.7 89.4 101.0
Occupancy sensors 1,495 988 353 465 133 14,604 10,406 4,733 4,672 1,456 102.4 94.9 74.6 99.6 91.5
Multi-level lighting or dimming 648 504 231 180 55 5,507 4,562 1,887 2,006 571 117.7 110.5 122.4 89.8 95.8
Daylight harvesting 277 142 96 81 22 2,472 1,596 891 918 237 112.1 89.2 108.2 88.7 92.1
Demand responsive lighting 128 135 77 58 Q 1,402 1,379 1,167 693 Q 91.5 97.8 66.4 83.0 Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 522 302 154 169 53 4,581 3,376 1,711 1,922 477 114.0 89.4 90.3 87.8 111.2
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                             
Heating 2,066 1,646 580 588 142 24,186 21,130 8,546 7,448 1,858 85.4 77.9 67.8 79.0 76.4
Cooling 1,993 1,610 588 684 133 22,653 20,659 8,665 8,847 1,692 88.0 77.9 67.9 77.3 78.4
Lighting 2,573 2,068 736 862 187 29,198 25,547 10,596 10,933 2,319 88.1 80.9 69.4 78.8 80.8
   
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A, C, D, E and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.