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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C20. Electricity consumption and conditional energy intensity by climate region, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total electricity
consumption
(billion kWh
Total floorspace of
buildings using electricity
(million square feet)
Electricity
energy intensity
(kWh/square foot)
  Very
cold/
Cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
Hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
Very
cold/
Cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
Hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
Very
cold/
Cold
Mixed-
humid
Mixed-
dry/
Hot-dry
Hot-
humid
Mar-
ine
All buildings 419 415 152 220 35 31,286 27,422 11,743 12,002 2,416 13.4 15.2 13.0 18.4 14.6
Building floorspace (square feet)                              
1,001 to 5,000 40 48 15 26 Q 2,712 2,545 958 1,096 Q 14.6 18.8 15.2 23.7 14.0
5,001 to 10,000 33 37 21 19 3 3,075 2,534 1,561 1,102 218 10.8 14.5 13.6 17.4 13.5
10,001 to 25,000 56 47 20 29 6 5,304 3,734 2,291 1,808 429 10.6 12.7 8.9 15.9 14.7
25,001 to 50,000 47 47 20 30 Q 4,311 3,163 1,922 1,900 375 10.9 14.9 10.6 15.8 11.1
50,001 to 100,000 72 65 17 33 5 4,960 4,817 1,480 1,943 403 14.5 13.4 11.5 16.9 12.9
100,001 to 200,000 62 59 25 36 7 4,241 4,214 1,666 1,975 265 14.7 14.1 14.9 18.4 25.8
200,001 to 500,000 65 59 24 29 4 4,287 3,445 1,328 1,265 327 15.2 17.0 18.0 22.7 11.3
Over 500,000 43 54 10 19 Q 2,396 2,970 536 912 Q 18.1 18.1 18.9 20.5 Q
Principal building activity                              
Education 43 51 11 27 Q 4,739 4,426 1,075 1,878 Q 9.1 11.6 10.3 14.3 Q
Food sales 25 18 Q 7 Q 540 326 Q 135 Q 45.8 55.7 Q 54.6 Q
Food service 23 34 11 13 Q 636 636 229 250 Q 35.8 52.7 47.4 51.8 Q
Health care 39 32 12 22 2 1,754 1,218 398 686 100 22.3 26.1 29.8 32.0 22.9
Inpatient 23 25 Q 14 Q 878 790 268 364 Q 26.7 31.2 37.3 37.5 Q
Outpatient 16 7 2 8 Q 876 427 130 322 Q 18.0 16.7 14.2 25.7 Q
Lodging 31 31 10 15 Q 1,999 1,929 836 917 Q 15.4 16.1 12.3 16.9 Q
Mercantile 67 62 28 44 6 3,911 3,444 1,652 1,979 335 17.1 17.9 17.1 22.2 18.0
Retail (other than mall) 27 22 12 19 Q 1,977 1,623 699 924 Q 13.5 13.7 17.2 20.5 Q
Enclosed and strip malls 40 39 16 25 Q 1,934 1,821 953 1,054 Q 20.7 21.6 17.1 23.7 Q
Office 93 87 27 34 13 6,033 5,496 1,873 1,776 774 15.4 15.8 14.3 19.1 17.3
Public assembly 29 22 12 15 Q 2,351 1,479 834 622 Q 12.4 14.6 14.4 24.2 Q
Public order and safety 5 10 Q Q Q 477 597 Q Q Q 9.7 17.2 Q Q Q
Religious worship 7 9 2 5 Q 1,623 1,698 461 674 Q 4.6 5.1 4.2 7.8 Q
Service 14 14 4 4 Q 1,924 1,503 580 429 Q 7.1 9.5 7.4 9.1 Q
Warehouse and storage 22 22 14 23 Q 3,910 3,584 2,858 2,023 Q 5.7 6.3 4.9 11.5 Q
Other 19 23 8 Q Q 763 677 249 Q Q 24.9 33.7 32.8 Q Q
Vacant 3 2 Q Q Q 627 410 323 Q Q 4.5 3.7 Q Q Q
Year constructed                              
Before 1920 15 14 Q Q Q 2,198 1,217 Q Q Q 6.9 11.6 Q Q Q
1920 to 1945 23 26 8 7 Q 2,484 2,173 667 420 Q 9.4 11.8 11.4 15.6 Q
1946 to 1959 37 25 11 11 Q 3,066 2,407 964 577 Q 12.0 10.4 10.9 19.5 Q
1960 to 1969 47 55 24 17 4 4,095 3,375 1,490 931 306 11.4 16.4 15.9 18.7 12.5
1970 to 1979 64 59 18 26 3 4,055 3,099 1,674 1,497 232 15.8 19.1 11.0 17.2 13.1
1980 to 1989 62 67 26 69 9 4,277 4,365 2,228 3,208 712 14.6 15.4 11.5 21.4 13.2
1990 to 1999 73 69 23 40 7 4,769 4,288 1,518 2,200 344 15.3 16.2 15.3 18.4 21.6
2000 to 2003 39 33 11 25 Q 2,392 2,313 952 1,376 Q 16.2 14.3 11.7 18.1 Q
2004 to 2007 31 31 Q 14 Q 1,962 2,176 Q 876 Q 15.8 14.1 13.3 16.0 Q
2008 to 2012 28 36 Q 10 Q 1,988 2,011 890 700 Q 13.9 17.8 16.7 14.6 Q
Census region and division                              
Northeast 142 79 N N N 10,283 5,008 N N N 13.8 15.7 N N N
New England 51 N N N N 4,192 N N N N 12.1 N N N N
Middle Atlantic 91 79 N N N 6,091 5,008 N N N 15.0 15.7 N N N
Midwest 210 39 N N N 15,875 2,685 N N N 13.3 14.5 N N N
East North Central 158 Q N N N 11,506 Q N N N 13.7 Q N N N
West North Central 53 22 N N N 4,369 1,647 N N N 12.1 13.5 N N N
South N 298 13 219 N N 19,729 1,495 11,802 N N 15.1 8.9 18.6 N
South Atlantic N 203 N 83 N N 13,073 N 4,534 N N 15.6 N 18.3 N
East South Central N 51 N 20 N N 3,761 N 1,063 N N 13.6 N 18.4 N
West South Central N 44 13 116 N N 2,895 1,495 6,204 N N 15.0 8.9 18.7 N
West 67 N 139 Q 35 5,128 N 10,248 Q 2,416 13.1 N 13.6 Q 14.6
Mountain 41 N 27 N N 3,318 N 1,494 N N 12.2 N 17.7 N N
Pacific 26 N 113 Q 35 1,811 N 8,753 Q 2,416 14.6 N 12.9 Q 14.6
Number of floors                              
One 158 171 77 126 14 11,779 11,970 6,521 6,855 927 13.4 14.3 11.8 18.4 14.9
Two 97 87 30 38 7 8,256 6,088 2,492 2,403 690 11.7 14.3 12.0 15.8 10.7
Three 55 36 8 9 Q 4,425 2,289 697 527 Q 12.3 15.7 11.6 16.6 Q
Four to nine 80 78 29 35 9 5,246 4,616 1,577 1,570 408 15.2 17.0 18.2 22.6 21.8
Ten or more 31 43 9 12 Q 1,580 2,459 455 647 Q 19.6 17.6 19.3 18.4 Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any elevators 197 188 57 78 18 12,793 10,758 3,357 3,953 1,081 15.4 17.5 17.0 19.8 16.9
Number of elevators                              
One 59 50 11 23 5 4,935 3,460 1,052 1,322 351 11.9 14.3 10.0 17.6 13.0
Two to five 82 74 27 32 8 5,279 3,898 1,476 1,625 434 15.5 18.9 18.2 19.4 19.1
Six or more 57 65 20 23 5 2,578 3,400 829 1,006 296 21.9 19.1 24.0 23.1 18.4
Any escalators 26 25 6 8 Q 1,386 1,366 373 363 Q 18.5 18.0 15.4 22.5 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                              
Fewer than 5 45 47 16 22 Q 5,991 5,006 2,326 1,890 316 7.5 9.4 7.0 11.7 9.3
5 to 9 34 36 17 23 Q 3,165 2,519 1,533 1,505 Q 10.7 14.3 10.9 15.2 8.3
10 to 19 42 46 20 22 3 3,373 2,883 1,708 1,382 277 12.3 15.9 11.7 15.9 9.8
20 to 49 71 66 28 44 10 5,387 4,280 2,115 2,154 577 13.2 15.4 13.1 20.6 18.1
50 to 99 73 71 21 44 5 4,891 4,634 1,441 2,209 302 15.0 15.3 14.4 20.0 15.2
100 to 249 67 61 28 26 Q 4,203 3,744 1,554 1,211 Q 16.0 16.4 17.7 21.2 Q
250 or more 87 88 23 39 9 4,276 4,356 1,066 1,651 466 20.3 20.2 21.8 23.7 19.5
Weekly operating hours                              
Fewer than 40 14 11 5 5 Q 2,642 2,065 987 752 Q 5.2 5.3 5.1 6.5 Q
40 to 48 48 45 26 31 5 5,297 5,072 2,614 2,295 459 9.0 8.8 9.9 13.5 11.5
49 to 60 86 82 23 38 9 7,407 6,958 2,419 2,845 796 11.7 11.8 9.6 13.4 11.1
61 to 84 86 78 34 45 6 6,188 4,682 2,305 2,189 437 13.9 16.7 14.7 20.6 14.6
85 to 167 75 66 22 30 7 4,080 2,679 1,278 1,045 282 18.5 24.6 17.0 28.4 25.3
Open continuously 110 134 43 72 7 5,672 5,966 2,140 2,876 339 19.4 22.4 20.0 25.0 21.4
Ownership and occupancy                              
Nongovernment owned 331 320 129 179 30 23,706 20,294 9,939 9,625 2,057 13.9 15.8 13.0 18.5 14.3
Owner occupied 154 141 56 95 10 11,942 9,021 4,072 4,592 693 12.9 15.6 13.7 20.7 14.3
Leased to tenant(s) 129 133 57 64 16 8,298 8,339 4,423 3,748 1,001 15.5 16.0 12.9 17.0 15.7
Owner occupied and leased 48 46 16 19 4 3,146 2,804 1,313 1,225 332 15.1 16.3 12.2 15.9 11.6
Unoccupied 1 Q Q Q Q 319 Q Q Q Q 2.0 Q Q Q Q
Government owned 89 95 23 42 6 7,580 7,128 1,804 2,376 360 11.7 13.4 12.9 17.7 16.0
Federal 6 13 Q Q Q 402 996 Q Q Q 15.2 13.1 Q Q Q
State 31 29 7 12 Q 2,298 1,876 468 747 Q 13.5 15.2 15.7 15.7 Q
Local 52 54 15 28 4 4,880 4,256 1,270 1,534 213 10.6 12.7 11.8 18.0 16.8
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                             
Building owner 353 342 120 184 30 27,241 23,035 9,248 10,051 2,089 13.0 14.8 12.9 18.3 14.6
Business owner or tenant 58 60 30 29 4 3,457 3,513 2,321 1,542 301 16.7 17.2 13.0 19.1 14.3
Property management 3 9 Q Q Q 259 572 Q Q Q 12.0 15.0 Q Q Q
Other 5 5 Q Q N 330 302 Q Q N 15.7 15.9 Q Q N
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                             
Building owner 362 351 128 188 32 28,012 23,809 9,849 10,323 2,153 12.9 14.8 12.9 18.2 14.7
Business owner or tenant 45 47 23 24 3 2,511 2,566 1,686 1,163 236 17.8 18.4 13.4 20.9 14.1
Property management 3 5 Q Q Q 210 344 Q Q Q 16.3 13.4 Q Q Q
Other 9 12 Q 5 Q 553 703 Q 274 Q 15.9 17.4 Q 17.8 Q
Number of establishments                              
One 258 265 100 136 18 20,588 17,572 7,534 7,562 1,229 12.5 15.1 13.3 18.0 14.7
2 to 5 100 71 26 44 8 6,741 5,626 2,299 2,427 663 14.8 12.5 11.3 18.2 12.8
6 to 10 22 25 7 13 Q 1,379 1,447 570 648 Q 15.7 17.4 11.7 20.0 Q
11 to 20 20 27 7 12 Q 1,206 1,289 470 629 Q 16.7 21.0 14.0 19.7 Q
More than 20 19 28 13 15 Q 1,017 1,280 690 666 Q 18.8 21.5 18.3 22.1 Q
Currently unoccupied 1 0 Q Q Q 356 209 Q Q Q 2.0 Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                              
Brick, stone, or stucco 195 236 63 91 11 14,497 14,463 4,777 5,030 842 13.4 16.3 13.2 18.2 13.3
Concrete (block or poured) 98 94 42 75 13 6,675 6,071 3,177 3,732 749 14.6 15.5 13.4 20.2 17.4
Concrete panels 47 26 23 20 4 2,769 2,039 1,990 1,284 366 16.9 12.9 11.6 15.6 11.4
Siding or shingles 36 15 Q 6 2 2,973 1,219 799 409 165 12.0 12.5 15.5 14.8 13.2
Metal panels 26 26 5 20 Q 3,167 2,872 617 1,247 Q 8.2 9.2 8.7 16.3 Q
Window glass 11 11 Q Q Q 509 388 Q Q Q 21.5 27.9 Q Q Q
Other 4 Q Q Q Q 371 Q Q Q Q 11.1 Q Q Q Q
No one major type 4 Q Q Q Q 325 Q Q Q Q 11.1 Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                              
Metal surfacing 47 61 16 41 Q 4,850 5,511 1,605 2,852 206 9.7 11.1 10.1 14.4 Q
Synthetic or rubber 192 132 37 53 9 12,621 7,768 2,254 2,320 651 15.2 17.0 16.2 22.9 13.2
Built-up 90 118 45 69 15 6,438 7,088 3,529 3,408 842 14.0 16.6 12.6 20.2 18.1
Slate or tile shingles 11 17 17 10 Q 1,077 1,283 1,138 549 Q 10.1 13.6 14.9 18.7 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
4 4 3 Q Q 269 245 386 Q Q 13.4 16.4 8.2 Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
67 67 26 33 4 5,381 4,661 2,219 2,028 390 12.4 14.3 11.8 16.3 9.5
Concrete Q 10 5 10 Q Q 480 343 595 Q Q 21.3 15.9 17.3 Q
Other Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q Q N
No one major type Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                              
Roof tilt                              
Flat 273 259 102 140 25 17,994 15,064 7,227 6,941 1,520 15.2 17.2 14.2 20.1 16.4
Shallow pitch 89 106 39 57 8 7,415 8,052 3,373 3,555 624 11.9 13.2 11.4 16.1 12.2
Steeper pitch 58 50 11 24 3 5,878 4,305 1,143 1,506 272 9.8 11.6 10.0 15.7 9.8
Cool roof 98 101 49 66 11 6,506 6,074 2,961 3,231 607 15.1 16.6 16.5 20.6 17.6
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any type of renovation 244 216 56 112 21 17,122 13,851 4,137 5,438 1,364 14.2 15.6 13.5 20.6 15.3
Addition or annex 90 70 12 30 Q 6,116 4,426 798 1,473 Q 14.7 15.8 14.7 20.7 Q
Reduction in floorspace 8 20 Q Q Q 409 888 Q Q Q 19.3 22.8 Q Q Q
Roof replacement 132 114 21 54 8 9,036 6,937 1,631 2,514 647 14.6 16.5 12.8 21.5 12.0
Exterior wall replacement 23 25 8 13 Q 1,546 1,381 564 587 Q 14.7 18.0 13.7 21.8 Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 140 113 30 58 15 9,326 6,512 2,151 2,407 854 15.1 17.4 14.0 24.0 17.4
Window replacement 68 66 9 28 5 5,602 4,201 820 1,171 457 12.1 15.8 11.4 23.5 11.5
HVAC equipment upgrade 164 148 33 76 12 11,030 8,981 2,268 3,601 768 14.8 16.5 14.5 21.1 16.2
Lighting upgrade 158 134 37 69 12 10,970 8,087 2,519 3,062 777 14.4 16.6 14.7 22.4 15.0
Electrical upgrade 102 94 19 41 10 7,061 5,165 1,324 2,019 519 14.4 18.1 14.0 20.3 18.4
Plumbing system upgrade 87 78 20 31 7 5,876 4,613 1,347 1,523 447 14.7 16.9 14.6 20.5 15.1
Insulation upgrade 51 42 9 20 Q 3,674 2,423 559 728 Q 13.9 17.2 16.8 27.1 Q
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 107 99 22 44 11 7,235 5,608 1,550 2,122 648 14.8 17.6 14.0 20.7 16.8
Structural upgrade 28 19 7 13 Q 1,734 1,091 464 440 Q 16.0 17.3 15.7 28.7 Q
Other 3 Q Q Q Q 272 Q Q Q Q 11.6 Q Q Q Q
No renovations 148 164 82 98 14 12,176 11,560 6,717 5,863 988 12.1 14.2 12.2 16.7 14.0
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 28 36 Q 10 Q 1,988 2,011 890 700 Q 13.9 17.8 16.7 14.6 Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                             
Electricity 419 415 152 220 35 31,286 27,422 11,743 12,002 2,416 13.4 15.2 13.0 18.4 14.6
Natural gas 344 302 113 113 31 24,511 19,361 7,520 5,300 2,033 14.0 15.6 15.1 21.3 15.1
Fuel oil 139 134 32 63 13 8,008 7,287 1,605 2,597 703 17.4 18.4 20.1 24.1 19.1
District heat 33 51 Q 8 Q 1,926 3,012 Q 374 Q 16.9 17.0 17.6 22.0 Q
District chilled water 23 38 10 14 Q 1,227 2,027 Q 752 Q 18.9 18.7 16.9 18.9 Q
Propane 52 24 9 25 Q 3,574 2,183 842 998 Q 14.5 11.1 10.1 25.0 Q
Other 21 14 9 Q Q 1,986 1,017 496 Q Q 10.4 13.4 18.0 Q Q
Space-heating energy sources                              
Electricity 231 274 92 157 19 15,252 17,288 6,815 8,300 1,374 15.1 15.9 13.5 18.9 14.2
Electricity main 80 159 59 132 9 4,771 9,282 4,600 6,969 583 16.8 17.1 12.9 19.0 15.2
Electricity secondary 151 116 33 25 11 10,481 8,006 2,215 1,331 792 14.4 14.4 14.9 18.6 13.4
Other excluding electricity 185 136 53 35 15 15,192 9,428 3,669 1,790 944 12.2 14.5 14.5 19.3 15.5
Buildings without heating 3 5 7 29 Q 842 706 1,259 1,912 Q 4.1 7.0 5.6 15.0 Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                             
Electricity 80 159 59 132 9 4,771 9,282 4,600 6,969 583 16.8 17.1 12.9 19.0 15.2
Natural gas 275 187 77 50 23 20,554 12,884 5,252 2,710 1,588 13.4 14.5 14.6 18.5 14.4
Fuel oil 15 8 N N N 1,623 919 N N N 9.5 9.0 N N N
District heat 32 50 Q 8 Q 1,884 2,916 Q 362 Q 16.9 17.2 17.6 22.4 Q
Propane 10 6 Q Q N 1,096 658 Q Q N 8.8 9.4 Q Q N
Other 4 Q N N N 516 Q N N N 8.0 Q N N N
Cooling energy sources                              
Electricity 391 385 143 208 31 27,377 24,968 10,490 11,043 2,157 14.3 15.4 13.7 18.9 14.4
Other excluding electricity 15 25 Q 10 Q 851 1,397 Q 581 Q 17.1 17.8 15.2 18.0 Q
Buildings without cooling 13 6 3 2 Q 3,058 1,057 856 378 226 4.4 5.7 3.5 4.1 15.8
Water-heating energy sources                              
Electricity 189 219 74 149 18 13,252 14,954 5,678 7,690 1,180 14.2 14.7 13.0 19.4 15.1
Other excluding electricity 224 188 71 61 16 16,314 10,818 4,907 3,147 1,075 13.7 17.3 14.6 19.4 15.0
Buildings without water heating 6 9 7 10 Q 1,720 1,650 1,158 1,165 Q 3.7 5.2 6.1 8.6 Q
Cooking energy sources                              
Electricity 159 156 47 77 13 9,761 9,042 2,299 3,437 612 16.3 17.3 20.6 22.5 21.2
Other excluding electricity 81 90 34 35 7 5,214 4,428 1,730 1,660 363 15.6 20.2 19.4 21.4 18.7
Buildings without cooking 178 169 71 108 15 16,311 13,952 7,714 6,904 1,441 10.9 12.1 9.3 15.6 10.7
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                             
Buildings with space heating 416 411 145 192 34 30,444 26,716 10,484 10,090 2,319 13.7 15.4 13.9 19.0 14.7
Buildings with cooling 406 410 149 219 32 28,228 26,365 10,887 11,624 2,190 14.4 15.5 13.7 18.8 14.5
Buildings with water heating 413 407 145 210 34 29,567 25,772 10,585 10,837 2,255 14.0 15.8 13.7 19.4 15.0
Buildings with cooking 241 246 81 113 20 14,975 13,469 4,029 5,098 975 16.1 18.3 20.1 22.1 20.3
Buildings with manufacturing 25 13 6 19 Q 2,133 1,273 786 684 Q 11.7 10.3 8.2 28.4 Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
179 172 49 73 17 10,597 8,525 2,471 3,168 880 16.9 20.1 20.0 23.1 19.7
Percent of floorspace heated                              
Not heated 3 5 7 29 Q 842 706 1,259 1,912 Q 4.1 7.0 5.6 15.0 Q
1 to 50 19 24 28 21 5 2,299 2,485 3,165 1,752 414 8.4 9.7 8.8 12.3 12.6
51 to 99 58 81 39 47 8 4,045 5,425 2,434 2,146 595 14.3 15.0 16.2 22.1 12.7
100 339 305 78 123 21 24,099 18,806 4,885 6,193 1,310 14.1 16.2 16.0 19.8 16.3
Percent of floorspace cooled                              
Not cooled 13 6 3 2 Q 3,058 1,057 856 378 226 4.4 5.7 3.5 4.1 15.8
1 to 50 65 39 25 19 Q 7,561 5,220 3,505 2,191 415 8.6 7.4 7.1 8.8 12.4
51 to 99 135 140 45 52 10 8,314 8,333 2,734 2,562 785 16.2 16.7 16.6 20.2 12.6
100 206 231 79 148 17 12,354 12,812 4,648 6,871 990 16.7 18.1 17.0 21.5 16.8
Percent lit when open                              
Zero Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 41 36 14 20 3 4,637 3,702 2,225 1,689 377 8.9 9.7 6.4 11.6 7.7
51 to 99 188 168 67 86 16 13,284 10,873 4,849 4,790 1,018 14.2 15.5 13.9 18.0 15.2
100 188 210 70 114 17 12,498 12,453 4,432 5,359 984 15.0 16.9 15.8 21.3 17.1
Building never open/electricity
not used
2 1 Q Q Q 727 315 Q Q Q 2.5 1.6 Q Q Q
Percent lit during off hours                              
Zero 83 66 37 36 9 9,716 6,918 4,237 3,080 796 8.5 9.6 8.8 11.8 11.3
1 to 50 268 263 85 146 23 18,723 17,279 6,139 7,216 1,397 14.3 15.2 13.8 20.2 16.6
51 to 100 52 62 24 24 Q 2,252 2,373 1,009 1,102 Q 23.1 26.2 23.5 22.2 Q
Building always open with
no "off hours"
17 24 7 14 Q 595 852 359 604 Q 28.0 28.4 18.7 23.3 Q
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Heat pumps 31 92 22 29 6 2,150 6,182 1,669 1,387 458 14.6 14.8 12.9 21.1 12.5
Furnaces 39 43 11 12 Q 3,558 3,009 995 937 Q 10.9 14.3 11.2 12.4 Q
Individual space heaters 130 81 21 29 10 10,112 6,697 1,703 1,607 631 12.9 12.1 12.3 18.1 15.6
District heat 33 51 Q 8 Q 1,926 3,002 Q 362 Q 16.9 17.0 17.6 22.4 Q
Boilers 158 114 36 32 9 11,551 7,029 1,777 1,499 581 13.7 16.3 20.1 21.3 16.2
Packaged heating units 255 250 104 140 22 17,640 15,485 7,351 7,217 1,495 14.5 16.1 14.2 19.4 14.6
Other 18 12 Q Q Q 819 487 Q Q Q 22.1 23.7 Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Residential-type central air
conditioners
62 59 29 34 Q 5,468 4,620 2,250 2,319 Q 11.4 12.9 13.1 14.6 Q
Heat pumps 36 94 22 29 8 2,457 6,173 1,876 1,451 581 14.5 15.2 11.6 20.1 14.5
Individual air conditioners 63 62 12 20 3 5,046 4,683 1,025 1,344 322 12.5 13.1 11.5 15.0 10.5
District chilled water 23 38 10 14 Q 1,227 2,027 Q 752 Q 18.9 18.7 16.9 18.9 Q
Central chillers 117 117 28 55 11 6,757 5,913 1,348 2,474 549 17.3 19.8 21.1 22.1 20.8
Packaged air conditioning units 248 238 90 133 18 16,452 14,627 6,306 6,449 1,318 15.1 16.3 14.3 20.6 13.5
Swamp coolers 9 Q 10 Q Q 680 Q 710 Q Q 13.5 Q 14.2 Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                             
Heating 141 133 42 62 10 10,930 8,958 3,528 3,255 887 12.9 14.9 11.8 19.1 11.0
Cooling 153 156 46 81 10 11,402 10,471 3,633 4,345 850 13.4 14.9 12.7 18.5 11.7
Water-heating equipment                              
Centralized system 260 251 85 117 15 18,894 15,231 6,259 5,983 1,168 13.8 16.5 13.6 19.5 12.4
Distributed system 48 45 25 37 3 4,184 3,619 2,221 2,298 366 11.4 12.4 11.4 16.0 9.4
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
105 111 35 57 16 6,489 6,922 2,105 2,556 721 16.2 16.0 16.5 22.3 22.0
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                             
Incandescent 221 216 63 97 15 14,837 13,429 4,139 4,769 1,232 14.9 16.1 15.2 20.3 12.2
Standard fluorescent 406 404 146 207 34 29,315 26,407 11,018 11,096 2,246 13.9 15.3 13.3 18.7 14.9
Compact fluorescent 313 297 103 149 27 20,485 17,410 6,692 7,285 1,944 15.3 17.1 15.4 20.5 13.8
High-intensity discharge (HID) 139 142 35 60 7 8,734 8,547 2,661 3,035 420 15.9 16.6 13.0 19.7 16.5
Halogen 162 166 52 83 15 10,366 9,391 3,257 4,152 893 15.6 17.6 16.1 20.1 16.8
LED 164 134 40 66 11 9,156 6,936 2,514 2,733 732 17.9 19.2 16.1 24.0 15.4
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Any refrigeration 390 390 137 202 32 27,633 24,268 9,429 10,299 2,015 14.1 16.1 14.5 19.6 15.7
Walk-in units 207 220 64 100 16 10,742 10,079 2,842 3,922 775 19.3 21.8 22.4 25.4 21.1
Cases or cabinets 206 202 70 88 17 11,215 9,694 3,232 3,856 722 18.4 20.8 21.6 22.8 23.4
Large cold storage areas 32 33 13 17 Q 1,531 1,297 554 701 Q 20.9 25.6 23.6 24.1 Q
Commercial ice makers 213 234 67 119 20 11,045 12,168 3,441 5,199 881 19.3 19.2 19.5 23.0 22.2
Residential-type or compact units 322 304 108 149 28 23,817 20,411 8,210 8,180 1,762 13.5 14.9 13.2 18.2 15.9
Vending machines 259 252 81 129 21 16,400 15,132 5,131 6,115 1,157 15.8 16.7 15.7 21.1 18.4
No refrigeration 30 26 15 19 4 3,653 3,153 2,314 1,703 401 8.1 8.2 6.7 10.9 9.0
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                             
Desktop computers 395 397 143 209 33 28,233 25,161 10,487 10,929 2,252 14.0 15.8 13.7 19.1 14.8
With flat screen monitors 391 391 143 207 33 27,828 24,907 10,407 10,799 2,220 14.1 15.7 13.7 19.2 15.0
With multiple monitors 174 176 66 90 18 11,074 10,043 4,291 4,365 1,173 15.7 17.5 15.4 20.6 15.2
Laptop computers 330 325 112 173 28 23,554 21,132 8,003 8,961 1,836 14.0 15.4 14.0 19.3 15.0
Dedicated servers 294 292 109 148 26 19,394 17,637 7,303 7,388 1,648 15.2 16.5 14.9 20.0 16.0
Laser printers 297 287 105 144 24 20,318 17,516 7,372 7,492 1,558 14.6 16.4 14.2 19.3 15.1
Inkjet printers 172 179 65 93 15 13,171 12,084 4,887 5,087 1,006 13.1 14.8 13.3 18.3 14.5
FAX machines 350 354 111 185 30 24,671 22,169 8,441 9,504 1,897 14.2 16.0 13.1 19.5 15.8
Photocopiers 320 301 105 156 27 22,559 19,141 7,727 8,118 1,732 14.2 15.7 13.6 19.2 15.9
Number of desktop computers                              
None 25 18 9 12 Q 3,053 2,260 1,255 1,073 164 8.0 8.1 7.2 10.9 11.4
1 to 4 62 76 26 37 4 5,646 5,258 2,339 2,070 355 11.0 14.4 11.1 17.7 12.6
5 to 9 44 44 15 24 6 3,424 2,748 1,522 1,332 396 12.7 16.1 10.0 18.3 15.5
10 to 19 46 35 22 22 Q 3,387 2,625 1,707 1,369 300 13.6 13.2 12.7 16.0 15.8
20 to 49 67 66 25 49 4 4,627 4,189 1,675 2,254 349 14.4 15.7 14.8 21.8 10.8
50 to 99 44 33 18 24 Q 3,047 2,542 1,181 1,371 Q 14.5 12.8 15.0 17.2 Q
100 to 249 62 61 12 20 5 4,104 3,474 785 1,041 324 15.1 17.5 15.8 19.1 15.1
250 or more 70 83 26 33 8 3,998 4,326 1,278 1,491 384 17.6 19.2 20.0 22.3 20.4
Number of laptop computers                              
None 89 90 40 48 8 7,732 6,290 3,739 3,041 580 11.5 14.3 10.8 15.7 13.2
1 to 4 88 88 34 54 9 8,025 6,735 3,030 2,736 636 11.0 13.0 11.3 19.7 13.7
5 to 9 38 44 15 28 Q 2,577 2,712 1,332 1,555 Q 14.9 16.1 11.2 18.0 Q
10 to 19 41 42 25 19 Q 2,950 2,525 1,426 1,289 Q 14.0 16.8 17.7 14.9 Q
20 to 49 60 45 17 27 5 3,880 2,992 925 1,505 341 15.6 15.1 17.9 17.7 15.4
50 to 99 33 25 9 17 Q 2,116 1,753 511 710 Q 15.4 14.1 16.8 24.2 Q
100 to 249 30 39 Q 10 4 1,978 1,979 Q 508 234 14.9 19.5 15.1 19.8 18.1
250 or more 40 43 5 17 Q 2,028 2,436 261 657 Q 19.8 17.8 18.3 26.4 Q
Number of dedicated servers                              
None 125 124 43 73 9 11,892 9,785 4,440 4,614 768 10.5 12.6 9.8 15.8 11.7
1 to 4 164 171 62 88 11 12,362 11,333 4,780 4,808 814 13.3 15.1 13.0 18.4 13.7
5 to 9 38 28 15 17 Q 2,387 1,795 1,008 872 Q 16.0 15.6 15.0 19.1 Q
10 to 19 41 34 10 20 Q 2,098 1,914 506 901 Q 19.6 18.0 19.3 22.4 Q
20 to 49 26 23 6 13 Q 1,509 1,172 418 530 Q 16.9 19.3 14.9 25.3 Q
50 or more 25 36 16 9 6 1,039 1,422 591 277 234 23.8 25.0 27.2 33.1 27.3
Number of photocopiers                              
None 99 115 48 65 8 8,727 8,281 4,016 3,884 684 11.4 13.9 11.9 16.7 11.4
One 78 63 30 36 8 6,535 4,855 2,974 2,181 535 11.9 13.0 10.1 16.3 14.8
2 to 4 103 87 33 63 7 8,011 6,177 2,444 3,211 469 12.8 14.1 13.5 19.6 14.2
5 to 9 54 52 14 21 Q 3,691 2,880 932 1,146 Q 14.7 18.0 14.6 18.0 Q
10 or more 85 99 28 37 9 4,322 5,230 1,377 1,579 514 19.6 18.9 20.3 23.2 17.3
Number of TVs or video displays                              
None 83 68 27 38 8 8,419 6,505 3,634 2,888 669 9.9 10.4 7.5 13.0 11.7
One 43 41 14 19 Q 3,519 3,628 1,380 1,241 223 12.3 11.2 9.8 15.2 19.0
2 to 4 78 75 24 52 7 6,455 4,739 1,934 2,811 527 12.1 15.8 12.6 18.4 12.7
5 to 9 51 44 21 30 Q 3,076 2,532 1,031 1,266 Q 16.5 17.3 20.5 23.9 Q
10 to 19 49 53 14 27 Q 2,949 2,763 923 1,269 Q 16.5 19.0 15.0 21.5 Q
20 to 49 42 49 22 22 Q 2,788 2,778 1,200 1,066 Q 15.0 17.7 18.7 20.7 Q
50 to 99 24 29 Q 10 Q 1,479 1,507 Q 504 Q 16.1 19.4 15.8 20.4 Q
100 or more 49 57 17 22 3 2,601 2,970 815 957 203 19.0 19.4 20.6 23.2 15.5
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                             
Snack bar or concession stand 68 65 20 31 6 3,820 3,535 914 1,321 294 17.9 18.3 22.1 23.6 21.4
Fast food or small restaurant 70 69 29 48 7 3,257 2,893 1,425 1,867 345 21.5 23.9 20.7 25.7 21.5
Cafeteria or large restaurant 88 104 24 37 6 5,691 6,145 1,161 1,894 331 15.5 17.0 21.0 19.8 19.4
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
104 105 30 45 8 6,504 5,737 1,478 2,066 365 16.0 18.4 20.3 21.8 21.7
Small kitchen area 76 64 20 38 5 5,783 4,646 1,313 2,027 286 13.1 13.8 15.2 18.9 17.2
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                             
Data center or server farm 86 79 33 30 11 4,065 3,890 1,414 1,230 505 21.3 20.3 23.1 24.1 21.6
Computer-based training room 100 100 37 57 6 6,406 6,036 2,207 2,756 318 15.5 16.6 16.6 20.7 19.8
Student or public computer center 71 75 22 33 Q 5,892 5,069 1,359 1,892 Q 12.1 14.7 16.3 17.3 Q
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                             
Economizer cycle 225 177 63 54 20 13,546 9,729 3,821 2,347 1,305 16.6 18.2 16.4 22.9 15.5
Regular HVAC maintenance 381 367 132 199 30 25,864 22,200 9,200 10,031 1,949 14.7 16.5 14.3 19.8 15.2
Building automation system (BAS)2 238 217 78 116 22 14,019 11,822 4,473 5,501 1,235 17.0 18.3 17.4 21.0 17.5
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                             
Multipaned windows 355 325 86 141 24 25,363 20,416 5,878 6,632 1,440 14.0 15.9 14.7 21.2 16.6
Tinted window glass 224 230 94 145 26 14,273 14,413 7,170 6,933 1,611 15.7 15.9 13.1 20.9 15.9
Reflective window glass 105 89 42 54 9 6,088 4,283 2,554 2,412 500 17.3 20.9 16.6 22.5 18.4
External overhangs or awnings 167 189 66 107 21 10,662 10,362 4,492 5,386 1,160 15.7 18.2 14.7 19.8 17.9
Skylights or atriums 109 113 42 55 13 7,645 7,033 3,687 2,770 941 14.3 16.0 11.3 20.0 13.4
Light scheduling 193 164 69 94 21 11,334 8,922 4,291 4,597 1,119 17.1 18.4 16.0 20.3 18.8
Occupancy sensors 226 186 66 106 24 14,604 10,406 4,733 4,672 1,456 15.5 17.9 13.9 22.6 16.8
Multi-level lighting or dimming 96 90 36 41 9 5,507 4,562 1,887 2,006 571 17.5 19.6 19.2 20.4 16.3
Daylight harvesting 43 27 16 18 4 2,472 1,596 891 918 237 17.6 16.8 18.5 19.7 16.8
Demand responsive lighting 22 27 16 14 Q 1,402 1,379 1,167 693 Q 15.4 19.4 13.3 19.7 Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 91 66 31 41 11 4,581 3,376 1,711 1,922 477 19.8 19.4 17.9 21.4 23.2
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                             
Heating 319 297 113 138 26 24,165 21,130 8,546 7,448 1,858 13.2 14.0 13.2 18.5 14.0
Cooling 310 292 114 162 24 22,653 20,659 8,665 8,847 1,692 13.7 14.1 13.2 18.3 14.4
Lighting 388 375 138 201 34 29,198 25,547 10,596 10,933 2,319 13.3 14.7 13.1 18.4 14.7
Annual consumption
(kilowatthours)
                             
10,000 or less 2 1 1 0 Q 1,444 900 478 161 Q 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.7 Q
10,001 to 50,000 18 15 9 6 Q 4,191 3,106 1,911 1,128 166 4.3 4.9 4.9 5.4 7.6
50,001 to 100,000 22 19 9 11 Q 2,661 2,024 1,506 1,205 Q 8.2 9.2 6.2 8.8 Q
100,001 to 500,000 95 93 37 49 9 7,644 6,936 3,032 2,879 823 12.4 13.4 12.2 16.9 11.3
500,001 to 1,000,000 54 57 17 34 Q 3,574 3,340 1,235 1,723 Q 15.0 17.0 13.8 20.0 Q
1,000,001 to 5,000,000 137 120 46 65 11 8,125 6,552 2,323 3,124 616 16.9 18.4 19.6 20.7 18.0
Over 5,000,000 92 111 34 56 9 3,648 4,564 1,258 1,783 326 25.1 24.2 26.8 31.2 27.2
               
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and E of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.