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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B14. Selected principal building activity: part 2, floorspace, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total floorspace (million square feet)
Principal building activity
Health care Public
order and
safety
  All
buildings
Food
service
Food
sales
Lodging In-
patient
Out-
patient
All buildings 87,093 1,819 1,252 5,826 2,374 1,781 1,440
Building floorspace (square feet)              
1,001 to 10,000 16,941 1,429 557 299 N 510 331
10,001 to 100,000 39,940 390 562 2,739 282 927 557
Over 100,000 30,212 N Q 2,788 2,092 345 552
Year constructed              
Before 1946 10,008 318 Q 375 Q Q Q
1946 to 1979 28,589 592 393 1,953 1,191 416 452
1980 to 1999 29,033 616 449 2,244 518 681 600
2000 to 2012 19,462 293 317 1,253 603 550 252
Census region              
Northeast 15,534 292 316 1,007 538 529 345
Midwest 18,919 369 174 1,058 496 366 334
South 34,279 771 399 2,302 894 548 576
West 18,360 387 363 1,459 447 339 Q
Climate region1              
Very cold/Cold 31,898 636 540 1,999 878 876 477
Mixed-humid 27,873 636 326 1,929 790 427 597
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 12,037 229 Q 836 268 130 Q
Hot-humid 12,831 250 135 917 364 322 Q
Marine 2,454 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of floors              
One 39,809 1,205 949 697 Q 627 509
Two 20,206 388 223 912 Q 523 293
Three 8,140 162 Q 817 104 Q Q
Four to nine 13,535 Q N 2,194 1,486 294 Q
Ten or more 5,404 N N 1,206 534 Q Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
             
Any elevators 32,120 Q Q 4,145 2,260 978 755
Number of elevators              
One 11,158 Q Q 1,021 Q 382 Q
Two to five 12,817 Q N 1,921 430 356 Q
Six or more 8,145 N N 1,203 1,775 240 Q
Any escalators 3,654 N Q 720 141 Q Q
Number of workers (main shift)              
Fewer than 10 26,724 941 583 1,515 N 357 277
10 to 99 37,613 820 632 2,848 Q 812 709
100 or more 22,756 Q Q 1,463 2,210 612 454
Weekly operating hours              
Fewer than 49 24,049 284 Q Q N 469 219
49 to 84 36,396 783 245 N N 1,084 Q
85 to 167 9,395 640 702 Q N Q N
Open continuously 17,253 113 281 5,733 2,374 Q 957
Ownership and occupancy              
Nongovernment owned 67,550 1,702 1,252 5,360 1,900 1,623 Q
Owner occupied 30,637 1,008 612 3,656 1,247 760 Q
Leased to tenant(s) 26,115 656 448 1,130 Q 381 Q
Owner occupied and leased 8,873 Q Q 574 450 482 Q
Unoccupied 1,925 N N N N N N
Government owned 19,543 Q N 466 475 158 1,274
Federal 1,573 N N N 104 Q Q
State 5,539 Q N Q 156 Q Q
Local 12,431 Q N Q 214 Q 1,019
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
             
Building owner 73,702 1,409 849 5,292 2,198 1,632 1,394
Business owner or tenant 11,309 352 354 Q Q Q Q
Property management 1,250 Q Q Q Q Q N
Other 832 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
             
Building owner 76,271 1,469 881 5,447 2,185 1,617 1,355
Business owner or tenant 8,256 275 316 Q Q Q Q
Property management 880 Q Q Q Q Q N
Other 1,686 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of establishments              
One 54,994 1,570 942 4,778 1,603 917 927
2 to 5 17,756 249 292 947 546 609 512
6 to 10 4,425 Q Q Q Q Q N
11 to 20 3,704 N N Q Q Q N
More than 20 3,821 N N Q Q Q N
Currently unoccupied 2,393 N N N N N N
Campus or complex activity              
Not part of a campus or complex 52,275 1,418 1,121 3,196 528 1,163 762
Primary or secondary school 4,616 Q N Q N N N
College or university 4,068 Q N 637 Q Q Q
Office complex 3,456 Q N N N Q Q
Retail complex 5,159 170 Q Q N Q N
Storage complex 3,212 Q N N N N N
Religious campus or complex 1,932 Q N Q N N N
Health care complex 3,362 Q N 529 1,811 450 N
Lodging or resort complex 1,295 Q N 1,156 N N N
Transportation complex 554 N N N N N N
Government complex 2,107 N N Q N Q Q
Other 5,057 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material              
Brick, stone, or stucco 40,463 1,021 383 3,349 1,410 1,075 695
Concrete (block or poured) 20,726 335 505 1,318 417 250 434
Concrete panels 8,693 Q Q 608 316 Q Q
Siding or shingles 5,750 347 153 429 Q 198 Q
Metal panels 8,673 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Window glass 1,340 Q Q Q Q Q N
Other 856 Q Q Q Q Q N
No one major type 592 N Q Q Q N N
Predominant roof material              
Metal surfacing 15,916 368 323 348 Q 177 222
Synthetic or rubber 25,817 372 315 1,744 1,044 705 191
Built-up 21,835 275 Q 1,006 970 420 525
Slate or tile shingles 4,306 212 Q 588 Q Q Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
1,139 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
15,104 480 250 1,913 204 376 301
Concrete 1,642 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 678 Q N Q N Q N
No one major type 657 Q Q Q Q N Q
Roof characteristics              
Roof tilt              
Flat 49,623 770 660 3,107 2,205 1,142 838
Shallow pitch 23,853 612 513 822 Q 368 Q
Steeper pitch 13,617 438 Q 1,897 Q 271 345
Cool roof 19,630 237 235 1,280 946 287 347
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
             
Any type of renovation 42,216 815 456 3,049 1,838 907 616
Addition or annex 13,022 186 Q 1,011 1,285 179 Q
Reduction in floorspace 1,753 Q Q Q 180 Q Q
Roof replacement 20,917 352 Q 1,573 1,167 327 322
Exterior wall replacement 4,230 Q Q 246 251 Q Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 21,340 400 Q 1,099 1,366 611 337
Window replacement 12,265 249 Q 1,040 624 230 Q
HVAC equipment upgrade 26,779 450 213 1,947 1,502 547 346
Lighting upgrade 25,503 450 363 1,790 1,467 452 286
Electrical upgrade 16,160 394 Q 1,035 1,131 248 Q
Plumbing system upgrade 13,828 424 Q 1,340 881 219 Q
Insulation upgrade 7,607 201 Q 622 505 Q Q
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 17,196 362 Q 1,538 1,309 259 Q
Structural upgrade 3,913 127 Q Q 252 Q Q
Other 848 N N Q Q Q Q
No renovations 39,154 891 728 2,374 244 622 758
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 5,723 Q Q 403 292 Q Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 84,869 1,819 1,252 5,826 2,374 1,781 1,440
Natural gas 58,725 1,394 846 4,918 2,113 1,179 1,007
Fuel oil 20,200 Q Q 2,051 2,257 520 908
District heat 5,964 Q N 630 576 Q Q
District chilled water 4,608 Q N Q 477 Q Q
Propane 7,706 237 Q 883 225 Q Q
Other 3,826 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 49,030 1,017 883 3,878 1,008 1,076 643
Natural gas 49,511 1,023 667 3,153 1,627 989 851
Fuel oil 4,351 Q Q Q 430 Q Q
District heat 5,925 Q N 621 563 Q Q
Propane 3,067 124 Q Q Q Q Q
Other 1,010 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
             
Electricity 26,205 695 461 2,814 160 658 Q
Natural gas 42,988 892 630 2,086 1,517 900 747
Fuel oil 2,542 Q Q Q Q Q Q
District heat 5,797 Q N 594 550 Q Q
Propane 1,948 Q Q Q N Q Q
Other 598 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 76,034 1,668 1,190 5,308 2,227 1,739 1,358
Natural gas 732 N N Q 176 Q Q
District chilled water 4,608 Q N Q 477 Q Q
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 42,755 750 776 1,122 401 908 635
Natural gas 39,523 1,026 672 4,267 1,688 899 742
Fuel oil 1,911 Q Q Q 248 Q Q
District heat 4,551 Q N 573 489 Q Q
Propane 1,575 135 Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 25,151 847 651 2,250 1,564 388 622
Natural gas 24,770 1,263 588 3,167 1,826 Q 455
Propane 2,001 213 Q 362 Q Q Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
             
Buildings with space heating 80,078 1,762 1,196 5,696 2,354 1,754 1,391
Buildings with cooling 79,294 1,712 1,190 5,700 2,374 1,774 1,384
Buildings with water heating 79,015 1,817 1,252 5,821 2,374 1,779 1,341
Buildings with cooking 38,546 1,738 943 4,293 2,230 419 912
Buildings with manufacturing 5,078 Q Q Q Q Q N
Buildings with electricity
generation
25,642 Q 394 2,781 2,266 688 1,185
Percent of floorspace heated              
Not heated 7,015 Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 10,130 185 Q Q Q Q Q
51 to 99 14,650 368 405 938 269 166 Q
100 55,298 1,209 743 4,572 2,069 1,495 1,200
Percent of floorspace cooled              
Not cooled 7,799 Q Q Q N Q Q
1 to 50 18,891 184 Q 377 Q Q 290
51 to 99 22,728 449 576 1,764 682 339 615
100 37,676 1,080 502 3,559 1,664 1,356 479
Percent lit when open              
Zero 322 N N Q N N N
1 to 50 12,628 275 Q 1,059 Q Q Q
51 to 99 34,814 596 349 2,596 958 737 578
100 35,726 949 815 2,163 1,392 938 650
Building never open/electricity
not used
3,603 N N N N N Q
Percent lit during off hours              
Zero 24,746 618 Q Q Q 494 Q
1 to 50 50,753 1,055 654 3,457 1,151 1,200 1,075
51 to 100 6,926 127 407 1,724 956 Q Q
Building always open with
no "off hours"
2,443 Q Q 523 240 N Q
Electricity not used 2,225 N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Heat pumps 11,846 146 Q 1,259 506 233 Q
Furnaces 8,654 266 Q 638 124 133 Q
Individual space heaters 20,766 256 336 2,168 501 466 253
District heat 5,925 Q N 621 563 Q Q
Boilers 22,443 145 Q 2,105 1,698 588 466
Packaged heating units 49,188 1,296 944 2,561 1,073 1,012 601
Other 1,574 Q Q Q Q N Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Residential-type central air
conditioners
14,765 471 357 749 Q 349 248
Heat pumps 12,538 189 Q 1,124 515 223 Q
Individual air conditioners 12,420 204 Q 2,349 537 Q Q
District chilled water 4,608 Q N Q 477 Q Q
Central chillers 17,041 Q Q 1,658 1,883 572 416
Packaged air conditioning units 45,153 954 748 2,379 1,385 989 804
Swamp coolers 1,918 85 Q Q Q Q Q
Other 328 N N Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
             
Heating 27,558 830 305 2,069 522 436 378
Cooling 30,702 847 317 2,581 912 563 435
Water-heating equipment              
Centralized system 47,534 1,449 883 4,418 1,419 1,211 1,139
Distributed system 12,688 130 Q 369 Q 354 Q
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
18,793 237 Q 1,034 860 Q Q
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
             
Incandescent 38,406 924 443 3,585 1,745 646 623
Standard fluorescent 80,081 1,671 1,232 5,409 2,373 1,701 1,375
Compact fluorescent 53,816 1,177 560 5,258 2,260 1,275 1,086
High-intensity discharge (HID) 23,396 121 Q 1,848 1,217 231 404
Halogen 28,059 496 271 2,696 1,452 423 416
LED 22,071 275 323 2,024 1,647 598 360
Other 446 Q N Q Q N N
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Any refrigeration 73,645 1,819 1,248 5,713 2,374 1,686 1,384
Walk-in units 28,361 1,524 1,026 3,126 2,216 Q Q
Cases or cabinets 28,719 1,278 1,091 2,754 1,890 351 Q
Large cold storage areas 4,171 Q 285 Q 311 Q Q
Commercial ice makers 32,734 1,338 688 4,303 2,293 598 521
Residential-type or compact units 62,381 929 505 4,554 2,059 1,619 1,203
Vending machines 43,936 207 670 4,286 2,297 936 944
No refrigeration 13,448 N Q Q N Q Q
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Desktop computers 77,063 1,387 1,040 5,373 2,374 1,773 1,411
With flat screen monitors 76,160 1,303 1,032 5,328 2,369 1,773 1,402
With multiple monitors 30,946 245 Q 1,112 1,854 752 719
Laptop computers 63,486 787 391 4,323 2,312 1,531 1,152
Dedicated servers 53,369 486 712 3,496 2,141 1,067 920
Laser printers 54,256 640 776 3,884 2,042 1,375 933
Inkjet printers 36,235 983 431 2,263 923 737 757
FAX machines 66,682 969 993 4,468 2,104 1,643 1,182
Photocopiers 59,277 360 492 3,942 2,267 1,459 1,092
Number of desktop computers              
None 10,030 432 212 452 N Q Q
1 to 4 15,669 1,118 477 1,183 N 224 360
5 to 9 9,422 214 Q 824 Q 165 Q
10 to 19 9,388 Q Q 706 Q 276 Q
20 to 49 13,094 Q Q 1,336 Q 342 Q
50 to 99 8,284 N N 486 118 278 Q
100 to 249 9,728 N N Q 370 330 Q
250 or more 11,478 N N Q 1,746 157 Q
Number of laptop computers              
None 23,607 1,033 860 1,502 Q 250 288
1 to 4 21,161 674 329 1,330 Q 434 363
5 to 9 8,345 Q Q 613 Q 177 Q
10 to 19 8,343 Q N 684 306 354 Q
20 to 49 9,643 N N 804 295 258 Q
50 to 99 5,234 N N Q 316 Q Q
100 to 249 5,217 N N Q 459 Q Q
250 or more 5,542 N N Q 701 Q Q
Number of dedicated servers              
None 33,724 1,333 540 2,330 233 715 519
1 to 4 34,097 467 712 2,601 373 731 455
5 to 9 6,241 Q N Q 263 Q Q
10 to 19 5,711 N N Q 276 Q Q
20 to 49 3,758 N N Q 472 Q Q
50 or more 3,562 N N Q 757 Q Q
Number of photocopiers              
None 27,816 1,459 759 1,884 107 322 348
One 17,080 292 375 1,324 Q 298 294
2 to 4 20,312 Q Q 1,494 Q 531 Q
5 to 9 8,863 N Q 358 163 Q Q
10 or more 13,022 N N 766 1,967 514 498
Number of TVs or video displays              
None 24,339 458 508 Q Q 275 Q
One 9,990 266 300 Q N 171 Q
2 to 4 16,465 568 231 158 Q 531 351
5 to 9 8,148 341 Q Q Q 269 Q
10 to 19 8,168 123 Q 324 Q Q Q
20 to 49 8,058 Q Q 514 142 242 Q
50 to 99 4,378 Q N 894 253 Q Q
100 or more 7,547 N N 3,312 1,855 Q Q
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
             
Snack bar or concession stand 9,884 N 357 934 913 Q Q
Fast food or small restaurant 9,787 N 272 1,319 431 Q Q
Cafeteria or large restaurant 15,222 N Q 1,842 1,906 Q Q
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
16,150 N 447 2,954 1,701 Q 401
Small kitchen area 14,054 N 189 1,912 667 302 403
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
             
Data center or server farm 11,105 Q N 600 1,478 Q Q
Computer-based training room 17,723 Q Q 639 1,503 251 Q
Student or public computer center 14,341 Q Q 1,443 817 Q Q
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
             
Economizer cycle 30,749 299 Q 2,035 1,856 798 573
Regular HVAC maintenance 69,244 1,313 954 5,035 2,368 1,557 1,280
Building automation system (BAS)2 37,051 256 456 2,249 2,201 850 618
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
             
Multipaned windows 60,362 1,209 856 4,598 2,180 1,493 1,064
Tinted window glass 45,025 655 414 2,424 1,774 1,090 793
Reflective window glass 15,908 200 Q 835 1,052 394 Q
External overhangs or awnings 32,188 967 631 2,121 1,092 577 337
Skylights or atriums 22,261 130 Q 1,307 1,220 300 Q
Light scheduling 30,263 383 642 2,101 1,029 566 465
Occupancy sensors 35,871 276 318 2,112 1,744 545 684
Multi-level lighting or dimming 14,534 360 Q 1,413 826 Q Q
Daylight harvesting 6,114 Q Q Q 350 Q Q
Demand responsive lighting 4,738 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 12,068 Q Q 319 327 Q Q
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
             
Heating 63,167 1,411 670 2,870 1,238 1,314 711
Cooling 62,516 1,386 604 3,023 1,228 1,342 780
Lighting 78,594 1,734 943 4,838 2,076 1,777 1,314
   
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.