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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B1. Summary table: total and means of floorspace, number of workers, and hours of operation, 2012

Release date: February 2015
Revised date: December 2016

  Number of buildings (thousand) Total
floorspace
(million
square feet)
Total
workers
(thousand)
Mean
square feet
per building (thousand)
Mean
square
feet per worker1
Mean operating hours per week
All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 15.7 936 62
Building floorspace (square feet)            
1,001 to 5,000  2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 675 56
5,001 to 10,000  1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 847 62
10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 925 65
25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,006 72
50,001 to 100,000  199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,089 80
100,001 to 200,000  90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,083 89
200,001 to 500,000  38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,024 99
Over 500,000  8 7,074 9,196 885.0 763 117
Principal building activity            
Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53
Food sales  177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121
Food service  380 1,819 3,431 4.8 530 82
Health care  157 4,155 7,613 26.5 546 60
Inpatient  10 2,374 4,281 247.8 555 168
Outpatient  147 1,781 3,333 12.1 535 53
Lodging  158 5,826 3,066 36.9 1,894 165
Mercantile  602 11,330 9,117 18.8 1,243 64
Retail (other than mall)  438 5,439 4,023 12.4 1,352 62
Enclosed and strip malls  164 5,890 5,094 35.9 1,156 69
Office  1,012 15,952 33,756 15.8 473 55
Public assembly  352 5,559 3,108 15.8 1,716 56
Public order and safety  84 1,440 1,854 17.2 756 113
Religious worship  412 4,557 1,940 11.1 2,295 31
Service  619 4,630 4,031 7.5 1,086 56
Warehouse and storage  796 13,077 6,362 16.4 1,843 67
Other  125 2,002 1,611 16.0 1,193 61
Vacant  296 3,256 236 11.0 3,309 8
Year constructed            
Before 1920 362 3,983 3,310 11.0 1,087 48
1920 to 1945 488 6,025 6,003 12.3 936 52
1946 to 1959 599 7,381 6,566 12.3 1,064 51
1960 to 1969 639 10,362 9,851 16.2 1,010 61
1970 to 1979 684 10,846 12,536 15.9 817 61
1980 to 1989 915 15,230 17,468 16.6 830 65
1990 to 1999 845 13,803 13,432 16.3 947 68
2000 to 2003 375 7,215 7,471 19.2 951 66
2004 to 2007 347 6,524 5,993 18.8 1,065 69
2008 to 2012 303 5,723 5,552 18.9 978 76
Census region and division            
Northeast 805 15,534 17,775 19.3 844 64
New England  302 4,302 4,165 14.3 967 60
Middle Atlantic 504 11,232 13,610 22.3 806 67
Midwest 1,237 18,919 17,261 15.3 1,036 61
East North Central 735 12,742 11,933 17.3 1,019 62
West North Central 502 6,178 5,329 12.3 1,075 59
South 2,247 34,279 32,666 15.3 984 61
South Atlantic  1,091 17,981 18,098 16.5 950 65
East South Central 370 4,904 4,293 13.3 1,090 55
West South Central 786 11,394 10,275 14.5 1,001 59
West 1,267 18,360 20,479 14.5 855 61
Mountain 338 4,981 4,600 14.7 1,002 61
Pacific 929 13,379 15,878 14.4 812 61
Climate region2            
Very cold/Cold 2,031 31,898 30,739 15.7 983 62
Mixed-humid 1,743 27,873 28,708 16.0 931 60
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 12,037 13,056 14.4 875 59
Hot-humid 799 12,831 12,541 16.1 946 68
Marine 147 2,454 3,138 16.7 742 67
Number of floors            
One 3,836 39,809 35,019 10.4 1,042 60
Two 1,158 20,206 19,744 17.5 991 60
Three 374 8,140 7,826 21.8 1,013 69
Four to nine 177 13,535 16,248 76.6 812 84
Ten or more 13 5,404 9,343 429.2 574 108
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
           
Any elevators 405 32,120 39,978 79.3 792 81
Number of elevators            
One 272 11,158 11,347 41.1 970 75
Two to five 118 12,817 15,489 109.0 811 90
Six or more 16 8,145 13,143 506.8 616 114
Any escalators 10 3,654 4,822 377.5 753 97
Number of workers (main shift)            
Fewer than 5 2,892 17,751 5,064 6.1 2,607 55
5 to 9 1,085 8,973 7,017 8.3 1,279 63
10 to 19 731 9,623 9,472 13.2 1,016 69
20 to 49 513 14,514 14,881 28.3 975 72
50 to 99 206 13,476 13,424 65.6 1,004 77
100 to 249 93 10,941 13,368 117.1 818 87
250 or more 37 11,815 24,956 318.3 473 98
Weekly operating hours            
Fewer than 40 1,149 8,220 3,291 7.2 1,488 12
40 to 48 1,346 15,828 17,546 11.8 894 42
49 to 60 1,244 20,529 24,845 16.5 818 54
61 to 84 764 15,867 16,679 20.8 945 74
85 to 167 479 9,395 8,087 19.6 1,145 105
Open continuously 575 17,253 17,734 30.0 937 168
Ownership and occupancy            
Nongovernment owned 4,781 67,550 68,505 14.1 930 62
Owner occupied 2,466 30,637 25,871 12.4 1,150 62
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 26,115 32,033 15.0 787 69
Owner occupied and leased 349 8,873 10,601 25.4 825 64
Unoccupied 221 1,925 0 8.7 N 0
Government owned 776 19,543 19,676 25.2 957 60
Federal 33 1,573 2,135 47.7 732 64
State 185 5,539 5,579 30.0 962 58
Local 558 12,431 11,963 22.3 996 61
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
           
Building owner 4,715 73,702 74,433 15.6 934 61
Business owner or tenant 724 11,309 11,128 15.6 987 66
Property management 54 1,250 1,757 23.0 690 66
Other 64 832 864 12.9 944 58
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
           
Building owner 4,876 76,271 76,830 15.6 936 61
Business owner or tenant 540 8,256 8,617 15.3 938 68
Property management 35 880 954 25.5 909 74
Other 106 1,686 1,781 15.9 926 56
Number of establishments            
One 4,205 54,994 52,072 13.1 1,021 64
2 to 5 862 17,756 18,916 20.6 931 65
6 to 10 147 4,425 5,890 30.1 731 77
11 to 20 68 3,704 5,276 54.8 692 70
More than 20 27 3,821 6,028 140.9 630 84
Currently unoccupied 248 2,393 0 9.6 N 0
Campus or complex activity            
Not part of a campus or complex 3,683 52,275 51,924 14.2 957 59
Primary or secondary school 237 4,616 4,670 19.4 977 48
College or university 84 4,068 3,090 48.4 1,290 88
Office complex 154 3,456 7,205 22.4 465 58
Retail complex 258 5,159 4,524 20.0 1,108 66
Storage complex 314 3,212 726 10.2 3,076 89
Religious campus or complex 197 1,932 1,027 9.8 1,821 43
Health care complex 52 3,362 5,715 64.1 577 90
Lodging or resort complex 65 1,295 817 19.8 1,562 146
Transportation complex 35 554 681 15.8 744 76
Government complex 104 2,107 3,236 20.2 628 65
Other 371 5,057 4,566 13.6 1,036 55
Predominant exterior wall material            
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 40,463 41,653 17.5 934 62
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 20,726 20,195 18.5 1,000 62
Concrete panels 210 8,693 9,482 41.4 861 72
Siding or shingles 905 5,750 6,012 6.4 887 58
Metal panels 933 8,673 5,804 9.3 1,246 61
Window glass 17 1,340 2,652 78.6 488 77
Other 37 856 844 23.0 1,012 68
No one major type 21 592 Q 27.6 Q 68
Predominant roof material            
Metal surfacing 1,672 15,916 12,016 9.5 1,166 62
Synthetic or rubber 911 25,817 27,573 28.3 912 68
Built-up 836 21,835 24,082 26.1 873 62
Slate or tile shingles 406 4,306 4,227 10.6 989 61
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 1,139 999 7.3 1,044 63
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 15,104 16,308 10.2 874 58
Concrete 51 1,642 2,076 32.2 758 66
Other 24 678 567 28.6 1,190 66
No one major type 18 657 333 36.4 1,972 54
Roof characteristics            
Roof tilt            
Flat 1,960 49,623 57,145 25.3 838 68
Shallow pitch 2,148 23,853 19,542 11.1 1,131 60
Steeper pitch 1,449 13,617 11,495 9.4 1,090 55
Cool roof 740 19,630 21,650 26.5 884 66
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
           
Any type of renovation 2,094 42,216 46,424 20.2 887 63
Addition or annex 444 13,022 12,473 29.3 1,033 68
Reduction in floorspace 71 1,753 2,572 24.6 668 69
Roof replacement 987 20,917 22,872 21.2 896 62
Exterior wall replacement 194 4,230 4,558 21.8 918 66
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 21,340 27,649 24.0 758 63
Window replacement 560 12,265 14,128 21.9 855 65
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 26,779 30,162 24.3 872 63
Lighting upgrade 982 25,503 28,277 26.0 891 66
Electrical upgrade 747 16,160 17,723 21.6 894 63
Plumbing system upgrade 644 13,828 16,073 21.5 847 67
Insulation upgrade 382 7,607 8,383 19.9 889 62
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 17,196 20,050 27.9 850 68
Structural upgrade 152 3,913 3,724 25.8 1,035 64
Other 39 848 1,011 21.7 838 68
No renovations 3,160 39,154 36,206 12.4 992 59
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 5,723 5,552 18.9 978 76
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 5,234 84,869 88,114 16.2 935 63
Natural gas 2,933 58,725 62,376 20.0 926 65
Fuel oil 467 20,200 25,625 43.3 781 76
District heat 48 5,964 8,230 124.9 712 87
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 791 87
Propane 510 7,706 5,903 15.1 1,289 64
Wood 69 502 476 7.3 1,036 65
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar 40 1,908 1,713 48.2 1,112 84
Other 61 1,386 1,526 22.7 897 64
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 2,858 49,030 53,857 17.2 900 64
Natural gas 2,612 49,511 51,754 19.0 940 62
Fuel oil 270 4,351 4,163 16.1 1,021 60
District heat 48 5,925 8,157 124.3 714 87
Propane 342 3,067 2,510 9.0 1,189 55
Wood 63 395 212 6.3 1,819 63
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 32 508 463 15.7 1,098 56
Primary space-heating
energy source
           
Electricity 1,819 26,205 28,953 14.4 891 66
Natural gas 2,322 42,988 44,641 18.5 946 61
Fuel oil 205 2,542 2,000 12.4 1,221 59
District heat 47 5,797 8,048 122.9 708 87
Propane 261 1,948 1,471 7.5 1,274 52
Wood 38 178 101 4.6 1,736 55
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 25 341 Q 13.5 959 54
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 4,413 76,034 82,280 17.2 914 64
Natural gas 12 732 1,048 61.5 699 67
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 791 87
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 2,658 42,755 46,793 16.1 905 61
Natural gas 1,758 39,523 41,909 22.5 931 70
Fuel oil 77 1,911 1,627 24.7 1,172 80
District heat 25 4,551 6,365 179.7 712 101
Propane 142 1,575 1,258 11.1 1,236 75
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
           
Electricity 1,010 25,151 27,312 24.9 914 72
Natural gas 740 24,770 25,861 33.5 955 81
Propane 144 2,001 1,971 13.9 1,011 85
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
           
Buildings with space heating 4,722 80,078 85,624 17.0 918 63
Buildings with cooling 4,461 79,294 85,775 17.8 914 64
Buildings with water heating 4,423 79,015 85,448 17.9 914 65
Buildings with cooking 1,589 38,546 41,216 24.3 929 74
Buildings with manufacturing 259 5,078 5,033 19.6 1,006 57
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 25,642 30,932 62.5 826 92
Percent of floorspace heated            
Not heated 835 7,015 2,558 8.4 1,526 56
1 to 50 697 10,130 6,413 14.5 1,521 54
51 to 99 727 14,650 15,548 20.2 936 67
100 3,298 55,298 63,662 16.8 854 64
Percent of floorspace cooled            
Not cooled 1,096 7,799 2,407 7.1 1,728 51
1 to 50 1,173 18,891 12,646 16.1 1,472 58
51 to 99 897 22,728 25,280 25.3 892 70
100 2,391 37,676 47,849 15.8 778 65
Percent lit when open            
Zero 70 322 58 4.6 Q 113
1 to 50 1,099 12,628 6,713 11.5 1,821 64
51 to 99 1,666 34,814 36,393 20.9 952 64
100 2,222 35,726 44,884 16.1 787 65
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 3,603 133 7.2 Q 25
Percent lit during off hours            
Zero 2,489 24,746 23,170 9.9 990 48
1 to 50 2,441 50,753 54,552 20.8 921 69
51 to 100 202 6,926 7,816 34.3 879 125
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 2,443 2,577 23.9 911 168
Electricity not used 323 2,225 67 6.9 Q 39
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
           
Heat pumps 628 11,846 13,269 18.9 883 63
Furnaces 755 8,654 8,562 11.5 997 58
Individual space heaters 1,247 20,766 19,345 16.6 1,057 60
District heat 48 5,925 8,157 124.3 714 87
Boilers 544 22,443 25,157 41.3 881 70
Packaged heating units 2,802 49,188 51,098 17.6 949 64
Other 62 1,574 1,202 25.5 1,295 86
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
           
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 14,765 15,104 9.5 963 58
Heat pumps 692 12,538 14,265 18.1 873 63
Individual air conditioners 709 12,420 12,342 17.5 1,000 66
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 791 87
Central chillers 163 17,041 21,944 104.6 773 84
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 45,153 46,979 23.6 953 70
Swamp coolers 109 1,918 1,755 17.5 1,078 66
Other Q 328 474 Q 678 56
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
           
Heating 1,874 27,558 28,670 14.7 947 62
Cooling 1,971 30,702 33,365 15.6 912 63
Water-heating equipment            
Centralized system 3,348 47,534 50,164 14.2 934 65
Distributed system 690 12,688 14,214 18.4 887 60
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 18,793 21,070 48.8 885 75
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
           
Incandescent 1,826 38,406 41,621 21.0 914 63
Standard fluorescent 4,649 80,081 85,648 17.2 923 64
Compact fluorescent 2,302 53,816 59,903 23.4 893 71
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 23,396 23,812 44.5 975 72
Halogen 905 28,059 30,498 31.0 917 69
LED 473 22,071 25,900 46.6 851 83
Other 10 446 555 45.2 804 82
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
           
Any refrigeration 3,984 73,645 78,938 18.5 926 65
Walk-in units 811 28,361 31,133 35.0 910 93
Cases or cabinets 915 28,719 31,528 31.4 910 86
Large cold storage areas 78 4,171 3,692 53.4 1,130 89
Commercial ice makers 846 32,734 36,512 38.7 894 90
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 62,381 67,677 18.4 915 61
Vending machines 960 43,936 49,684 45.8 882 80
No refrigeration 1,573 13,448 9,244 8.5 1,023 52
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
           
Desktop computers 3,977 77,063 84,337 19.4 911 66
With flat screen monitors 3,847 76,160 83,874 19.8 905 66
With multiple monitors 911 30,946 43,399 34.0 713 67
Laptop computers 2,730 63,486 73,337 23.3 864 66
Dedicated servers 1,748 53,369 63,425 30.5 840 69
Laser printers 2,339 54,256 63,469 23.2 853 66
Inkjet printers 2,187 36,235 37,744 16.6 957 65
FAX machines 3,185 66,682 73,771 20.9 902 66
Photocopiers 2,163 59,277 68,508 27.4 863 64
Number of desktop computers            
None 1,581 10,030 3,844 6.3 1,488 51
1 to 4 2,039 15,669 11,304 7.7 1,370 65
5 to 9 821 9,422 9,594 11.5 981 63
10 to 19 482 9,388 8,659 19.5 1,083 65
20 to 49 355 13,094 12,782 36.9 1,022 71
50 to 99 143 8,284 9,293 57.8 891 73
100 to 249 92 9,728 12,514 105.6 777 69
250 or more 44 11,478 20,191 258.3 568 86
Number of laptop computers            
None 2,827 23,607 14,845 8.4 1,291 58
1 to 4 1,944 21,161 17,749 10.9 1,187 63
5 to 9 350 8,345 8,868 23.9 940 67
10 to 19 181 8,343 9,267 46.0 900 70
20 to 49 144 9,643 11,659 67.2 827 73
50 to 99 58 5,234 8,236 91.0 636 75
100 to 249 35 5,217 6,608 150.9 789 87
250 or more 20 5,542 10,949 280.8 506 95
Number of dedicated servers            
None 3,809 33,724 24,756 8.9 1,181 58
1 to 4 1,562 34,097 34,337 21.8 991 68
5 to 9 97 6,241 7,841 64.3 796 74
10 to 19 50 5,711 7,551 113.6 755 82
20 to 49 25 3,758 6,685 147.4 562 82
50 or more 13 3,562 7,012 271.4 508 100
Number of photocopiers            
None 3,394 27,816 19,673 8.2 1,189 60
One 1,325 17,080 13,348 12.9 1,270 61
2 to 4 648 20,312 21,540 31.4 943 66
5 to 9 116 8,863 10,503 76.7 844 74
10 or more 75 13,022 23,118 174.7 563 82
Number of TVs or video displays            
None 2,718 24,339 17,802 9.0 1,126 53
One 1,145 9,990 10,015 8.7 983 58
2 to 4 1,035 16,465 17,695 15.9 925 68
5 to 9 314 8,148 10,105 25.9 806 82
10 to 19 154 8,168 10,344 53.1 789 90
20 to 49 106 8,058 8,931 76.1 902 102
50 to 99 48 4,378 4,384 90.9 999 129
100 or more 37 7,547 8,904 201.5 848 156
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
           
Snack bar or concession stand 153 9,884 10,260 64.6 963 94
Fast food or small restaurant 173 9,787 10,961 56.5 893 92
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 15,222 17,611 117.1 864 80
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 16,150 15,343 57.2 1,051 86
Small kitchen area 736 14,054 13,620 19.1 1,017 61
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
           
Data center or server farm 97 11,105 18,027 115.1 616 82
Computer-based training room 244 17,723 22,237 72.7 797 74
Student or public computer center 238 14,341 12,506 60.1 1,146 70
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
           
Economizer cycle 601 30,749 35,394 51.2 866 74
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 69,244 77,868 21.8 880 68
Building automation system (BAS)3 781 37,051 42,344 47.5 869 73
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
           
Multipaned windows 3,012 60,362 62,267 20.0 944 63
Tinted window glass 1,875 45,025 50,791 24.0 865 65
Reflective window glass 549 15,908 18,998 29.0 826 66
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 32,188 33,758 17.2 938 66
Skylights or atriums 591 22,261 21,919 37.6 995 65
Light scheduling 918 30,263 34,960 33.0 861 75
Occupancy sensors 813 35,871 40,959 44.1 872 75
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 14,534 16,135 41.7 897 76
Daylight harvesting 125 6,114 7,689 48.8 793 70
Demand responsive lighting 176 4,738 4,902 26.9 952 65
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 208 12,068 13,218 57.9 911 78
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
           
Heating 3,699 63,167 68,458 17.1 907 58
Cooling 3,517 62,516 68,297 17.8 904 59
Lighting 4,757 78,594 83,812 16.5 928 61
 
    1Buildings with zero workers are excluded from this column.   
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes:  • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals.  • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.