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Construction cost data for electric generators installed in 2021

Release Date: September 21, 2023 Next Release Date: September 2024 2021 TablesXLS

Presented below are graphs and tables of the cost data for generators installed in 2021 based on data collected by the 2021 Annual Electric Generator Report, Form EIA-860. The cost data for certain generation technologies were omitted to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

EIA expects to publish construction cost data for generators installed in 2022 in September 2024.

Read EIA's Electric Power Data Guide.

Previous years:

Presented below are graphs and tables of the cost data for generators installed in 2021 based on data collected by the 2021 Annual Electric Generator Report, Form EIA-860. The cost data for certain generation technologies were omitted to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

EIA expects to publish construction cost data for generators installed in 2022 in September 2024.

Read EIA's Electric Power Data Guide.

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By selected sources and type:

Generators installed in 2021 by major energy source







All plants by major energy source capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
wind 1,428
solar 1,561
natural gas 920
battery storage 1,796
biomass 2,592
petroleum liquids 1,158
Total capacity (MW) at new plants at existing plants
wind 12,872 245
solar 12,643 22
natural gas 5,284 1,996
battery storage 1,470 1,602
biomass 2 10
petroleum liquids 0 35
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
wind 62 4
solar 519 9
natural gas 54 11
battery storage 90 17
biomass 1 4
petroleum liquids 1 11
All plants by major energy source total cost (billion $)
wind 18.7
solar 19.8
natural gas 6.7
battery storage 5.5
biomass 0.3
petroleum liquids 0.4
Number of generators by major energy source at new plants at existing plants
wind 64 4
solar 534 9
natural gas 168 21
battery storage 91 19
biomass 2 4
petroleum liquids 1 21
Average new plants capacity or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
wind 208 61
solar 24 2
natural gas 98 181
battery storage 16 94
biomass 2 3
petroleum liquids 0 3

Generators installed in 2021 by prime mover






Capacity-weighted average cost per kilowatt of installed namepate capacity ($/kW) capacity weighted-average cost ($/kW)
steam turbine 2,739
combustion turbine 529
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1,145
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1,585
internal combustion engine 1,378
onshore wind turbine 1,428
photovoltaic 1,561
energy storage, battery 1,796
Total included capacity(MW) at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 4 11
combustion turbine 1,500 1,884
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1,334 0
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1,186 46
internal combustion engine 76 102
onshore wind turbine 12,872 245
photovoltaic 12,643 22
energy storage, battery 1,470 1,602
number of generators at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 1 5
combustion turbine 21 11
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 7 0
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 5 1
internal combustion engine 135 29
onshore wind turbine 64 4
photovoltaic 534 9
energy storage, battery 91 19
Average generator capacity at new or existing plants at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 4 2
combustion turbine 71 171
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 191 0
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 237 46
internal combustion engine 1 4
onshore wind turbine 201 61
photovoltaic 24 2
energy storage, battery 16 84
Total construction cost total cost (billion $)
steam turbine 0.0
combustion turbine 1.8
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1.5
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 2.0
internal combustion engine 0.2
onshore wind turbine 18.7
photovoltaic 19.8
energy storage, battery 5.5

Generators installed in 2021 by Census region







Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
South 1,107
Midwest 1,463
West 1,674
Northeast 2,605
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
South 14,798 2,300
Midwest 9,148 303
West 6,346 1,239
Northeast 1,980 69
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
South 217 14
Midwest 189 17
West 135 18
Northeast 186 7
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
South 322 19
Midwest 197 27
West 146 23
Northeast 195 9
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
South 68 164
Midwest 48 18
West 47 69
Northeast 11 10
Census region total cost (billion $)
South 18.9
Midwest 13.8
West 12.7
Northeast 5.3

Generators installed in 2021 by top four states in capacity additions







State capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Texas 1,111
Florida 764
California 1,980
Ohio 1,168
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Texas 10,155 3
Florida 1,189 2,282
California 1,972 1,195
Ohio 2,347 5
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 100 1
Florida 17 6
California 78 11
Ohio 7 2
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Texas 204 1
Florida 17 10
California 88 13
Ohio 10 2
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 102 3
Florida 70 380
California 25 109
Ohio 335 2
State total cost (billion $)
Texas 11.3
Florida 2.7
California 6.3
Ohio 2.7

Natural gas generators installed in 2021 by technology







Natural gas plants by type capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
combined cycle 1,252
combustion turbine 512
internal combustion engine 1,323
steam turbine 5,953
Total included capacity (MW) at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 3,707 46
combustion turbine 1,500 1,878
internal combustion engine 74 61
steam turbine 4 12
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 5 1
combustion turbine 4 5
internal combustion engine 44 2
steam turbine 1 3
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 14 1
combustion turbine 21 11
internal combustion engine 132 5
steam turbine 1 4
Average new plants capacity or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 741 46
combustion turbine 375 376
internal combustion engine 2 31
steam turbine 4 4
Total construction cost total cost (billion $)
combined cycle 4.7
combustion turbine 1.7
internal combustion engine 0.2
steam turbine 0.0

Natural gas generators installed in 2021 at combined-cycle plants by prime mover






Natural gas combined cycle plants by component capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
combustion turbine 1,145
steam turbine 1,585
Total capacity at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 1,334 0
steam turbine 1,186 46
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 7 0
steam turbine 5 1
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 191 0
steam turbine 237 46
Natural gas generators at combined-cycle plants by prime mover total cost (billion $)
combustion turbine 1.5
steam turbine 2.0

Solar PV generators installed in 2021 by Census region







Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
South 1,431
West 1,445
Midwest 1,770
Northeast 2,988
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
South 7,211 7
West 2,976 1
Midwest 1,821 15
Northeast 635 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
South 135 3
West 93 1
Midwest 154 5
Northeast 137 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
South 138 3
West 100 1
Midwest 158 5
Northeast 138 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
South 53 2
West 32 1
Midwest 12 3
Northeast 5 0
Region total cost (billion $)
South 10.3
West 4.3
Midwest 3.2
Northeast 1.9

Solar PV generators installed in 2021 by top five states in capacity additions






Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Texas 1,367
Florida 1,127
California 1,640
Georgia 1,714
North Carolina 1,521
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Texas 3,586 0
Florida 1,178 0
California 1,171 0
Georgia 869 1
North Carolina 633 5
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 26 0
Florida 16 0
California 52 0
Georgia 9 1
North Carolina 39 1
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Texas 28 0
Florida 16 0
California 59 0
Georgia 9 1
North Carolina 39 1
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 138 0
Florida 74 0
California 23 0
Georgia 97 1
North Carolina 16 5
State total cost (billion $)
Texas 4.9
Florida 1.3
California 1.9
Georgia 1.5
North Carolina 1.0

Solar PV generators installed in 2021 by PV panel type and tracking system







Solar PV plants by tracking system capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
2,047
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
1,423
thin-film CdTe,
all types
1,626
other 1,344
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
1,624 9
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
6,703 8
thin-film CdTe,
all types
3,796 5
other 519 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
221 6
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
228 2
thin-film CdTe,
all types
43 1
other 27 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
229 6
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
234 2
thin-film CdTe,
all types
44 1
other 27 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
7 2
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
29 4
thin-film CdTe,
all types
88 5
other 19 0
Solar PV plants by tracking system total cost (billion $)
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
3.3
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
9.5
thin-film CdTe,
all types
6.2
other 0.7

Solar PV generators installed in 2021 by total added capacity at plant







Plant size capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
1–5 MW 2,866
5–10 MW 2,391
10–100 MW 1,518
100–500 MW 1,386
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 977 22
5–10 MW 183 0
10–100 MW 4,231 0
100–500 MW 7,252 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 390 9
5–10 MW 21 0
10–100 MW 70 0
100–500 MW 38 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 400 9
5–10 MW 22 0
10–100 MW 72 0
100–500 MW 40 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 3 2
5–10 MW 9 0
10–100 MW 60 0
100–500 MW 191 0
Plant size total cost (billion $)
1–5 MW 2.9
5–10 MW 0.4
10–100 MW 6.4
100–500 MW 10.1

Wind generators installed in 2021 by Census region







Census region capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Midwest 1,562
South 1,161
West 1,527
Northeast 2,863
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Midwest 5,176 135
South 4,864 3
West 2,608 107
Northeast 224 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Midwest 26 1
South 18 1
West 13 2
Northeast 5 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Midwest 26 1
South 18 1
West 15 2
Northeast 5 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Midwest 199 135
South 270 3
West 201 54
Northeast 45 0
Census region total cost (billion $)
Midwest 8.3
South 5.7
West 4.1
Northeast 0.6

Wind generators installed in 2021 by plant size







Plant size capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
1–25 MW 2,708
25–100 MW 1,887
100–200 MW 1,464
>200 MW 1,382
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 45 3
25–100 MW 491 107
100–200 MW 2,727 135
>200 MW 9,608 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 6 1
25–100 MW 7 2
100–200 MW 17 1
>200 MW 32 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 6 1
25–100 MW 8 2
100–200 MW 17 1
>200 MW 33 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 7 3
25–100 MW 70 54
100–200 MW 160 135
>200 MW 300 0
Plant size total cost (billion $)
1–25 MW 0.1
25–100 MW 1.1
100–200 MW 4.2
>200 MW 13.3

Wind generators installed in 2021 by wind class







Class capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Class 1 1,526
Class 2 1,417
Class 3 1,425
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 914 107
Class 2 8,372 3
Class 3 3,586 135
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 7 2
Class 2 38 1
Class 3 17 1
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 7 2
Class 2 40 1
Class 3 17 1
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 131 54
Class 2 220 3
Class 3 211 135
Plant size total cost (billion $)
Class 1 1.6
Class 2 11.9
Class 3 5.3

Notes:
  • Data includes facilities with a total generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt (MW) or more. Solar data does not include distributed generation capacity.
  • Government grants, tax benefits, or other incentives are excluded from these costs.
  • Solar photovoltaic (PV) data are based on reported alternating current (AC) capacity and may differ from other cost and capacity estimates that use direct current (DC) ratings of PV panels.
  • Petroleum liquids includes distillate fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, residual fuel oil, and waste oil.
  • Biomass includes both liquid and gaseous biomass fuels.
  • Some generation technologies were excluded from this analysis to avoid disclosure of individual company data.
  • Average construction cost is based on the nameplate capacity weighted average cost per kilowatt of installed nameplate capacity.
  • Total capacity is the sum of the nameplate capacity of generators included in each group.
  • Average new capacity is based on the nameplate capacity of new plants or new additions of nameplate capacity to existing plants. New plants did not previously have operable units and are typically recently constructed. Existing plants have at least one previously operable generator and are not newly constructed.
  • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

Data source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, Annual Electric Generator Report