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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E5. Electricity consumption (kWh) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total electricity consumption (billion kWh)
  Total Space
heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water
heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office
equip-
ment
Com-
puting
Other
All buildings 1,243 25 185 196 6 212 27 196 50 119 225
Building floorspace (square feet)                      
1,001 to 5,000 130 4 15 13 1 17 8 38 6 10 19
5,001 to 10,000 113 2 13 14 1 17 5 27 5 10 19
10,001 to 25,000 159 4 20 23 1 27 4 27 8 15 30
25,001 to 50,000 149 4 22 25 1 28 1 20 6 14 29
50,001 to 100,000 192 4 30 32 1 32 2 30 8 18 34
100,001 to 200,000 190 3 28 34 1 35 2 27 6 21 33
200,001 to 500,000 180 2 34 31 1 32 2 20 6 18 34
Over 500,000 130 1 25 24 0 23 3 7 5 14 27
Principal building activity                      
Education 134 3 26 20 1 23 1 12 6 23 19
Food sales 61 1 2 3 0 5 3 43 1 1 3
Food service 82 1 9 9 1 5 13 33 2 1 6
Health care 107 1 20 24 0 18 2 6 5 10 20
Inpatient 74 0 17 13 0 12 2 4 4 6 15
Outpatient 33 1 3 11 0 6 0 1 1 4 6
Lodging 89 2 11 14 1 12 3 10 13 2 22
Mercantile 207 4 27 36 2 41 2 56 5 7 28
Retail (other than mall) 82 2 12 14 0 21 1 15 2 3 13
Enclosed and strip malls 124 2 15 22 2 20 1 41 3 4 15
Office 253 6 34 63 1 43 1 8 11 49 39
Public assembly 80 3 24 7 0 10 1 7 2 5 21
Public order and safety 21 0 4 2 0 4 0 1 1 2 6
Religious worship 24 1 4 4 0 3 0 1 1 1 8
Service 37 1 5 4 0 11 0 1 1 2 11
Warehouse and storage 83 1 10 4 0 25 0 14 2 5 23
Other 56 1 8 5 0 11 Q 4 1 12 15
Vacant 8 0 1 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 3
Year constructed                      
Before 1920 32 1 3 6 0 6 1 4 1 3 7
1920 to 1945 64 1 9 10 0 11 1 10 3 7 12
1946 to 1959 85 2 12 14 0 15 2 12 3 7 17
1960 to 1969 147 3 20 22 1 26 3 21 7 16 28
1970 to 1979 171 3 23 29 1 29 5 26 7 17 30
1980 to 1989 234 5 41 38 1 39 4 34 9 23 40
1990 to 1999 213 5 33 32 1 35 5 38 8 19 37
2000 to 2003 111 2 17 18 1 20 2 17 4 12 20
2004 to 2007 97 2 14 14 0 17 2 19 4 7 18
2008 to 2012 89 2 13 14 0 15 2 16 3 8 16
Census region and division                      
Northeast 220 5 22 39 1 39 4 35 8 24 42
New England 51 1 4 8 0 9 1 10 2 5 11
Middle Atlantic 170 4 18 31 1 31 3 25 6 19 31
Midwest 249 7 28 41 1 46 7 37 10 23 49
East North Central 174 5 19 29 1 32 4 27 7 16 35
West North Central 75 3 9 12 0 14 2 11 3 7 14
South 530 8 108 76 3 87 11 82 21 45 90
South Atlantic 287 4 58 41 2 45 5 45 12 26 48
East South Central 71 2 11 11 0 12 2 12 3 5 12
West South Central 173 2 39 24 1 30 4 24 6 13 30
West 243 4 27 39 1 41 5 42 12 27 44
Mountain 67 1 9 11 0 11 2 10 4 7 12
Pacific 176 3 18 28 1 30 4 32 8 21 32
Climate region1                      
Very cold/Cold 419 13 38 72 2 75 9 70 17 40 82
Mixed-humid 415 9 63 65 2 71 10 64 18 40 73
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 152 1 22 22 1 25 3 26 7 17 28
Hot-humid 220 1 59 30 1 34 4 32 7 15 35
Marine 35 1 2 7 0 6 1 5 1 5 8
Number of floors                      
One 545 12 76 71 4 95 16 127 18 37 89
Two 259 6 36 41 1 45 4 39 10 29 47
Three 109 2 16 19 0 19 2 11 5 12 22
Four to nine 231 3 39 45 1 37 4 15 11 27 48
Ten or more 98 1 17 20 0 16 2 5 5 12 20
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any elevators 539 9 91 102 2 89 8 40 24 69 105
Number of elevators                      
One 147 3 21 28 1 26 2 15 7 17 28
Two to five 222 4 36 41 1 36 3 15 9 35 43
Six or more 170 2 34 34 0 28 4 10 8 17 34
Any escalators 66 1 12 13 0 12 1 5 4 5 14
Number of workers (main shift)                      
Fewer than 5 134 4 16 13 1 23 3 27 6 7 33
5 to 9 112 3 15 15 1 18 5 23 5 7 21
10 to 19 132 3 17 18 1 21 6 29 6 9 22
20 to 49 220 5 30 33 1 37 5 42 9 21 36
50 to 99 214 4 34 35 1 38 3 35 8 22 35
100 to 249 185 3 29 32 1 34 2 25 6 20 33
250 or more 246 3 45 50 1 42 4 15 10 32 45
Weekly operating hours                      
Fewer than 40 35 1 6 2 0 5 1 4 2 3 10
40 to 48 155 4 25 22 1 29 1 12 8 24 29
49 to 60 238 6 37 40 1 44 2 19 10 36 45
61 to 84 249 5 37 43 2 42 4 51 7 19 38
85 to 167 200 3 25 27 1 31 10 62 4 8 29
Open continuously 366 5 55 61 2 61 10 49 20 29 74
Ownership and occupancy                      
Nongovernment owned 988 20 138 155 5 167 24 176 40 86 176
Owner occupied 455 9 68 65 2 77 13 78 21 34 88
Leased to tenant(s) 398 8 52 67 3 67 9 78 14 36 64
Owner occupied and leased 132 2 19 23 1 23 2 20 5 16 23
Unoccupied 2 Q 0 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 1
Government owned 255 5 47 41 1 45 4 20 11 33 49
Federal 23 0 4 5 0 4 0 1 1 2 5
State 81 2 10 16 0 15 1 7 4 10 16
Local 152 3 33 19 1 26 2 13 6 21 28
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                     
Building owner 1,029 21 158 165 5 178 21 139 44 105 194
Business owner or tenant 182 3 22 26 1 30 5 52 5 12 26
Property management 18 0 3 3 0 3 1 2 1 2 3
Other 13 0 2 2 Q 2 1 3 1 1 2
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                     
Building owner 1,061 21 162 169 5 183 22 148 45 107 199
Business owner or tenant 142 3 18 20 1 23 4 39 4 9 20
Property management 12 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 1 1 2
Other 28 0 4 4 0 4 1 8 1 1 4
Number of establishments                      
One 777 16 116 113 3 133 21 119 35 73 147
2 to 5 249 5 36 42 1 43 4 43 9 21 46
6 to 10 70 1 10 13 1 11 1 14 2 8 10
11 to 20 69 1 11 13 1 11 1 13 2 6 10
More than 20 76 1 14 14 1 14 1 8 2 11 11
Currently unoccupied 2 Q 0 0 Q 0 Q Q Q Q 1
Predominant exterior wall material                      
Brick, stone, or stucco 596 13 90 98 3 97 15 86 27 61 107
Concrete (block or poured) 323 5 50 48 2 55 6 68 11 24 54
Concrete panels 121 2 16 20 0 22 2 14 5 15 24
Siding or shingles 71 2 8 10 0 11 3 14 3 6 14
Metal panels 79 2 13 9 0 19 1 9 2 6 18
Window glass 31 1 5 6 0 5 0 2 1 6 5
Other 14 0 2 2 0 2 0 Q 0 1 3
No one major type 8 0 1 1 0 1 Q 1 0 1 2
Predominant roof material                      
Metal surfacing 169 4 27 19 1 34 3 29 6 13 33
Synthetic or rubber 422 9 59 72 2 71 8 67 16 42 76
Built-up 337 5 54 58 2 58 8 48 12 35 57
Slate or tile shingles 59 1 8 9 0 9 1 10 3 6 12
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
14 0 2 2 0 2 1 4 1 1 2
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
196 5 28 29 1 31 6 33 10 17 36
Concrete 30 0 6 5 Q 5 0 3 1 5 5
Other 11 0 2 2 Q 2 Q 3 0 1 2
No one major type 5 0 1 1 Q 1 Q Q 0 1 1
Roof characteristics                      
Roof tilt                      
Flat 799 14 125 136 4 138 17 112 30 81 142
Shallow pitch 298 6 39 40 2 52 6 62 12 26 53
Steeper pitch 145 4 21 20 1 22 4 22 9 12 30
Cool roof 325 5 50 54 2 55 6 52 12 33 56
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any type of renovation 648 13 97 108 3 108 14 94 26 67 118
Addition or annex 205 4 37 33 1 35 4 25 9 17 40
Reduction in floorspace 36 0 6 7 0 7 1 5 1 3 6
Roof replacement 329 7 50 57 2 56 8 43 13 35 61
Exterior wall replacement 70 2 12 11 0 11 2 10 2 8 12
Interior wall reconfiguration 356 7 54 64 2 58 6 42 14 46 63
Window replacement 176 4 28 29 1 28 5 19 9 21 33
HVAC equipment upgrade 433 9 68 74 2 72 9 58 17 46 78
Lighting upgrade 410 8 62 69 2 66 10 61 17 43 72
Electrical upgrade 265 5 42 44 1 42 6 35 11 29 49
Plumbing system upgrade 222 4 34 38 1 34 6 29 10 25 41
Insulation upgrade 126 3 19 19 1 18 3 20 6 15 22
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 282 6 47 48 1 44 7 35 11 33 50
Structural upgrade 69 1 12 10 0 10 1 9 3 9 13
Other 13 0 2 3 0 2 Q 1 1 2 2
No renovations 506 10 75 74 3 90 11 87 21 44 92
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 89 2 13 14 0 15 2 16 3 8 16
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 1,243 25 185 196 6 212 27 196 50 119 225
Natural gas 903 15 134 146 4 151 20 153 37 83 160
Fuel oil 382 6 66 66 1 65 7 34 15 46 76
District heat 103 1 7 24 0 20 2 7 6 12 25
District chilled water 86 1 4 20 0 17 1 5 5 12 21
Propane 110 3 14 14 0 19 3 23 5 7 22
Other 50 1 8 9 0 9 1 8 2 5 9
Space-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 774 25 122 120 5 127 17 127 31 72 129
Electricity main 439 16 75 63 3 69 9 69 19 44 71
Electricity secondary 335 9 46 56 2 57 7 58 12 29 58
Other excluding electricity 423 N 53 73 1 76 10 62 18 44 86
Buildings without heating 45 N 11 3 0 9 1 7 1 2 11
Primary space-heating
energy source
                     
Electricity 439 16 75 63 3 69 9 69 19 44 71
Natural gas 611 7 88 99 2 105 14 106 23 58 109
Fuel oil 24 1 3 3 0 5 0 3 1 2 6
District heat 101 1 7 24 0 20 2 7 5 12 24
Propane 18 1 1 2 0 3 Q 5 1 1 3
Other 5 Q 0 1 0 1 Q 1 Q 0 1
Cooling energy sources                      
Electricity 1,159 24 185 182 6 193 26 187 46 109 201
Other excluding electricity 56 0 N 13 0 12 1 4 4 8 14
Buildings without cooling 27 0 N 1 0 7 0 6 1 1 11
Water-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 649 16 100 99 6 111 12 111 22 65 107
Other excluding electricity 560 8 81 94 N 93 15 84 28 51 106
Buildings without water heating 33 0 4 3 N 8 Q 2 1 3 12
Cooking energy sources                      
Electricity 454 9 72 68 3 64 27 92 16 35 67
Other excluding electricity 247 3 39 39 1 35 N 63 11 15 40
Buildings without cooking 542 12 74 89 2 113 N 42 23 69 119
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                     
Buildings with space heating 1,198 25 175 193 6 203 27 189 49 116 215
Buildings with cooling 1,215 24 185 195 6 205 27 190 50 118 215
Buildings with water heating 1,209 24 181 193 6 204 27 195 49 116 213
Buildings with cooking 700 13 111 107 4 100 27 155 28 50 107
Buildings with manufacturing 67 1 10 8 0 14 1 9 1 4 17
Buildings with electricity
generation
490 7 80 84 2 80 9 62 19 57 90
Percent of floorspace heated                      
Not heated 45 N 11 3 0 9 1 7 1 2 11
1 to 50 98 1 11 11 0 18 1 18 3 11 22
51 to 99 234 4 37 38 1 38 5 46 9 18 38
100 866 20 127 144 4 146 21 125 37 87 154
Percent of floorspace cooled                      
Not cooled 27 0 N 1 0 7 0 6 1 1 11
1 to 50 153 3 12 19 1 36 2 24 6 12 39
51 to 99 381 7 55 63 2 61 8 68 14 40 63
100 681 14 118 113 4 109 17 99 30 66 113
Percent lit when open                      
Zero 1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 1
1 to 50 114 3 16 18 1 15 2 14 7 8 31
51 to 99 526 11 78 87 3 83 11 90 21 51 91
100 599 11 92 91 3 113 14 92 23 59 101
Building never open/electricity
not used
3 0 0 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 2
Percent lit during off hours                      
Zero 232 6 34 34 1 37 3 30 9 28 49
1 to 50 784 16 122 127 5 136 16 123 31 74 136
51 to 100 165 2 21 26 0 29 6 31 7 14 29
Building always open with
no "off hours"
62 1 9 10 0 11 2 13 3 4 11
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heat pumps 180 4 33 25 1 28 3 26 10 18 30
Furnaces 106 3 14 15 1 17 3 20 5 9 18
Individual space heaters 271 9 36 43 2 49 6 39 12 25 52
District heat 103 1 7 24 0 20 2 7 6 12 24
Boilers 350 4 61 62 1 58 6 36 15 40 67
Packaged heating units 771 18 118 123 5 126 19 144 27 65 126
Other 38 1 3 5 0 5 1 18 1 1 4
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Residential-type central air
conditioners
186 4 27 22 1 32 4 42 8 14 32
Heat pumps 189 5 33 27 1 30 3 28 10 19 32
Individual air conditioners 160 4 26 24 1 26 4 21 10 14 31
District chilled water 86 1 4 20 0 17 1 5 5 12 21
Central chillers 328 4 63 62 1 53 5 24 12 43 62
Packaged air conditioning units 727 15 114 122 4 118 18 132 25 59 118
Swamp coolers 29 1 4 4 0 5 1 7 1 2 4
Other 9 Q 1 1 Q 1 Q 0 0 Q 1
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 388 9 57 59 2 63 9 65 17 40 66
Cooling 445 10 72 69 3 71 10 68 20 46 77
Water-heating equipment                      
Centralized system 728 15 106 114 3 122 20 114 33 68 134
Distributed system 158 4 23 24 1 31 2 22 6 16 29
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
324 6 52 54 2 51 6 59 11 33 50
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                     
Incandescent 612 12 99 99 3 100 14 101 25 54 105
Standard fluorescent 1,197 24 179 191 6 203 26 190 49 115 215
Compact fluorescent 889 17 140 149 5 144 21 132 38 89 154
High-intensity discharge (HID) 382 6 65 63 2 67 6 56 14 33 70
Halogen 478 9 77 80 3 78 11 80 19 41 82
LED 415 7 67 73 2 64 8 74 15 34 71
Other 10 Q 2 2 Q 1 0 2 0 1 2
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any refrigeration 1,150 23 172 183 6 189 27 196 47 107 200
Walk-in units 606 9 92 91 3 83 23 160 21 38 85
Cases or cabinets 582 9 83 90 3 83 19 153 20 37 84
Large cold storage areas 98 1 11 11 0 12 2 42 2 4 12
Commercial ice makers 653 11 104 105 3 96 21 134 27 50 102
Residential-type or compact units 911 19 141 150 5 157 17 121 38 95 166
Vending machines 742 13 116 126 4 129 11 111 30 71 131
No refrigeration 93 2 13 13 0 23 Q N 4 12 26
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Desktop computers 1,177 23 178 190 6 201 25 182 48 117 208
With flat screen monitors 1,166 23 176 188 6 199 25 180 48 117 205
With multiple monitors 523 9 82 94 2 87 8 62 20 68 90
Laptop computers 968 19 155 163 5 167 14 125 40 106 174
Dedicated servers 869 16 135 145 4 146 15 124 34 100 149
Laser printers 856 16 129 143 4 145 15 125 37 92 150
Inkjet printers 524 12 83 80 3 90 13 82 19 47 94
FAX machines 1,029 20 156 168 5 179 20 159 41 101 180
Photocopiers 908 17 144 155 4 158 12 114 39 101 164
Number of desktop computers                      
None 65 2 8 6 0 11 2 15 2 Q 17
1 to 4 205 5 24 24 1 31 12 56 9 6 37
5 to 9 134 3 18 18 1 23 3 31 6 8 24
10 to 19 129 3 17 20 1 23 2 23 5 12 23
20 to 49 210 4 33 34 1 38 2 34 9 16 37
50 to 99 120 3 20 21 1 23 1 13 5 12 21
100 to 249 160 2 22 29 1 30 2 14 7 24 29
250 or more 220 3 44 42 1 34 3 10 8 39 37
Number of laptop computers                      
None 275 6 31 33 1 45 13 71 11 13 51
1 to 4 273 7 40 37 2 48 5 53 12 18 51
5 to 9 126 2 19 21 1 24 2 21 5 9 22
10 to 19 131 3 23 23 1 22 2 19 5 11 23
20 to 49 154 3 21 28 1 27 2 16 7 22 28
50 to 99 85 1 16 15 0 15 1 6 3 11 16
100 to 249 90 1 14 17 0 15 1 5 4 18 16
250 or more 109 2 22 21 0 17 2 5 4 18 18
Number of dedicated servers                      
None 374 8 51 50 2 66 13 72 17 19 76
1 to 4 497 11 71 78 3 86 10 90 20 40 87
5 to 9 101 2 15 17 1 17 1 16 4 10 16
10 to 19 109 2 18 22 0 18 1 10 5 15 19
20 to 49 70 1 15 13 0 12 1 4 3 11 12
50 or more 92 1 16 15 0 12 1 4 3 24 15
Number of photocopiers                      
None 335 8 41 41 2 54 15 83 12 18 61
One 215 5 30 30 1 37 4 42 9 14 42
2 to 4 293 7 45 49 1 52 3 40 13 31 51
5 to 9 144 3 22 25 1 27 1 17 5 19 24
10 or more 257 3 46 51 1 42 4 14 12 36 48
Number of TVs or video displays                      
None 224 5 26 29 1 42 6 41 4 21 49
One 121 3 14 17 1 22 4 25 4 9 22
2 to 4 236 5 36 37 1 43 4 40 8 20 43
5 to 9 150 4 23 23 1 23 4 27 5 17 23
10 to 19 147 2 23 27 1 25 3 22 5 16 23
20 to 49 140 3 23 25 1 24 2 21 6 13 21
50 to 99 77 1 10 13 0 13 1 9 6 11 13
100 or more 149 2 29 25 0 21 4 12 14 11 31
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                     
Snack bar or concession stand 191 3 35 29 1 27 5 39 7 15 30
Fast food or small restaurant 224 3 34 36 1 33 4 59 9 13 32
Cafeteria or large restaurant 261 4 52 46 1 40 5 31 12 26 44
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
292 5 52 46 1 42 7 59 14 19 48
Small kitchen area 203 4 37 31 1 30 5 32 10 16 37
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                     
Data center or server farm 238 4 47 41 0 36 3 14 9 44 40
Computer-based training room 300 5 54 52 1 51 4 36 12 36 49
Student or public computer center 203 4 37 33 1 32 4 23 11 23 35
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                     
Economizer cycle 539 10 81 100 2 91 10 70 19 58 97
Regular HVAC maintenance 1,108 21 170 182 6 188 24 169 44 110 195
Building automation system (BAS)2 670 11 109 118 3 111 11 91 24 74 117
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                     
Multipaned windows 930 20 136 151 5 154 22 151 38 90 163
Tinted window glass 718 13 117 120 4 122 13 107 28 70 125
Reflective window glass 300 6 49 51 1 48 4 45 12 35 49
External overhangs or awnings 549 10 81 87 4 86 15 112 22 46 88
Skylights or atriums 332 6 53 60 2 58 5 42 13 31 63
Light scheduling 541 10 84 93 3 83 10 96 20 54 88
Occupancy sensors 609 10 95 106 3 97 9 91 23 66 109
Multi-level lighting or dimming 272 5 43 47 2 39 6 53 11 21 45
Daylight harvesting 109 2 17 20 1 18 2 19 3 8 19
Demand responsive lighting 80 1 12 13 1 13 1 19 3 5 12
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 239 4 37 42 2 38 4 48 6 21 37
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 893 20 138 147 5 149 17 141 35 87 155
Cooling 902 19 147 149 5 150 17 139 35 87 154
Lighting 1,137 23 171 182 6 195 24 174 46 110 205
Annual consumption
(kilowatthours)
                     
10,000 or less 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
10,001 to 50,000 50 2 6 6 0 10 1 4 3 5 13
50,001 to 100,000 62 2 8 8 0 12 1 7 3 6 14
100,001 to 500,000 283 7 35 38 2 46 9 61 13 23 48
500,001 to 1,000,000 165 4 24 26 1 26 6 26 8 16 28
1,000,001 to 5,000,000 379 7 55 65 2 66 7 70 13 31 63
Over 5,000,000 300 4 56 53 1 51 4 28 10 36 57
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and E of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.