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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B2. Summary table: total and medians of floorspace, number of workers, and hours of operation, 2012

Release date: February 2015
Revised date: December 2016
  Number of buildings (thousand) Total
floorspace
(million
square feet)
Total
workers
(thousand)
Median
square feet
per building (thousand)
Median square feet per worker1 Median operating hours per week Median age of buildings (years)
All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 5.0 1,029 50 32
Building floorspace (square feet)              
1,001 to 5,000  2,777 8,041 10,232 2.8 821 45 37
5,001 to 10,000  1,229 8,900 9,225 7.0 1,167 50 31
10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 15.0 1,444 55 32
25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.0 1,461 60 29
50,001 to 100,000  199 13,918 12,345 67.0 1,442 60 26
100,001 to 200,000  90 12,415 11,310 132.5 1,750 70 25
200,001 to 500,000  38 10,724 10,356 260.9 1,752 76 27
Over 500,000  8 7,074 9,196 737.0 1,195 126 29
Principal building activity              
Education 389 12,239 10,885 10.0 1,033 50 30
Food sales  177 1,252 1,172 3.2 1,033 114 30
Food service  380 1,819 3,431 3.6 567 80 33
Health care  157 4,155 7,613 5.0 556 48 31
Inpatient  10 2,374 4,281 101.0 573 168 36
Outpatient  147 1,781 3,333 5.0 556 48 31
Lodging  158 5,826 3,066 14.7 2,541 168 37
Mercantile  602 11,330 9,117 6.6 1,200 60 33
Retail (other than mall)  438 5,439 4,023 5.0 1,450 56 37
Enclosed and strip malls  164 5,890 5,094 13.6 920 70 28
Office  1,012 15,952 33,756 5.0 600 47 33
Public assembly  352 5,559 3,108 5.4 1,800 50 41
Public order and safety  84 1,440 1,854 6.1 750 168 23
Religious worship  412 4,557 1,940 6.0 2,700 20 41
Service  619 4,630 4,031 4.0 1,200 50 35
Warehouse and storage  796 13,077 6,362 5.5 1,500 50 26
Other  125 2,002 1,611 6.0 1,500 50 28
Vacant  296 3,256 236 4.3 4,800 0 50
Year constructed              
Before 1920 362 3,983 3,310 4.8 1,200 42 112
1920 to 1945 488 6,025 6,003 4.0 1,200 45 82
1946 to 1959 599 7,381 6,566 4.0 1,100 45 59
1960 to 1969 639 10,362 9,851 6.0 1,061 50 48
1970 to 1979 684 10,846 12,536 5.3 947 50 38
1980 to 1989 915 15,230 17,468 5.8 1,000 50 27
1990 to 1999 845 13,803 13,432 5.0 1,000 53 17
2000 to 2003 375 7,215 7,471 5.5 1,000 55 11
2004 to 2007 347 6,524 5,993 6.0 1,100 50 6
2008 to 2012 303 5,723 5,552 6.8 1,106 60 3
Census region and division              
Northeast 805 15,534 17,775 6.0 1,050 54 46
New England  302 4,302 4,165 5.6 1,000 50 37
Middle Atlantic 504 11,232 13,610 6.0 1,100 55 48
Midwest 1,237 18,919 17,261 5.0 1,286 50 37
East North Central 735 12,742 11,933 5.0 1,200 50 37
West North Central 502 6,178 5,329 4.8 1,450 48 37
South 2,247 34,279 32,666 5.0 1,000 50 29
South Atlantic  1,091 17,981 18,098 5.3 992 54 28
East South Central 370 4,904 4,293 5.0 1,071 45 33
West South Central 786 11,394 10,275 5.0 1,000 48 29
West 1,267 18,360 20,479 5.3 960 50 32
Mountain 338 4,981 4,600 5.0 980 50 29
Pacific 929 13,379 15,878 5.5 960 50 34
Climate region2              
Very cold/Cold 2,031 31,898 30,739 5.2 1,123 50 37
Mixed-humid 1,743 27,873 28,708 5.0 1,029 50 32
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 12,037 13,056 5.8 948 50 32
Hot-humid 799 12,831 12,541 5.0 1,000 50 28
Marine 147 2,454 3,138 5.0 1,000 60 33
Number of floors              
One 3,836 39,809 35,019 4.5 1,000 50 29
Two 1,158 20,206 19,744 7.0 1,098 50 42
Three 374 8,140 7,826 7.8 1,200 55 72
Four to nine 177 13,535 16,248 40.0 1,043 60 60
Ten or more 13 5,404 9,343 292.4 655 72 37
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
             
Any elevators 405 32,120 39,978 40.0 1,040 60 31
Number of elevators              
One 272 11,158 11,347 25.0 1,200 60 37
Two to five 118 12,817 15,489 80.0 932 67 27
Six or more 16 8,145 13,143 387.5 687 122 30
Any escalators 10 3,654 4,822 100.8 784 100 62
Number of workers (main shift)              
Fewer than 5 2,892 17,751 5,064 3.3 1,667 45 37
5 to 9 1,085 8,973 7,017 5.0 833 50 32
10 to 19 731 9,623 9,472 7.9 625 56 28
20 to 49 513 14,514 14,881 16.9 648 60 28
50 to 99 206 13,476 13,424 48.3 771 60 29
100 to 249 93 10,941 13,368 77.0 536 65 27
250 or more 37 11,815 24,956 201.7 388 69 28
Weekly operating hours              
Fewer than 40 1,149 8,220 3,291 3.6 1,511 8 42
40 to 48 1,346 15,828 17,546 4.8 905 40 34
49 to 60 1,244 20,529 24,845 6.6 1,000 55 31
61 to 84 764 15,867 16,679 7.0 960 72 32
85 to 167 479 9,395 8,087 5.0 967 104 27
Open continuously 575 17,253 17,734 7.0 1,250 168 26
Ownership and occupancy              
Nongovernment owned 4,781 67,550 68,505 5.0 1,050 50 32
Owner occupied 2,466 30,637 25,871 5.0 1,250 50 33
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 26,115 32,033 5.0 916 55 31
Owner occupied and leased 349 8,873 10,601 8.5 967 50 31
Unoccupied 221 1,925 0 3.0 N 0 49
Government owned 776 19,543 19,676 6.3 960 48 34
Federal 33 1,573 2,135 9.5 570 56 32
State 185 5,539 5,579 7.0 1,050 48 41
Local 558 12,431 11,963 6.0 934 45 32
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
             
Building owner 4,715 73,702 74,433 5.0 1,072 50 33
Business owner or tenant 724 11,309 11,128 5.6 928 56 32
Property management 54 1,250 1,757 4.8 781 60 26
Other 64 832 864 5.2 1,042 48 26
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
             
Building owner 4,876 76,271 76,830 5.0 1,074 50 33
Business owner or tenant 540 8,256 8,617 5.5 853 59 33
Property management 35 880 954 4.5 450 60 30
Other 106 1,686 1,781 6.1 958 50 26
Number of establishments              
One 4,205 54,994 52,072 4.9 1,094 50 32
2 to 5 862 17,756 18,916 7.2 933 50 32
6 to 10 147 4,425 5,890 14.0 832 60 29
11 to 20 68 3,704 5,276 29.9 790 66 25
More than 20 27 3,821 6,028 61.6 714 74 27
Currently unoccupied 248 2,393 0 3.2 N 0 52
Campus or complex activity              
Not part of a campus or complex 3,683 52,275 51,924 5.0 1,000 50 36
Primary or secondary school 237 4,616 4,670 5.7 1,000 40 30
College or university 84 4,068 3,090 24.0 1,612 72 42
Office complex 154 3,456 7,205 6.5 629 45 29
Retail complex 258 5,159 4,524 6.8 889 65 28
Storage complex 314 3,212 726 4.0 2,500 84 16
Religious campus or complex 197 1,932 1,027 5.3 1,750 30 41
Health care complex 52 3,362 5,715 10.0 554 60 29
Lodging or resort complex 65 1,295 817 5.6 1,400 168 35
Transportation complex 35 554 681 4.8 1,500 50 33
Government complex 104 2,107 3,236 5.2 682 49 40
Other 371 5,057 4,566 5.0 1,020 50 30
Predominant exterior wall material              
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 40,463 41,653 5.7 1,000 50 40
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 20,726 20,195 5.9 1,067 50 38
Concrete panels 210 8,693 9,482 12.0 1,050 60 26
Siding or shingles 905 5,750 6,012 3.6 933 48 34
Metal panels 933 8,673 5,804 5.0 1,440 50 21
Window glass 17 1,340 2,652 13.2 507 60 25
Other 37 856 844 4.9 1,250 50 31
No one major type 21 592 Q 11.0 1,080 58 25
Predominant roof material              
Metal surfacing 1,672 15,916 12,016 5.0 1,250 50 23
Synthetic or rubber 911 25,817 27,573 8.0 1,003 55 39
Built-up 836 21,835 24,082 7.2 1,000 50 40
Slate or tile shingles 406 4,306 4,227 4.4 1,000 49 38
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 1,139 999 3.6 1,200 55 41
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 15,104 16,308 4.5 900 48 38
Concrete 51 1,642 2,076 8.8 818 55 33
Other 24 678 567 12.0 1,167 53 37
No one major type 18 657 333 11.9 1,956 49 38
Roof characteristics              
Roof tilt              
Flat 1,960 49,623 57,145 7.5 976 55 37
Shallow pitch 2,148 23,853 19,542 4.5 1,100 50 31
Steeper pitch 1,449 13,617 11,495 4.9 1,136 45 32
Cool roof 740 19,630 21,650 6.6 1,000 55 29
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
             
Any type of renovation 2,094 42,216 46,424 5.7 1,000 50 44
Addition or annex 444 13,022 12,473 7.6 1,083 55 41
Reduction in floorspace 71 1,753 2,572 6.0 1,200 60 45
Roof replacement 987 20,917 22,872 5.8 1,029 50 48
Exterior wall replacement 194 4,230 4,558 5.0 1,000 55 52
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 21,340 27,649 6.0 885 50 44
Window replacement 560 12,265 14,128 6.0 1,000 50 53
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 26,779 30,162 6.5 1,003 50 46
Lighting upgrade 982 25,503 28,277 6.4 1,020 51 47
Electrical upgrade 747 16,160 17,723 5.2 1,000 50 52
Plumbing system upgrade 644 13,828 16,073 5.4 1,000 50 51
Insulation upgrade 382 7,607 8,383 5.6 993 50 50
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 17,196 20,050 6.5 1,000 55 48
Structural upgrade 152 3,913 3,724 7.0 908 51 47
Other 39 848 1,011 4.0 1,600 55 55
No renovations 3,160 39,154 36,206 5.0 1,050 50 29
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 5,723 5,552 6.8 1,106 60 3
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 5,234 84,869 88,114 5.2 1,026 50 32
Natural gas 2,933 58,725 62,376 6.3 1,000 50 37
Fuel oil 467 20,200 25,625 7.0 1,181 54 42
District heat 48 5,964 8,230 57.4 1,269 72 45
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 29.2 1,146 75 33
Propane 510 7,706 5,903 5.1 1,333 50 31
Wood 69 502 476 3.5 1,600 54 42
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar 40 1,908 1,713 13.9 1,258 60 30
Other 61 1,386 1,526 7.8 1,263 54 37
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 2,858 49,030 53,857 5.3 1,000 50 32
Natural gas 2,612 49,511 51,754 6.3 1,011 50 38
Fuel oil 270 4,351 4,163 4.8 1,350 50 50
District heat 48 5,925 8,157 57.4 1,269 72 45
Propane 342 3,067 2,510 5.0 1,350 45 31
Wood 63 395 212 3.4 1,800 54 40
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 32 508 463 11.0 1,263 50 37
Primary space-heating
energy source
             
Electricity 1,819 26,205 28,953 5.0 960 50 28
Natural gas 2,322 42,988 44,641 6.0 1,024 50 38
Fuel oil 205 2,542 2,000 4.5 1,333 48 52
District heat 47 5,797 8,048 57.4 1,222 72 45
Propane 261 1,948 1,471 4.8 1,500 45 27
Wood 38 178 101 3.2 1,600 54 40
Coal Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 25 341 Q 8.1 1,222 50 38
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 4,413 76,034 82,280 5.6 1,000 50 32
Natural gas 12 732 1,048 9.9 1,275 48 52
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 29.2 1,146 75 33
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 2,658 42,755 46,793 5.2 1,000 50 31
Natural gas 1,758 39,523 41,909 7.0 1,000 56 37
Fuel oil 77 1,911 1,627 7.0 1,350 60 52
District heat 25 4,551 6,365 96.7 1,273 80 46
Propane 142 1,575 1,258 5.6 1,200 54 26
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
             
Electricity 1,010 25,151 27,312 6.0 1,063 60 33
Natural gas 740 24,770 25,861 8.0 963 70 37
Propane 144 2,001 1,971 4.8 1,100 75 28
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
             
Buildings with space heating 4,722 80,078 85,624 5.4 1,017 50 33
Buildings with cooling 4,461 79,294 85,775 5.7 1,000 50 32
Buildings with water heating 4,423 79,015 85,448 5.8 1,000 50 33
Buildings with cooking 1,589 38,546 41,216 6.2 1,033 60 35
Buildings with manufacturing 259 5,078 5,033 6.7 1,167 50 30
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 25,642 30,932 15.0 1,010 66 27
Percent of floorspace heated              
Not heated 835 7,015 2,558 3.5 1,285 45 30
1 to 50 697 10,130 6,413 6.0 1,408 48 34
51 to 99 727 14,650 15,548 6.5 1,153 55 37
100 3,298 55,298 63,662 5.0 951 50 33
Percent of floorspace cooled              
Not cooled 1,096 7,799 2,407 3.6 1,500 40 33
1 to 50 1,173 18,891 12,646 6.4 1,400 50 35
51 to 99 897 22,728 25,280 7.5 973 55 36
100 2,391 37,676 47,849 5.0 833 50 31
Percent lit when open              
Zero 70 322 58 3.5 Q 105 9
1 to 50 1,099 12,628 6,713 5.0 1,667 48 39
51 to 99 1,666 34,814 36,393 7.0 1,000 50 34
100 2,222 35,726 44,884 5.0 875 54 30
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 3,603 133 3.0 Q 0 39
Percent lit during off hours              
Zero 2,489 24,746 23,170 4.8 1,131 45 33
1 to 50 2,441 50,753 54,552 6.5 1,000 58 33
51 to 100 202 6,926 7,816 6.7 933 168 32
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 2,443 2,577 5.2 1,000 168 20
Electricity not used 323 2,225 67 3.0 Q 0 33
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Heat pumps 628 11,846 13,269 5.6 960 50 27
Furnaces 755 8,654 8,562 5.4 1,000 50 33
Individual space heaters 1,247 20,766 19,345 5.3 1,200 50 42
District heat 48 5,925 8,157 57.4 1,269 72 45
Boilers 544 22,443 25,157 14.0 1,201 55 46
Packaged heating units 2,802 49,188 51,098 6.0 1,000 51 32
Other 62 1,574 1,202 8.0 1,250 70 32
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 14,765 15,104 5.0 1,000 50 35
Heat pumps 692 12,538 14,265 5.5 955 50 27
Individual air conditioners 709 12,420 12,342 5.0 1,200 50 47
District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 29.2 1,146 75 33
Central chillers 163 17,041 21,944 51.0 1,271 60 32
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 45,153 46,979 7.6 960 58 31
Swamp coolers 109 1,918 1,755 4.9 1,060 59 37
Other Q 328 474 10.5 1,220 40 54
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
             
Heating 1,874 27,558 28,670 5.2 1,000 50 47
Cooling 1,971 30,702 33,365 5.3 1,000 50 47
Water-heating equipment              
Centralized system 3,348 47,534 50,164 5.2 1,000 50 34
Distributed system 690 12,688 14,214 6.0 1,050 50 32
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 18,793 21,070 16.9 1,010 61 29
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
             
Incandescent 1,826 38,406 41,621 6.0 1,038 50 39
Standard fluorescent 4,649 80,081 85,648 5.5 1,000 50 32
Compact fluorescent 2,302 53,816 59,903 6.7 1,000 57 33
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 23,396 23,812 14.0 1,250 60 30
Halogen 905 28,059 30,498 8.8 1,143 59 31
LED 473 22,071 25,900 14.7 1,005 70 29
Other 10 446 555 10.0 750 70 34
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Any refrigeration 3,984 73,645 78,938 5.8 1,000 52 33
Walk-in units 811 28,361 31,133 6.6 862 84 31
Cases or cabinets 915 28,719 31,528 6.6 967 76 31
Large cold storage areas 78 4,171 3,692 11.0 1,012 78 25
Commercial ice makers 846 32,734 36,512 9.3 931 78 28
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 62,381 67,677 5.9 1,000 50 34
Vending machines 960 43,936 49,684 17.1 1,000 65 29
No refrigeration 1,573 13,448 9,244 4.0 1,237 44 32
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
             
Desktop computers 3,977 77,063 84,337 6.3 984 50 32
With flat screen monitors 3,847 76,160 83,874 6.4 960 50 32
With multiple monitors 911 30,946 43,399 10.0 744 55 29
Laptop computers 2,730 63,486 73,337 7.2 1,000 51 32
Dedicated servers 1,748 53,369 63,425 9.9 832 55 31
Laser printers 2,339 54,256 63,469 7.2 889 50 32
Inkjet printers 2,187 36,235 37,744 5.8 1,013 50 32
FAX machines 3,185 66,682 73,771 6.6 963 50 32
Photocopiers 2,163 59,277 68,508 9.0 900 50 32
Number of desktop computers              
None 1,581 10,030 3,844 3.3 1,500 40 36
1 to 4 2,039 15,669 11,304 4.5 1,200 50 35
5 to 9 821 9,422 9,594 6.0 828 50 32
10 to 19 482 9,388 8,659 9.9 700 51 27
20 to 49 355 13,094 12,782 19.5 757 55 27
50 to 99 143 8,284 9,293 36.4 677 60 36
100 to 249 92 9,728 12,514 68.0 768 55 30
250 or more 44 11,478 20,191 174.1 720 64 29
Number of laptop computers              
None 2,827 23,607 14,845 4.0 1,200 48 33
1 to 4 1,944 21,161 17,749 5.2 1,042 50 33
5 to 9 350 8,345 8,868 10.0 765 55 30
10 to 19 181 8,343 9,267 25.0 750 56 27
20 to 49 144 9,643 11,659 40.8 642 55 30
50 to 99 58 5,234 8,236 55.9 830 55 31
100 to 249 35 5,217 6,608 100.0 1,205 60 33
250 or more 20 5,542 10,949 189.7 726 70 26
Number of dedicated servers              
None 3,809 33,724 24,756 4.3 1,200 48 33
1 to 4 1,562 34,097 34,337 8.3 862 55 32
5 to 9 97 6,241 7,841 34.0 600 55 27
10 to 19 50 5,711 7,551 68.0 750 60 27
20 to 49 25 3,758 6,685 72.0 500 60 26
50 or more 13 3,562 7,012 155.0 542 72 27
Number of photocopiers              
None 3,394 27,816 19,673 4.0 1,200 50 33
One 1,325 17,080 13,348 6.0 1,025 50 33
2 to 4 648 20,312 21,540 14.5 800 54 28
5 to 9 116 8,863 10,503 44.7 792 60 28
10 or more 75 13,022 23,118 78.0 507 60 30
Number of TVs or video displays              
None 2,718 24,339 17,802 4.0 1,106 45 33
One 1,145 9,990 10,015 4.6 1,000 50 33
2 to 4 1,035 16,465 17,695 7.2 976 57 30
5 to 9 314 8,148 10,105 9.6 903 70 31
10 to 19 154 8,168 10,344 26.4 933 70 32
20 to 49 106 8,058 8,931 40.0 1,275 78 27
50 to 99 48 4,378 4,384 50.0 1,720 168 26
100 or more 37 7,547 8,904 91.0 2,541 168 28
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
             
Snack bar or concession stand 153 9,884 10,260 11.0 1,274 81 32
Fast food or small restaurant 173 9,787 10,961 13.0 920 77 25
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 15,222 17,611 66.9 1,250 60 34
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 16,150 15,343 20.0 1,417 70 31
Small kitchen area 736 14,054 13,620 6.0 1,400 48 40
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
             
Data center or server farm 97 11,105 18,027 40.0 584 56 28
Computer-based training room 244 17,723 22,237 30.0 1,000 60 27
Student or public computer center 238 14,341 12,506 28.0 1,208 55 31
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
             
Economizer cycle 601 30,749 35,394 16.5 1,028 60 27
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 69,244 77,868 6.8 960 55 31
Building automation system (BAS)3 781 37,051 42,344 14.0 1,077 60 24
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
             
Multipaned windows 3,012 60,362 62,267 6.3 1,000 50 28
Tinted window glass 1,875 45,025 50,791 7.2 960 54 28
Reflective window glass 549 15,908 18,998 8.8 967 58 26
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 32,188 33,758 5.6 1,000 55 33
Skylights or atriums 591 22,261 21,919 11.0 1,180 55 28
Light scheduling 918 30,263 34,960 9.5 1,000 61 27
Occupancy sensors 813 35,871 40,959 14.2 987 60 26
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 14,534 16,135 13.0 1,000 70 28
Daylight harvesting 125 6,114 7,689 14.0 930 60 27
Demand responsive lighting 176 4,738 4,902 9.5 1,098 55 32
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 208 12,068 13,218 16.2 1,137 70 19
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
             
Heating 3,699 63,167 68,458 5.5 1,014 50 34
Cooling 3,517 62,516 68,297 5.8 1,000 50 33
Lighting 4,757 78,594 83,812 5.4 1,012 50 33
 
1Buildings with zero workers are excluded from this column.  
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes:  • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals.  • See Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.