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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B16. Employment size category, floorspace, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total floorspace (million square feet)
Number of workers
  All
buildings
Fewer
than 5 workers
5 to 9 workers 10 to 19 workers 20 to 49 workers 50 to 99 workers 100 to
249 workers
250 or more workers
All buildings 87,093 17,751 8,973 9,623 14,514 13,476 10,941 11,815
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000 8,041 5,362 1,768 794 117 N N N
5,001 to 10,000 8,900 3,843 2,389 1,793 869 Q N N
10,001 to 25,000 14,105 4,334 2,454 3,135 3,314 719 Q Q
25,001 to 50,000 11,917 1,791 1,437 2,017 3,615 2,339 686 Q
50,001 to 100,000 13,918 1,332 447 1,051 4,036 4,388 2,328 337
100,001 to 200,000 12,415 677 Q 574 1,903 4,152 2,861 1,879
200,001 to 500,000 10,724 Q Q Q 595 1,544 4,078 3,842
Over 500,000 7,074 Q Q Q Q Q 845 5,718
Principal building activity                
Education 12,239 504 544 774 3,156 3,829 2,899 533
Food sales 1,252 422 161 Q Q Q Q N
Food service 1,819 434 507 518 303 N Q N
Health care 4,155 Q 305 220 368 388 681 2,141
Inpatient 2,374 N N N Q Q 236 1,974
Outpatient 1,781 Q 305 220 344 249 444 167
Lodging 5,826 998 516 900 1,088 861 654 809
Mercantile 11,330 1,236 1,291 1,232 2,590 2,333 1,789 859
Retail (other than mall) 5,439 1,135 888 841 993 861 Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls 5,890 Q 403 391 1,597 1,472 1,194 732
Office 15,952 1,003 1,206 1,276 2,134 2,556 2,059 5,718
Public assembly 5,559 1,695 941 540 635 537 596 614
Public order and safety 1,440 Q Q Q Q 421 Q Q
Religious worship 4,557 2,397 751 595 560 Q Q N
Service 4,630 1,671 780 794 778 Q Q Q
Warehouse and storage 13,077 4,003 1,496 2,201 2,028 1,330 1,473 547
Other 2,002 393 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant 3,256 2,747 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year constructed                
Before 1920 3,983 1,586 407 363 392 458 356 421
1920 to 1945 6,025 1,752 714 480 675 835 456 1,114
1946 to 1959 7,381 1,890 723 755 1,043 1,472 812 686
1960 to 1969 10,362 2,109 1,185 1,167 2,016 1,610 1,321 955
1970 to 1979 10,846 2,100 1,175 1,425 1,706 1,171 1,139 2,131
1980 to 1989 15,230 2,678 1,443 1,566 2,771 2,371 1,849 2,552
1990 to 1999 13,803 2,546 1,252 1,686 2,460 2,305 1,802 1,752
2000 to 2003 7,215 1,020 685 754 1,344 1,082 1,377 954
2004 to 2007 6,524 1,118 647 715 1,082 1,216 981 765
2008 to 2012 5,723 954 743 711 1,026 955 849 485
Census region                
Northeast 15,534 2,692 1,282 1,390 1,903 2,385 2,530 3,352
Midwest 18,919 4,286 1,910 1,880 3,372 2,761 2,314 2,397
South 34,279 7,336 3,553 3,814 5,611 6,076 4,163 3,726
West 18,360 3,438 2,227 2,538 3,628 2,254 1,934 2,341
Climate region1                
Very cold/Cold 31,898 6,604 3,165 3,373 5,387 4,891 4,203 4,276
Mixed-humid 27,873 5,458 2,519 2,883 4,280 4,634 3,744 4,356
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 12,037 2,616 1,537 1,708 2,115 1,441 1,554 1,066
Hot-humid 12,831 2,720 1,505 1,382 2,154 2,209 1,211 1,651
Marine 2,454 354 Q 277 577 302 Q 466
Number of floors                
One 39,809 11,548 5,638 5,709 6,907 5,841 3,289 876
Two 20,206 3,555 2,234 2,560 4,279 3,670 2,711 1,196
Three 8,140 1,547 715 710 1,764 1,372 1,240 792
Four to nine 13,535 1,002 379 597 1,442 2,290 3,289 4,535
Ten or more 5,404 Q Q Q Q 303 412 4,415
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
               
Any elevators 32,120 1,669 796 1,532 4,453 5,970 6,960 10,741
Number of elevators                
One 11,158 839 664 1,082 2,907 2,915 2,023 729
Two to five 12,817 731 Q 451 1,505 2,754 4,079 3,178
Six or more 8,145 Q Q N Q Q 857 6,834
Any escalators 3,654 Q N Q Q Q 372 2,802
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 8,220 6,143 709 480 369 Q Q Q
40 to 48 15,828 3,098 2,383 2,200 3,156 2,875 1,466 649
49 to 60 20,529 2,890 2,509 3,043 3,861 2,696 2,534 2,996
61 to 84 15,867 1,774 1,638 1,704 3,191 2,799 2,646 2,116
85 to 167 9,395 1,296 716 759 1,941 2,400 1,485 798
Open continuously 17,253 2,550 1,019 1,437 1,998 2,408 2,640 5,203
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 67,550 15,635 7,865 7,911 11,024 8,465 7,679 8,971
Owner occupied 30,637 8,458 4,190 4,011 4,570 3,455 3,345 2,608
Leased to tenant(s) 26,115 4,456 2,798 3,222 4,568 3,914 3,152 4,004
Owner occupied and leased 8,873 795 877 679 1,886 1,096 1,182 2,359
Unoccupied 1,925 1,925 N N N N N N
Government owned 19,543 2,116 1,108 1,711 3,490 5,011 3,262 2,844
Federal 1,573 Q Q Q Q Q Q 873
State 5,539 675 279 505 1,036 1,522 720 802
Local 12,431 1,392 764 1,096 2,313 3,347 2,351 1,168
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
               
Building owner 73,702 16,098 7,471 7,793 11,425 11,305 9,045 10,564
Business owner or tenant 11,309 1,395 1,234 1,671 2,796 1,824 1,550 840
Property management 1,250 Q Q Q Q Q Q 373
Other 832 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 76,271 16,547 7,869 8,117 12,135 11,719 9,282 10,602
Business owner or tenant 8,256 935 840 1,206 1,951 1,271 1,249 803
Property management 880 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 1,686 174 225 Q 379 Q Q Q
Number of establishments                
One 54,994 13,276 6,712 6,905 8,722 8,068 6,459 4,853
2 to 5 17,756 1,785 2,002 2,291 3,443 3,184 2,404 2,647
6 to 10 4,425 Q 195 343 1,362 924 378 1,010
11 to 20 3,704 Q Q Q 855 955 772 939
More than 20 3,821 Q Q N Q 346 928 2,366
Currently unoccupied 2,393 2,393 N N N N N N
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 84,869 15,530 8,970 9,623 14,514 13,476 10,941 11,815
Natural gas 58,725 7,858 5,355 6,799 10,613 10,320 8,880 8,900
Fuel oil 20,200 1,489 717 765 1,824 3,137 4,040 8,229
District heat 5,964 Q Q Q 623 669 1,096 3,082
District chilled water 4,608 Q Q Q 505 683 982 1,986
Propane 7,706 1,689 902 932 1,246 1,052 958 927
Other 3,826 543 359 365 416 656 870 618
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 49,030 6,806 5,390 5,488 9,380 8,881 6,410 6,676
Natural gas 49,511 7,144 4,655 5,914 9,275 8,947 7,504 6,072
Fuel oil 4,351 998 348 311 555 786 710 644
District heat 5,925 Q Q Q 623 669 1,096 3,053
Propane 3,067 1,222 465 390 388 Q Q Q
Other 1,010 284 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 26,205 4,326 3,673 3,380 4,997 4,367 2,446 3,015
Natural gas 42,988 6,471 3,941 4,804 7,987 7,604 6,863 5,317
Fuel oil 2,542 831 185 Q Q 488 316 Q
District heat 5,797 Q Q Q 623 610 1,091 3,015
Propane 1,948 963 412 287 Q Q Q Q
Other 598 167 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 76,034 11,383 8,177 9,070 13,707 12,844 10,076 10,777
Natural gas 732 Q N N Q Q Q 378
District chilled water 4,608 Q Q Q 505 683 982 1,986
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 42,755 6,498 4,882 4,980 7,767 7,104 5,572 5,951
Natural gas 39,523 4,706 3,280 4,518 7,529 7,742 6,380 5,367
Fuel oil 1,911 319 Q Q Q Q 347 332
District heat 4,551 Q Q Q 331 409 961 2,581
Propane 1,575 512 289 210 Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 25,151 2,425 1,747 2,080 3,839 5,012 3,989 6,060
Natural gas 24,770 1,747 1,095 1,501 4,502 5,178 4,852 5,895
Propane 2,001 510 Q 250 Q 438 268 Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 80,078 12,931 8,492 8,970 14,126 13,184 10,805 11,570
Buildings with cooling 79,294 11,595 8,238 9,190 14,219 13,323 10,913 11,815
Buildings with water heating 79,015 11,783 8,205 9,137 14,097 13,171 10,912 11,711
Buildings with cooking 38,546 4,138 2,501 3,203 6,481 7,501 6,181 8,540
Buildings with manufacturing 5,078 556 519 787 1,231 965 508 512
Buildings with electricity
generation
25,642 1,002 857 1,058 2,923 4,761 6,177 8,863
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 7,015 4,820 481 652 389 Q Q Q
1 to 50 10,130 2,527 2,012 1,543 1,988 968 648 444
51 to 99 14,650 1,904 1,369 1,323 2,561 2,870 1,721 2,900
100 55,298 8,500 5,111 6,104 9,576 9,345 8,436 8,226
Percent of floorspace cooled                
Not cooled 7,799 6,156 735 433 295 Q Q N
1 to 50 18,891 4,108 2,862 3,207 3,724 2,240 1,977 775
51 to 99 22,728 2,234 1,525 2,227 3,822 4,519 3,543 4,858
100 37,676 5,253 3,851 3,757 6,674 6,565 5,394 6,182
Percent lit when open                
Zero 322 290 Q Q N N N N
1 to 50 12,628 5,292 2,241 1,545 1,750 908 518 375
51 to 99 34,814 4,069 3,117 3,883 6,751 6,773 5,492 4,729
100 35,726 4,524 3,567 4,186 6,011 5,795 4,932 6,711
Building never open/electricity
not used
3,603 3,576 Q N Q N N N
Percent lit during off hours                
Zero 24,746 8,412 3,865 3,571 3,546 2,276 1,747 1,330
1 to 50 50,753 6,180 4,582 5,367 9,737 9,673 7,520 7,692
51 to 100 6,926 597 401 545 866 1,060 1,172 2,285
Building always open with
no "off hours"
2,443 340 Q Q 366 467 Q 507
Electricity not used 2,225 2,221 Q N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Heat pumps 11,846 1,366 1,230 1,234 2,268 2,409 1,490 1,849
Furnaces 8,654 1,921 1,264 1,758 1,678 1,278 387 367
Individual space heaters 20,766 3,710 2,274 2,219 3,752 3,323 2,390 3,097
District heat 5,925 Q Q Q 623 669 1,096 3,053
Boilers 22,443 1,908 982 1,219 3,764 4,610 4,938 5,021
Packaged heating units 49,188 6,967 5,320 6,041 9,817 9,055 6,596 5,393
Other 1,574 Q Q Q 448 Q 422 Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Residential-type central air
conditioners
14,765 3,835 2,699 2,854 2,827 1,445 886 218
Heat pumps 12,538 1,498 1,127 1,442 2,657 2,538 1,358 1,918
Individual air conditioners 12,420 1,963 1,204 1,348 2,253 1,630 1,868 2,153
District chilled water 4,608 Q Q Q 505 683 982 1,986
Central chillers 17,041 531 334 475 1,765 3,087 3,736 7,112
Packaged air conditioning units 45,153 4,823 3,980 5,020 9,001 9,135 6,713 6,481
Swamp coolers 1,918 181 196 Q 312 461 Q Q
Other 328 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
               
Heating 27,558 5,093 3,205 2,960 5,112 5,026 3,436 2,724
Cooling 30,702 5,268 3,249 3,384 5,497 5,273 3,971 4,060
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 47,534 8,984 6,262 6,320 7,957 7,105 5,614 5,292
Distributed system 12,688 1,713 1,188 1,690 2,282 2,192 1,893 1,730
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
18,793 1,086 755 1,126 3,859 3,873 3,404 4,689
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
               
Incandescent 38,406 4,834 3,346 3,753 6,370 6,902 5,568 7,633
Standard fluorescent 80,081 12,622 8,446 9,292 14,195 13,040 10,782 11,704
Compact fluorescent 53,816 6,162 4,404 5,181 9,078 9,597 8,461 10,933
High-intensity discharge (HID) 23,396 1,664 1,445 1,673 3,603 4,563 4,441 6,007
Halogen 28,059 2,418 1,953 2,355 4,800 5,243 4,227 7,062
LED 22,071 993 902 1,360 3,548 4,223 4,231 6,814
Other 446 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Any refrigeration 73,645 10,252 7,466 8,231 13,005 12,696 10,456 11,539
Walk-in units 28,361 1,110 1,132 1,695 4,819 6,582 5,592 7,432
Cases or cabinets 28,719 1,895 1,569 1,971 4,419 5,651 5,584 7,630
Large cold storage areas 4,171 Q Q Q 641 988 1,059 994
Commercial ice makers 32,734 1,648 1,553 2,466 5,227 6,404 6,584 8,852
Residential-type or compact units 62,381 8,745 6,349 7,070 11,172 10,606 8,529 9,909
Vending machines 43,936 2,055 2,088 3,252 7,595 9,583 8,983 10,379
No refrigeration 13,448 7,499 1,507 1,392 1,509 780 485 276
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Desktop computers 77,063 9,500 8,102 9,113 14,384 13,400 10,883 11,680
With flat screen monitors 76,160 8,869 7,940 9,064 14,329 13,400 10,878 11,680
With multiple monitors 30,946 1,123 1,689 2,282 5,454 5,018 6,437 8,944
Laptop computers 63,486 6,124 5,236 6,526 12,038 11,781 10,129 11,652
Dedicated servers 53,369 2,434 3,346 5,419 10,417 11,235 9,428 11,089
Laser printers 54,256 4,395 4,780 6,192 10,407 10,174 8,524 9,783
Inkjet printers 36,235 6,047 4,259 4,772 6,145 5,717 4,861 4,434
FAX machines 66,682 6,919 6,514 7,733 12,796 12,043 9,889 10,790
Photocopiers 59,277 4,139 4,401 6,110 11,596 12,005 9,989 11,037
Number of desktop computers                
None 10,030 8,251 871 509 Q Q Q Q
1 to 4 15,669 7,883 3,795 2,452 1,059 Q Q Q
5 to 9 9,422 1,110 2,981 2,670 1,824 532 Q Q
10 to 19 9,388 186 811 2,836 3,937 1,248 Q Q
20 to 49 13,094 Q 456 1,009 4,582 4,600 1,915 Q
50 to 99 8,284 N Q Q 1,655 3,872 1,989 588
100 to 249 9,728 Q N Q 1,123 1,790 4,253 2,536
250 or more 11,478 N N Q Q 1,009 2,228 8,026
Number of laptop computers                
None 23,607 11,627 3,737 3,097 2,476 1,694 812 Q
1 to 4 21,161 5,332 4,274 4,350 4,279 2,096 651 Q
5 to 9 8,345 297 544 1,352 2,941 1,997 722 Q
10 to 19 8,343 Q Q 448 2,274 2,538 2,102 768
20 to 49 9,643 Q Q Q 1,760 2,904 2,675 1,969
50 to 99 5,234 Q Q Q 365 1,197 1,542 1,925
100 to 249 5,217 Q Q Q Q 786 1,575 2,202
250 or more 5,542 Q Q Q Q Q 862 4,117
Number of dedicated servers                
None 33,724 15,317 5,627 4,204 4,097 2,241 1,513 726
1 to 4 34,097 2,377 3,303 5,202 8,917 7,893 4,123 2,282
5 to 9 6,241 Q Q Q 778 1,973 2,105 1,215
10 to 19 5,711 Q Q Q Q 942 1,710 2,463
20 to 49 3,758 N N Q Q 331 1,106 2,207
50 or more 3,562 Q N Q Q Q Q 2,922
Number of photocopiers                
None 27,816 13,612 4,572 3,512 2,919 1,471 952 778
One 17,080 3,614 3,298 3,812 3,534 1,950 657 Q
2 to 4 20,312 515 1,079 2,212 6,778 6,167 2,684 878
5 to 9 8,863 Q Q Q 1,107 2,945 3,385 1,337
10 or more 13,022 N N Q Q 943 3,263 8,608
Number of TVs or video displays                
None 24,339 10,826 3,738 2,986 3,351 1,803 1,157 479
One 9,990 2,850 1,859 1,850 1,730 1,220 Q Q
2 to 4 16,465 2,485 2,082 2,909 3,563 2,920 1,718 788
5 to 9 8,148 608 562 748 1,645 1,757 1,614 1,212
10 to 19 8,168 358 Q 206 1,901 1,790 1,662 2,032
20 to 49 8,058 Q Q Q 1,223 2,218 2,035 1,917
50 to 99 4,378 Q Q 359 442 775 1,556 1,028
100 or more 7,547 Q Q 347 659 993 843 4,234
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar or concession stand 9,884 423 Q 466 996 1,860 2,276 3,627
Fast food or small restaurant 9,787 152 331 422 1,567 1,878 2,045 3,394
Cafeteria or large restaurant 15,222 Q Q 220 2,006 4,022 3,238 5,545
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
16,150 908 270 678 2,840 4,019 3,324 4,111
Small kitchen area 14,054 2,451 1,344 1,531 2,152 1,888 1,988 2,699
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
               
Data center or server farm 11,105 Q Q Q 640 1,341 2,766 6,137
Computer-based training room 17,723 Q 457 536 2,811 4,000 3,980 5,823
Student or public computer center 14,341 387 341 763 2,878 4,123 3,617 2,233
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 30,749 1,306 1,068 1,741 5,096 6,458 6,707 8,372
Regular HVAC maintenance 69,244 7,487 6,092 7,631 12,999 12,504 10,773 11,759
Building automation system (BAS)2 37,051 1,805 1,665 1,807 5,777 7,791 8,283 9,921
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
               
Multipaned windows 60,362 8,759 5,648 6,431 10,699 10,800 8,685 9,339
Tinted window glass 45,025 5,507 3,612 4,157 8,059 8,361 7,229 8,099
Reflective window glass 15,908 1,453 1,112 1,217 2,545 2,874 2,691 4,016
External overhangs or awnings 32,188 4,240 3,562 3,722 6,005 5,730 4,542 4,389
Skylights or atriums 22,261 1,911 1,430 1,626 3,772 4,159 4,285 5,077
Light scheduling 30,263 2,165 2,102 2,350 4,866 6,231 4,817 7,732
Occupancy sensors 35,871 2,046 1,623 2,421 5,986 7,676 7,093 9,027
Multi-level lighting or dimming 14,534 734 656 908 2,713 3,082 2,933 3,509
Daylight harvesting 6,114 280 280 Q 1,055 1,003 1,425 1,856
Demand responsive lighting 4,738 323 296 440 1,000 1,035 988 656
Building automation system (BAS)
for lighting2
12,068 217 610 507 1,871 2,614 2,613 3,635
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
               
Heating 63,167 9,710 6,343 6,934 11,237 11,100 8,888 8,956
Cooling 62,516 8,679 6,268 7,055 11,237 11,149 8,937 9,191
Lighting 78,594 12,874 8,611 9,178 13,834 12,628 10,322 11,147
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.