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Analysis & Projections

Residential End Uses: Historical Efficiency Data and Incremental Installed Costs for Efficiency Upgrades

Release date: June 21, 2017


The residential sector comprises equipment consuming various fuels and providing different end-use services. When replacing equipment, consumers may choose to purchase equipment that meets minimum federal equipment efficiency standards, or they may opt for higher-efficiency equipment, such as equipment that meets or exceeds ENERGY STAR® specifications. Consumers may also choose to purchase or retrofit different types of equipment, which may require additional costs (e.g., for ducts, exhaust vents, natural gas lines, or electrical connections) to install. The stock mix of equipment types, efficiency levels, and fuels consumed directly affects total residential sector energy consumption.

EIA's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) provides information on the total equipment stock and energy consumption within existing buildings; however, the survey does not directly gather information such as equipment cost or annual equipment purchase trends by efficiency level. The Residential Demand Module (RDM) of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) incorporates these and other inputs as part of its technology choice component.

The contract report in Appendix A provides historical shipment data for residential equipment by efficiency range, allowing EIA to represent current trends in residential markets that affect energy use. The report in Appendix B identifies costs associated with switching fuels and equipment types for select residential major end uses. Both reports are used to develop assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 2018 (AEO2018) cycle.

Appendix A and Appendix B should be cited as reports by Navigant Consulting, Inc. prepared for the U.S. Energy Information Administration.