Packaged air conditioning units: Usually mounted on the roof or on a slab beside the building. (These are known as self-contained units, or Direct Expansion (DX). They contain air conditioning equipment as well as fans, and may or may not include heating equipment.) These are self-contained units that contain the equipment that generates cool air and the equipment that distributes the cooled air. These units commonly consume natural gas or electricity. The units are mounted on the roof top, exposed to the elements. They typically blow cool air into the building through duct work, but other types of distribution systems may exist. The units usually serve more than one room. There are often several units on the roof of a single building. Also known as Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners (PTAC). These packaged units are often constructed as a single unit for heating and for cooling.
Packaged units: Units built and assembled at a factory and installed as a self-contained unit to heat or cool all or portions of a building. Packaged units are in contrast to engineer-specified units built up from individual components for use in a given building. Packaged Units can apply to heating equipment, cooling equipment, or combined heating and cooling equipment. Some types of electric packaged units are also called "Direct Expansion" or DX units.
PAD Districts or PADD: See Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts.
Paraffin (wax): The wax removed from paraffin distillates by chilling and pressing. When separating from solutions, it is a colorless, more or less translucent, crystalline mass, without odor and taste, slightly greasy to touch, and consisting of a mixture of solid hydrocarbons in which the paraffin series predominates.
Parent and its Consolidated Entities: A parent and those firms (if any) that are affiliated with the parent entity for purposes of financial statements prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). An individual shall be deemed to control a firm that is directly or indirectly controlled by him/her or by his/her father, mother, spouse, children, or grandchildren. See firm.
Partial requirements consumer: A wholesale consumer with generating resources insufficient to carry all its load and whose energy seller is a long-term firm power source supplemental to the consumer's own generation or energy received from others. The terms and conditions of sale are similar to those for a full requirements consumer.
Particulate: A small, discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions. Particulates take the form of aerosol, dust, fume, mist, smoke, or spray. Each of these forms has different properties.
Payment method for utilities: The method by which fuel suppliers or utility companies are paid for all electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, or liquefied petroleum gas used by a household. Households that pay the utility company directly are classified as "all paid by household." Households that pay directly for at least one but not all of their fuels used and that has at least one fuel charge included in the rent were classified as "some paid, some included in rent." Households for which all fuels used are included in rent were classified as "all included in rent." If the household did not fall into one of these categories, it was classified as "other." Examples of households falling into the "other" category are (1)households for which fuel bills were paid by a social service agency or a relative, and (2) households that paid for some of their fuels used but paid for other fuels through another arrangement.
Peaking capacity: Capacity of generating equipment normally reserved for operation during the hours of highest daily, weekly, or seasonal loads. Some generating equipment may be operated at certain times as peaking capacity and at other times to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
Peat: Peat consists of partially decomposed plant debris. It is considered an early stage in the development of coal. Peat is distinguished from lignite by the presence of free cellulose and a high moisture content (exceeding 70 percent). The heat content of air-dried peat (about 50 percent moisture) is about 9 million Btu per ton. Most U.S. peat is used as a soil conditioner. The first U.S. electric power plant fueled by peat began operation in Maine in 1990.
Pentanes plus: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted from natural gas in a gas processing plant. Pentanes plus is equivalent to natural gasoline.
Percent difference: The relative change in a quantity over a specified time period. It is calculated as follows: the current value has the previous value subtracted from it; this new number is divided by the absolute value of the previous value; then this new number is multiplied by 100.
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs): A group of man-made chemicals composed of one or two carbon atoms and four to six fluorine atoms, containing no chlorine. PFCs have no commercial uses and are emitted as a byproduct of aluminum smelting and semiconductor manufacturing. PFCs have very high 100-year Global Warming Potentials and are very long-lived in the atmosphere.
Permeability: The ability of a rock formation to transmit fluids. A measure of how much resistance a rock formation has to the movement of fluids through it. Formations where fluids readily move through them are permeable and typically have many large, well-connected pores. Low-permeability formations typically are made up of finer grains or mixed grains with smaller, fewer, or less-interconnected pores. Permeability is measured in darcys.
Person-year: One whole year, or fraction thereof, worked by an employee, including contracted man power. Expressed as a quotient (to two decimal places) of the time units worked during a year (hours, weeks, or months) divided by the like total time units in a year. For example: 80 hours worked is 0.04 (rounded) of a person-year; 8 weeks worked is 0.15 (rounded) of a person-year; 12 months worked is 1 person-year. Contracted manpower includes survey crews, drilling crews, consultants, and other persons who worked under contract to support a firm's ongoing operations.
Personal computer: A microcomputer for producing written, programmed, or coded material; playing games; or doing calculations. Laptop and notebook computers are excluded for the purposes of EIA surveys.
Petrochemical feedstocks: Chemical feedstocks derived from refined or partially refined petroleum fraction, principally for use in the manufacturing of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics.
Petrochemicals: Organic and in organic compounds and mixtures that include but are not limited to organic chemicals, cyclic intermediates, plastics and resins, synthetic fibers, elastomers, organic dyes, organic pigments, detergents, surface active agents, carbon black, and ammonia.
Petroleum: A broadly defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Included are crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids. Note: Volumes of finished petroleum products include non hydrocarbon compounds, such as additives and detergents, after they have been blended into the products.
Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD): The 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia are divided into five districts, with PADD 1 further split into three subdistricts. PADDs 6 and 7 encompass U.S. territories. The PADDs include the states and territories listed below:
Petroleum and other liquids: All petroleum including crude oil and products of petroleum refining, natural gas liquids, biofuels, and liquids derived from other hydrocarbon sources (including coal to liquids and gas to liquids). Not included are liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid hydrogen. See liquid fuels.
Petroleum coke: See Coke (petroleum).
Petroleum coke, catalyst: The carbonaceous residue that is deposited on the catalyst used in many catalytic operations (e.g., catalytic cracking). Carbon is deposited on the catalyst, thus deactivating the catalyst. The catalyst is reactivated by burning off the carbon producing heat and CO2. The carbonaceous residue is not recoverable as a product.
Petroleum coke, marketable: Those grades of coke produced in delayed or fluid cokers that may be recovered as relatively pure carbon. Marketable petroleum coke may be sold as is or further purified by calcining.
Petroleum consumption: See Products supplied
Petroleum imports: Imports of petroleum into the 50 states and the District of Columbia from foreign countries and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. Included are imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and withdrawals from bonded warehouses for onshore consumption, offshore bunker use, and military use. Excluded are receipts of foreign petroleum into bonded warehouses and into U.S. territories and U.S. Foreign Trade Zones.
Petroleum products: Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.
Petroleum stocks, primary: For individual products, quantities that are held at refineries, in pipelines and at bulk terminals that have a capacity of 50,000 barrels or more, or that are in transit thereto. Stocks held by product retailers and resellers, as well as tertiary stocks held at the point of consumption, are excluded. Stocks of individual products held at gas processing plants are excluded from individual product estimates but are included in other oils estimates and total.
PFCs: See Perfluorocarbons
Photosynthesis: The manufacture by plants of carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll, with sunlight as the energy source. Carbon is sequestered and oxygen and water vapor are released in the process.
Photovoltaic and solar thermal energy (as usedat electric utilities): Energy radiated by the sun as electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic radiation) that is converted at electric utilities into electricity by means of solar (photovoltaic) cells or concentrating (focusing) collectors.
Photovoltaic cell (PVC): An electronic device consisting of layers of semiconductor materials fabricated to form a junction (adjacent layers of materials with different electronic characteristics) and electrical contacts and being capable of converting incident light directly into electricity (direct current).
Photovoltaic module: An integrated assembly of interconnected photovoltaic cells designed to deliver a selected level of working voltage and current at its output terminals, packaged for protection against environmental degradation, and suited for incorporation in photovoltaic power systems.
Pipeline (natural gas): A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one point to another, usually from a point in or beyond the producing field or processing plant to another pipeline or to points of utilization. Also refers to a company operating such facilities.
Pipeline (petroleum): Crude oil and product pipelines used to transport crude oil and petroleum products, respectively (including interstate, intrastate, and intracompany pipelines), within the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Pipeline freight: Refers to freight carried through pipelines, including natural gas, crude oil, and petroleum products (excluding water). Energy is consumed by various electrical components of the pipeline, including, valves, other, appurtenances attaches to the pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.
Pipeline purchases: Gas supply contracted from and volumes purchased from other natural gas companies as defined by the Natural Gas Act, as amended (52 Stat. 821), excluding independent producers, as defined in Paragraph 154.91(a), Chapter I, Title 18 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Pipeline quality natural gas: A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds existing in the gaseous phase with sufficient energy content, generally above 900 British thermal units, and a small enough share of impurities for transport through commercial gas pipelines and sale to end-users.
Pipelines, rate regulated: FRS (Financial Reporting System Survey) establishes three pipeline segments: crude/liquid (raw materials); natural gas; and refined products. The pipelines included in these segments are all federally or State rate-regulated pipeline operations, which are included in the reporting company's consolidated financial statements. However, at the reporting company's option, intrastate pipeline operations may be included in the U.S. Refining/Marketing Segment if they would comprise less than 5 percent of U.S. Refining/Marketing Segment net PPE, revenues, and earnings in the aggregate; and if the inclusion of such pipelines in the consolidated financial statements adds less than $100 million to the net PPE reported for the U.S. Refining/Marketing Segment.
Place in service: A vehicle is placed in service if that vehicle is new to the fleet and has not previously been in service for the fleet. These vehicles can be acquired as additional vehicles (increases the size of the company fleet), or as replacement vehicles to replace vehicles that are being retired from service (does not increase the size of the company fleet).
Planned generator: A proposal by a company to install electric generating equipment at an existing or planned facility or site. The proposal is based on the owner having obtained either (1) all environmental and regulatory approvals, (2) a signed contract for the electric energy, or (3) financial closure for the facility.
Planning authority (electric): The responsible entity that coordinates and integrates transmission facility and service plans, resource plans, and protection systems. NERC definition
Plant condensate: Liquid hydrocarbons recovered at inlet separators or scrubbers in natural gas processing plants at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures. Mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons.
Plant or gas processing plant: A facility designated to achieve the recovery of natural gas liquids from the stream of natural gas, which may or may not have been processed through lease separators and field facilities, and to control the quality of the natural gas to be marketed.
Plant products: Natural gas liquids recovered from natural gas processing plants (and in some cases from field facilities), including ethane, propane, butane, butane-propane mixtures, natural gasoline, plant condensate, and lease condensate.
Play : A set of known or postulated oil and gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic, and temporal properties, such as source rock, migration pathway, timing, trapping mechanism, and hydrocarbon type. A play differs from an assessment unit; an assessment unit can include one or more plays. A play is often used to refer to a natural gas accumulation, i.e., a natural gas shale play. http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/WEcont/chaps/GL.pdf
Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV): See Electric Vehicle.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV): A vehicle that can both (1) plug into an electric power source and store power in a battery pack and (2) use petroleum-based or other liquid- or gas-based fuel to power an Internal combustion engine (ICE).
Plugged-back footage: Under certain conditions, drilling operations may be continued to a greater depth than that at which a potentially productive formation is found. If production is not established at the greater depth, the well may be completed in the shallower formation. Except in special situations, the length of the well bore from the deepest depth at which the well is completed to the maximum depth drilled is defined as "plugged-back footage." Plugged-back footage is included in total footage drilled but is not reported separately.
Plutonium (Pu): A heavy, fissionable, radioactive, metallic element (atomic number 94) that occurs naturally in trace amounts. It can also result as a byproduct of the fission reaction in a uranium-fuel nuclear reactor and can be recovered for future use.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): A polymer of vinylchloride. Tasteless, odorless, insoluble in most organic solvents. A member of the family vinyl resin, used in soft flexible films for food packaging and in molded rigid products, such as pipes, fibers, upholstery, and bristles.
Population-weighted Degree Days: Heating or cooling degree days weighted by the population of the area in which the degree days are recorded. To compute national population-weighted degree days, the Nation is divided into nine Census regions comprised of from three to eight states that are assigned weights based on the ratio of the population of the region to the total population of the Nation. Degree day readings for each region are multiplied by the corresponding population weight for each region, and these products are then summed to arrive at the national population weighted degree day figure.
Pore: An intergranular space or discrete void within a rock that can contain natural gas, water, hydrocarbons, or other fluids. Porosity is the percentage of pore space, or pore volume, in a body of rock. If the pores are interconnected, the rock will have permeability.
Porosity: The percentage of pore space, or pore volume (in other words, the volume within sedimentary rock that can contain fluids). Primary porosity, such as spaces between grains that were not compacted or cemented together completely, develops during sedimentary rock deposition. Secondary porosity is developed when rock is altered, such as when some mineral grains dissolve from the rock. Fracture porosity can be generated by the development of fractures. Effective porosity is the interconnected pore volume in a rock that supports fluid flow in a reservoir. Total porosity is the total void space in the rock including isolated pores. Typically, effective porosity is less than total porosity.
Potential peak reduction: The potential annual peak load reduction (measured in kilowatts) that can be deployed from Direct Load Control, Interruptible Load, Other Load Management, and Other DSM Program activities. (Please note that Energy Efficiency and Load Building are not included in Potential Peak Reduction.) It represents the load that can be reduced either by the direct control of the utility system operator or by the consumer in response to a utility request to curtail load. It reflects the installed load reduction capability, as opposed to the Actual Peak Reduction achieved by participants, during the time of annual system peak load.
Pounds (district heat): A weight quantity of steam, also used to denote a quantity of energy in the form of steam. The amount of usable energy obtained from a pound of steam depends on its temperature and pressure at the point of consumption and on the drop in pressure after consumption.
Power: The rate of producing, transferring, or using energy, most commonly associated with electricity. Power is measured in watts and often expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (mW). Also known as "real" or "active" power. See Active Power, Apparent Power, Reactive Power, Real Power
Power (electrical): An electric measurement unit of power called a voltampere is equal to the product of 1 volt and 1 ampere. This is equivalent to 1 watt for a direct current system, and a unit of apparent power is separated into real and reactive power. Real power is the work-producing part of apparent power that measures the rate of supply of energy and is denoted as kilowatts (kW). Reactive power is the portion of apparent power that does no work and is referred to as kilovars; this type of power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors, and is supplied by generator or by electrostatic equipment. Voltamperes are usually divided by 1,000 and called kilovoltamperes (kVA). Energy is denoted by the product of real power and the length of time utilized; this product is expressed as kilowatthours.
Power ascension: The period of time between a plant's initial fuel loading date and its date of first commercial operation (including the low-power testing period). Plants in the first operating cycle (the time from initial fuel loading to the first refueling), which lasts approximately 2 years, operate at an average capacity factor of about 40 percent.
Power exchange generation: Generation scheduled by the power exchange. See definition for power exchange.
Power marketers: Business entities engaged in buying and selling electricity. Power marketers do not usually own generating or transmission facilities. Power marketers, as opposed to brokers, take ownership of the electricity and are involved in interstate trade. These entities file with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for status as a power marketer.
Power production plant: All the land and land rights, structures and improvements, boiler or reactor vessel equipment, engines and engine-driven generator, turbo generator units, accessory electric equipment, and miscellaneous power plant equipment are grouped together for each individual facility.
PPE, additions to: The current year's expenditures on property, plant, and equipment (PPE). The amount is predicated upon each reporting company's accounting practice. That is, accounting practices with regard to capitalization of certain items may differ across companies, and therefore this figure in FRS (Financial Reporting System) will be a function of each reporting company's policy.
Prediscovery costs: All costs incurred in an extractive industry operation prior to the actual discovery of minerals in commercially recoverable quantities; normally includes prospecting, acquisition, and exploration costs and may include some development costs.
Preliminary permit (hydroelectric power): A single site permit granted by the FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), which gives the recipient priority over anyone else to apply for a hydroelectric license. The preliminary permit enables the recipient to prepare a license application and conduct various studies for economic feasibility and environmental impacts. The period for a preliminary permit may extend to 3 years.
Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. Includes both leaded premium gasoline as well as unleaded premium gasoline. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Octane Rating.
Preproduction costs: Costs of prospecting for, acquiring, exploring, and developing mineral reserves incurred prior to the point when production of commercially recoverable quantities of minerals commences.
Pressurized-water reactor (PWR): A nuclear reactor in which heat is transferred from the core to a heat exchanger via water kept under high pressure, so that high temperatures can be maintained in the primary system without boiling the water. Steam is generated in a secondary circuit.
Preventive maintenance program for heating and/or cooling equipment: A HVAC conservation feature consisting of a program of routine inspection and service for the heating and/or cooling equipment. The inspection is performed on a regular basis, even if there are no apparent problems.
Primary energy: Energy in the form that it is first accounted for in a statistical energy balance, before any transformation to secondary or tertiary forms of energy. For example, coal can be converted to synthetic gas, which can be converted to electricity; in this example, coal is primary energy, synthetic gas is secondary energy, and electricity is tertiary energy. See Primary energy production and Primary energy consumption.
Primary energy consumption expenditures: Expenditures for energy consumed in each of the four major end-use sectors, excluding energy in the form of electricity, plus expenditures by the electric utilities sector for energy used to generate electricity. There are no fuel-associated expenditures for associated expenditures for hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and solar energy, or wind energy. Also excluded are the quantifiable consumption expenditures that are an integral part of process fuel consumption.
Primary energy production: Production of primary energy. The U.S. Energy Information Administration includes the following in U.S. primary energy production: coal production, waste coal supplied, and coal refuse recovery; crude oil and lease condensate production; natural gas plant liquids production; dry natural gas excluding supplemental gaseous fuels production; nuclear electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the nuclear plant heat rates); conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels plant heat rates); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels plant heat rates), and geothermal heat pump energy and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels plant heat rates), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels plant heat rates); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste consumption; and biofuels feedstock.
Primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA): A component area of a Consolidated metropolitan statistical area consisting of a large urbanized county or cluster of counties (cities and towns in New England) that demonstrate strong internal economic and social links in addition to close ties with the central core of the larger area. To qualify, an area must meet specified statistical criteria that demonstrate these links and have the support of local opinion.
Primary recovery: The crude oil or natural gas recovered by any method that may be employed to produce them where the fluid enters the well bore by the action of natural reservoir pressure(energy or gravity).
Primary transportation: Conveyance of large shipments of petroleum raw materials and refined products usually by pipeline, barge, or ocean-going vessel. All crude oil transportation is primary, including the small amounts moved by truck. All refined product transportation by pipeline, barge, or ocean-going vessel is primary transportation.
Prime mover: The engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine that drives an electric generator; or, for reporting purposes, a device that converts energy to electricity directly (e.g., photovoltaic solar and fuel cells).
Prime supplier: A firm that produces, imports, or transports selected petroleum products across State boundaries and local marketing areas, and sells the product to local distributors, local retailers, or end users.
Probable (indicated) reserves, coal: Reserves or resources for which tonnage and grade are computed partly from specific measurements, samples, or production data and partly from projection for a reasonable distance on the basis of geological evidence. The sites available are too widely or otherwise in appropriately spaced to permit the mineral bodies to be outlined completely or the grade established throughout.
Probable energy reserves: Estimated quantities of energy sources that, on the basis of geologic evidence that supports projections from proved reserves, can reasonably be expected to exist and be recoverable under existing economic and operating conditions. Site information is insufficient to establish with confidence the location, quality, and grades of the energy source. Note: This term is equivalent to "Indicated Reserves" as defined in the resource/reserve classification contained in the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 831, 1980. Measured and indicated reserves, when combined, constitute demonstrated reserves.
Process cooling and refrigeration: The direct process end use in which energy is used to lower the temperature of substances involved in the manufacturing process. Examples include freezing processed meats for later sale in the food industry and lowering the temperature of chemical feedstocks below ambient temperature for use in reactions in the chemical industries. Not included are uses such as air-conditioning for personal comfort and cafeteria refrigeration.
Process fuel: All energy consumed in the acquisition, processing, and transportation of energy. Quantifiable process fuel includes three categories natural gas lease and plant operations, natural gas pipeline operations, and oil refinery operations.
Process heating or cooling waste heatrecovery: An energy conservation system whereby some space heating or water heating is done by actively capturing byproduct heat that would otherwise be ejected into the environment. In nonresidential buildings, sources of waste heat include refrigeration/air-conditioner compressors, manufacturing or other processes, data processing centers, lighting fixtures, ventilation exhaust air, and the occupants themselves. Not to be considered is the passive use of radiant heat from lighting, workers, motors, ovens, etc., when there are no special systems for collecting and redistributing heat.
Processing gain: The volumetric amount by which total output is greater than input for a given period of time. This difference is due to the processing of crude oil into products which, in total, have a lower specific gravity than the crude oil processed.
Processing loss: The volumetric amount by which total refinery output is less than input for a given period of time. This difference is due to the processing of crude oil into products which, in total, have a higher specific gravity than the crude oil processed.
Processing plant: A surface installation designed to separate and recover natural gas liquids from a stream of produced natural gas through the processes of condensation, absorption, adsorption, refrigeration, or other methods and to control the quality of natural gas marketed and/or returned to oil or gas reservoirs for pressure maintenance, repressuring, or cycling.
Producer: A company engaged in the production and sale of natural gas from gas or oil wells with delivery generally at a point at or near the wellhead, the field, or the tailgate of a gas processing plant. For the purpose of company classification, a company primarily engaged in the exploration for, development of, and/or production of oil and/or natural gas.
Producer contracted reserves: The volume of recoverable salable gas reserves committed to or controlled by the reporting pipeline company as the buyer in gas purchase contracts with the independent producer as seller, including warranty contracts, and which are used for acts and services for which the company has received certificate authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Producing property: A term often used in reference to a property, well, or mine that produces wasting natural resources. The term means a property that produces in paying quantities (that is, one for which proceeds from production exceed operating expenses).
Product supplied: Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products because it measures the disappearance of these products from primary sources, i.e., refineries, natural gas-processing plants, blending plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. In general, product supplied of each product in any given period is computed as follows field production, plus refinery production, plus imports, plus unaccounted-for crude oil (plus net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis) minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, and minus exports.
Production costs: Costs incurred to operate and maintain wells and related equipment and facilities, including depreciation and applicable operating costs of support equipment and facilities and other costs of operating and maintaining those wells and related equipment and facilities. They become part of the cost of oil and gas produced. The following are examples of production costs (sometimes called lifting costs): costs of labor to operate the wells and related equipment and facilities; repair and maintenance costs; the costs of materials, supplies, and fuels consumed and services utilized in operating the wells and related equipment and facilities; the costs of property taxes and insurance applicable to proved properties and wells and related equipment and facilities; the costs of severance taxes. Depreciation, depletion, and amortization (DDA) of capitalized acquisition, exploration, and development costs are not production costs, but also become part of the cost of oil and gas produced along with production (lifting) costs identified above. Production costs include the following subcategories of costs: well workers and maintenance; operating fluid injections and improved recovery programs; operating gas processing plants; ad valorem taxes; production or severance taxes; other, including overhead.
Production expenses: Costs incurred in the production of electric power that conform to the accounting requirements of the Operation and Maintenance Expense Accounts of the FERC Uniform System of Accounts.
Production payments: A contractual arrangement providing a mineral interest that gives the owner a right to receive a fraction of production, or of proceeds from the sale of production, until a specified quantity of minerals (or a definite sum of money, including interest) has been received.
Production, crude oil: The volumes of crude oil that are extracted from oil reservoirs. These volumes are determined through measurement of the volumes delivered from lease storage tanks or at the point of custody transfer, with adjustment for (1) net differences between opening and closing lease inventories and (2) basic sediment and water. Crude oil used on the lease is considered production.
Production, natural gas: The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation operations; less (2) shrinkage resulting from the removal of lease condensate; and less (3) nonhydrocarbon gases where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Volumes of gas withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs and native gas, which has been transferred to the storage category, are not considered production. Flared and vented gas is also considered production. (This differs from "Marketed Production" which excludes flared and vented gas.)
Production, natural gas, wet after lease separation: The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation operations; less (2) shrinkage resulting from the removal of lease condensate; and less (3) nonhydrocarbon gases where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Note: Volumes of gas withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs and native gas that has been transferred to the storage category are not considered part of production. This production concept is not the same as marketed production, which excludes vented and flared gas.
Production, oil and gas: The lifting of oil and gas to the surface and gathering, treating, field processing (as in the case of processing gas to extract liquid hydrocarbons), and field storage. The production function shall normally be regarded as terminating at the outlet valve on the lease or field production storage tank. If unusual physical or operational circumstances exist, it may be more appropriate to regard the production function as terminating at the first point at which oil, gas, or gas liquids are delivered to a main pipeline, a common carrier, a refinery, or a marine terminal.
Production, wet after lease separation: See production, natural gas, wet after lease separation.
Productive capacity: The maximum amount of coal that a mining operation can produce or process during a period with the existing mining equipment and/or preparation plant in place, assuming that the labor and materials sufficient to utilize the plant and equipment are available, and that the market exists for the maximum production.
Program cost: Utility costs that reflect the total cash expenditures for the year, reported in nominal dollars, that flowed out to support DSM (demand-side management) programs. They are reported in the year they are incurred, regardless of when the actual effects occur.
Propane (C3H8): A straight-chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams, which is gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a temperature of -44 degrees Fahrenheit. It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association specifications for commercial (HD-5) propane.
Propane, consumer grade: A normally gaseous paraffinic compound (C3H8), which includes all products covered by Natural Gas Policy Act Specifications for commercial and HD-5 propane and ASTM Specification D 1835. Excludes: feedstock propanes, which are propanes not classified as consumer grade propanes, including the propane portion of any natural gas liquid mixes, i.e., butane-propane mix.
Prospecting: The search for an area of probable mineralization; the search normally includes topographical, geological, and geophysical studies of relatively large areas undertaken in an attempt to locate specific areas warranting detailed exploration. Prospecting usually occurs prior to the acquisition of mineral rights.
Prospecting costs: Direct and indirect costs incurred to identify areas of interest that may warrant detailed exploration. Such costs include those incurred for topographical, geological, and geophysical studies; rights of access to properties in order to conduct such studies, salaries, equipment, instruments, and supplies for geologists, including geophysical crews, and others conducting such studies; and overhead that can be identified with those activities.
Proved (measured) reserves, coal: Reserves or resources for which tonnage is computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, workings, and drill holes and for which the grade is computed from the results of detailed sampling. The sites for inspection, sampling, and measurement are spaced so closely and the geologic character is so well defined that size, shape, and mineral content are well established. The computed tonnage and grade are judged to be accurate within limits that are stated, and no such limit is judged to be different from the computed tonnage or grade by more than 20 percent.
Proved energy reserves: Estimated quantities of energy sources that analysis of geologic and engineering data demonstrates with reasonable certainty are recoverable under existing economic and operating conditions. The location, quantity, and grade of the energy source are usually considered to be well established in such reserves. Note: This term is equivalent to "Measured Reserves" as defined in the resource/reserve classification contained in the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 831, 1980. Measured and indicated reserves, when combined, constitute demonstrated reserves.
Public authorities: Electricity supplied to municipalities, divisions, or agencies of state and Federal governments, usually under special contracts or agreements that are applicable only to public authorities.
Public authority service to public authorities: Public authority service includes electricity supplied and services rendered to municipalities or divisions or agencies of State or Federal governments under special contracts, agreements, or service classifications applicable only to public authorities.
Public street and highway lighting: Electricity supplied and services rendered for the purpose of lighting streets, highways, parks, and other public places; or for traffic or other signal system service, for municipalities or other divisions or agencies of State or Federal governments.
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA): This act prohibits acquisition of any wholesale or retail electric business through a holding company unless that business forms part of an integrated public utility system when combined with the utility's other electric business. The legislation also restricts ownership of an electric business by non-utility corporations.
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of1978, passed by the U.S. Congress. This statute requires States to implement utility conservation programs and create special markets for co-generators and small producers who meet certain standards, including the requirement that States set the prices and quantities of power the utilities must buy from such facilities.
Public Utility Regulatory PoliciesAct (PURPA) of 1978: One part of the National Energy Act, PURPA contains measures designed to encourage the conservation of energy, more efficient use of resources, and equitable rates. Principal among these were suggested retail rate reforms and new incentives for production of electricity by cogenerators and users of renewable resources. The Commission has primary authority for implementing several key PURPA programs.
PUD: See Public Utility District
PUHCA: See Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935
Pulping liquor (black liquor): The alkaline spent liquor removed from the digesters in the process of chemically pulping wood. After evaporation, the liquor is burned as a fuel in a recovery furnace that permits the recovery of certain basic chemicals.
Pumped-storage hydroelectric plant: A plant that usually generates electric energy during peak load periods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods when excess generating capacity is available to do so. When additional generating capacity is needed, the water can be released from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine generators located in a power plant at a lower level.
Purchase-contract imports of uranium: The amount of foreign-origin uranium material that enters the United States during a survey year as reported on the "Uranium Industry Annual Survey (UIAS), Form EIA-858, as purchases of uranium ore, U3O8, natural UF6, or enriched UF6. The amount of foreign-origin uranium materials that enter the country during a survey year under other types of contracts, i.e., loans and exchanges, is excluded.
Purchased: Receipts into transportation, storage, and/or distribution facilities within a state under gas purchase contracts or agreements whether or not billing or payment occurred during the report year.
Purchased power adjustment: A clause in a rate schedule that provides for adjustments to the bill when energy from another electric system is acquired and its cost varies from a specified unit base amount.
PVCs that convert sunlight directly into energy: A method for producing energy by converting sunlight using photovoltaic cells (PVCs) that are solid-state single converter devices. Although currently not in wide usage, commercial customers have a growing interest in usage and, therefore, DOE has a growing interest in the impact of PVCs on energy consumption. Economically, PVCs are competitive with other sources of electricity.
PWR: See Pressurized-Water Reactor
Pyrolysis: The thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures (greater than 400° F, or 200° C) in the absence of air. The end product of pyrolysis is a mixture of solids (char), liquids (oxygenated oils), and gases (methane, carbon monoxide, and carbondioxide) with proportions determined by operating temperature, pressure, oxygen content, and other conditions.