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Construction cost data for electric generators installed in 2019

Release Date: July 14, 2021 Next Release Date: July 2022 2019 TablesXLS

Presented below are graphs and tables of the cost data for generators installed in 2019 based on data collected by the 2020 Annual Electric Generator Report, Form EIA-860. The cost data for certain generation technologies were omitted to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

EIA expects to publish construction cost data for generators installed in 2020 in July 2022.

Read EIA's Electric Power Data Guide.

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Generators installed in 2019 by major energy source







All plants by major energy source capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
wind 1,391
natural gas 1,078
solar 1,796
biomass 2,904
battery storage 2,973
petroleum liquids 1,149
Total capacity (MW) at new plants at existing plants
wind 9,006 619
natural gas 4,673 3,402
solar 5,450 40
biomass 123 48
battery storage 130 22
petroleum liquids 3 46
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
wind 54 4
natural gas 18 18
solar 458 6
biomass 7 7
battery storage 30 6
petroleum liquids 2 16
All plants by major energy source total cost (billion $)
wind 13.4
natural gas 8.7
solar 9.9
biomass .5
battery storage .5
petroleum liquids .0
Number of generators by major energy source at new plants at existing plants
wind 55 5
natural gas 47 38
solar 486 7
biomass 9 12
battery storage 31 7
petroleum liquids 2 22
Average new plants capacity or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
wind 167 155
natural gas 260 189
solar 12 7
biomass 18 7
battery storage 4 4
petroleum liquids 1 3

Generators installed in 2019 by prime mover






Capacity-weighted average cost per kilowatt of installed namepate capacity ($/kW) capacity weighted-average cost ($/kW)
steam turbine 2,868
combustion turbine 1,481
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 921
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 990
internal combustion engine 1,217
onshore wind turbine 1,391
photovoltaic 1,796
energy storage, battery 2,973
Total included capacity(MW) at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 131 42
combustion turbine 472 1,273
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 2,404 1,226
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 1,551 723
internal combustion engine 240 232
onshore wind turbine 9,006 619
photovoltaic 5,450 40
energy storage, battery 130 22
number of generators at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 9 2
combustion turbine 10 17
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 9 5
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 4 3
internal combustion engine 26 45
onshore wind turbine 55 5
photovoltaic 486 7
energy storage, battery 31 7
Average generator capacity at new or existing plants at new plants at existing plants
steam turbine 15 21
combustion turbine 47 75
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 267 245
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 388 241
internal combustion engine 9 5
onshore wind turbine 164 124
photovoltaic 11 6
energy storage, battery 4 3
Total construction cost total cost (billion $)
steam turbine .5
combustion turbine 2.6
combustion turbine (as part of combined cycle) 3.3
steam turbine (as part of combined cycle) 2.3
internal combustion engine 0.6
onshore wind turbine 13.4
photovoltaic 9.9
energy storage, battery 0.5

Generators installed in 2019 by Census region







Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
South 1,263
Midwest 1,589
Northeast 1,395
West 1,530
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
South 10,253 493
Midwest 4,390 849
Northeast 2,115 1,832
West 2,626 1,003
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
South 169 11
Midwest 150 15
Northeast 146 11
West 104 20
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
South 181 21
Midwest 180 17
Northeast 162 15
West 107 38
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
South 61 45
Midwest 29 57
Northeast 14 167
West 25 50
Census region total cost (billion $)
South 13.6
Midwest 8.3
Northeast 5.5
West 5.6

Generators installed in 2019 by top five states in capacity additions







State capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Texas 1,264
Florida 912
Pennsylvania 840
Iowa 1,707
California 1,972
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Texas 4,938 10
Florida 2,469 77
Pennsylvania 1,351 889
Iowa 963 541
California 1,189 36
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 29 1
Florida 15 2
Pennsylvania 7 1
Iowa 9 4
California 40 4
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Texas 31 1
Florida 18 5
Pennsylvania 17 3
Iowa 9 4
California 42 7
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Texas 170 10
Florida 165 38
Pennsylvania 193 889
Iowa 107 135
California 30 9
State total cost (billion $)
Texas 6.3
Florida 2.3
Pennsylvania 1.9
Iowa 2.6
California 2.4

Natural gas generators installed in 2019 by technology







Natural gas plants by type capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
combined cycle 948
combustion turbine 1,483
internal combustion engine 1,227
steam turbine 1,084
Total included capacity (MW) at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 3,955 1,949
combustion turbine 474 1258
internal combustion engine 232 194
steam turbine 13 2
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 4 4
combustion turbine 7 8
internal combustion engine 4 5
steam turbine 3 1
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 13 8
combustion turbine 10 16
internal combustion engine 20 13
steam turbine 4 1
Average new plants capacity or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
combined cycle 989 487
combustion turbine 68 157
internal combustion engine 58 39
steam turbine 4 2
Total construction cost total cost (billion $)
combined cycle 5.6
combustion turbine 2.6
internal combustion engine 0.5
steam turbine 0.0

Natural gas generators installed in 2019 at combined-cycle plants by prime mover






Natural gas combined cycle plants by component capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
combustion turbine 921
steam turbine 990
Total capacity at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 2,404 1,226
steam turbine 1,551 723
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 9 5
steam turbine 4 3
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
combustion turbine 267 245
steam turbine 388 241
Natural gas generators at combined-cycle plants by prime mover total cost (billion $)
combustion turbine 3.3
steam turbine 2.3

Solar PV generators installed in 2019 by Census region







Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
South 1,542
West 1,872
Northeast 2,544
Midwest 2,630
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
South 2,773 1
West 1,967 38
Northeast 464 2
Midwest 245 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
South 135 1
West 84 4
Northeast 120 1
Midwest 119 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
South 136 1
West 87 5
Northeast 124 1
Midwest 139 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
South 21 1
West 23 9
Northeast 4 2
Midwest 2 0
Region total cost (billion $)
South 4.3
West 3.8
Northeast 1.2
Midwest 0.6

Solar PV generators installed in 2019 by top five states in capacity additions






Census regions capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
California 2,002
Florida 1,338
Georgia 1,247
Texas 1,596
North Carolina 1,937
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
California 1,037 2
Florida 741 0
Georgia 490 0
Texas 489 0
North Carolina 471 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
California 26 1
Florida 13 0
Georgia 15 0
Texas 9 0
North Carolina 51 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
California 28 1
Florida 13 0
Georgia 15 0
Texas 9 0
North Carolina 51 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
California 40 2
Florida 57 0
Georgia 33 0
Texas 54 0
North Carolina 9 0
Region total cost (billion $)
California 2.1
Florida 1.0
Georgia 0.6
Texas 0.8
North Carolina 0.9

Solar PV generators installed in 2019 by PV panel type and tracking system







Solar PV plants by tracking system capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
crystalline silicon,
fixed tilt
2,242
crystalline silicon,
axis-based tracking
1,497
thin-film CdTe,
fixed tilt
1,537
thin-film CdTe,
axis-based tracking
1,962
other 2,094
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon, fixed tilt 892 2
crystalline silicon, axis-based tracking 2,455 28
thin-film CdTe, fixed tilt 126 1
thin-film CdTe, axis-based tracking 1,623 2
other 354 7
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon, fixed tilt 190 2
crystalline silicon, axis-based tracking 190 1
thin-film CdTe, fixed tilt 12 1
thin-film CdTe, axis-based tracking 41 1
other 25 1
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon, fixed tilt 211 3
crystalline silicon, axis-based tracking 197 1
thin-film CdTe, fixed tilt 12 1
thin-film CdTe, axis-based tracking 41 1
other 25 1
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
crystalline silicon, fixed tilt 5 1
crystalline silicon, axis-based tracking 13 28
thin-film CdTe, fixed tilt 11 1
thin-film CdTe, axis-based tracking 40 2
other 14 7
Solar PV plants by tracking system total cost (billion $)
crystalline silicon, fixed tilt 2.0
crystalline silicon, axis-based tracking 3.7
thin-film CdTe, fixed tilt 0.2
thin-film CdTe, axis-based tracking 3.2
other 0.8

Solar PV generators installed in 2019 by total added capacity at plant







Plant size capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
1–5 MW 2,614
5–10 MW 1,898
10–100 MW 1,635
100–250 MW 1,622
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 850 5
5–10 MW 265 7
10–100 MW 2546 28
100–250 MW 1,789 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 361 4
5–10 MW 32 1
10–100 MW 53 1
100–250 MW 12 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 387 5
5–10 MW 34 1
10–100 MW 53 1
100–250 MW 12 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
1–5 MW 2 1
5–10 MW 8 7
10–100 MW 48 28
100–250 MW 149 0
Plant size total cost (billion $)
1–5 MW 2.2
5–10 MW 0.5
10–100 MW 4.2
100–250 MW 2.9

Wind generators installed in 2019 by Census region







Census region capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Midwest and Northeast 1,593
South 1,166
West 1,454
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Midwest and Northeast 4,041 619
South 4,352 0
West 613 0
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Midwest and Northeast 31 4
South 18 0
West 5 0
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Midwest and Northeast 31 5
South 19 0
West 5 0
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Midwest and Northeast 130 155
South 242 0
West 123 0
Census region total cost (billion $)
Midwest and Northeast 7.4
South 5.1
West 0.9

Wind generators installed in 2019 by plant size







Plant size capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
1–25 MW 4,540
25–100 MW 1,550
100–200 MW 1,615
>200 MW 1,252
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 25 5
25–100 MW 718 76
100–200 MW 2,613 140
>200 MW 5,649 399
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 9 1
25–100 MW 10 1
100–200 MW 15 1
>200 MW 20 1
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 9 2
25–100 MW 10 1
100–200 MW 15 1
>200 MW 21 1
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
1–25 MW 3 5
25–100 MW 72 76
100–200 MW 174 140
>200 MW 282 399
Plant size total cost (billion $)
1–25 MW 0.1
25–100 MW 1.2
100–200 MW 4.4
>200 MW 7.6

Wind generators installed in 2019 by wind class







Class capacity-weighted average cost ($/kW)
Class 1 and 2 1,387
Class 3 1,401
Total included capacity at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 and 2 6,706 5
Class 3 2,300 615
Number of plants at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 and 2 33 1
Class 3 21 3
Number of generators at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 and 2 33 2
Class 3 22 3
Average new plant or additional capacity at existing plants at new plants at existing plants
Class 1 and 2 203 5
Class 3 110 205
Plant size total cost (billion $)
Class 1 and 2 9.3
Class 3 4.1

Notes:
  • Data includes facilities with a total generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt (MW) or more. Solar data does not include distributed generation capacity.
  • Government grants, tax benefits, or other incentives are excluded from these costs.
  • Solar photovoltaic (PV) data are based on reported alternating current (AC) capacity and may differ from other cost and capacity estimates that use direct current.
  • Petroleum liquids includes distillate fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, residual fuel oil, and waste oil.
  • Biomass includes both liquid and gaseous biomass fuels.
  • Some generation technologies were excluded from this analysis to avoid disclosure of individual company data.
  • Average construction cost is based on the nameplate capacity weighted average cost per kilowatt of installed nameplate capacity.
  • Total capacity is the sum of the nameplate capacity of generators included in each group.
  • Average new capacity is based on the nameplate capacity of new plants or new additions of nameplate capacity to existing plants. New plants did not previously have operable units and are typically recently constructed. Existing plants have at least one previously operable generator and are not newly constructed.
  • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, Annual Electric Generator Report