U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
Skip to sub-navigation
‹ Consumption & Efficiency

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

‹ BACK TO ALL 2018 CBECS TABLES

Release date: September 2021
Table B19.  Energy sources, number of buildings, 2018
Number of buildings (thousand)
Buildings using any
energy source
Energy sources used (more than  one may apply)
  All
buildings
Elec-
tricity
Natural
gas
Fuel
oil
District
heat
District
chilled
water
Propane Solar Wood, coal, and other
All buildings 5,918 5,619 5,613 2,974 586 86 55 676 99 180
Building floorspace (square feet)                    
1,001 to 5,000  2,837 2,640 2,635 1,128 246 Q Q 358 Q 76
5,001 to 10,000  1,358 1,289 1,288 679 105 Q Q 140 Q 71
10,001 to 25,000 966 935 935 580 104 Q Q 110 29 Q
25,001 to 50,000 397 396 396 300 50 10 8 35 10 Q
50,001 to 100,000  218 218 218 171 39 15 11 19 5 Q
100,001 to 200,000  93 93 93 75 23 7 6 8 5 Q
200,001 to 500,000  40 40 40 33 14 5 3 4 2 Q
Over 500,000  9 9 9 7 5 2 1 1 1 Q
Principal building activity                    
Education 438 438 438 216 34 39 29 51 14 Q
Food sales  163 163 163 90 Q N N Q Q Q
Food service  284 284 284 200 Q Q Q 48 Q Q
Health care  137 137 137 77 20 3 2 6 Q Q
Inpatient  9 9 9 7 8 1 1 Q Q Q
Outpatient  129 129 129 70 13 Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging  214 214 214 138 32 9 3 31 Q Q
Mercantile  518 518 514 329 29 Q N 51 10 Q
Retail (other than mall)  352 352 348 174 25 Q N Q Q Q
Enclosed and strip malls  167 167 167 156 Q N N 20 Q Q
Office  970 970 970 549 102 10 7 59 17 Q
Public assembly  488 488 488 275 43 12 8 75 16 Q
Public order and safety  74 74 74 54 29 Q Q Q Q N
Religious worship  439 439 439 259 32 Q Q 96 Q Q
Service  867 866 866 382 156 Q N 107 Q 94
Warehouse and storage  1,004 794 792 320 52 Q Q 83 Q Q
Other  113 108 108 53 18 3 2 Q Q Q
Vacant  209 126 126 31 Q Q Q Q Q N
Year constructed                    
Before 1920 329 323 323 184 54 Q Q 49 Q Q
1920 to 1945 379 368 368 172 52 11 3 65 Q Q
1946 to 1959 517 496 496 310 56 20 Q 52 Q Q
1960 to 1969 685 673 673 420 57 14 10 61 19 Q
1970 to 1979 831 787 787 400 90 8 6 115 Q 25
1980 to 1989 794 752 752 372 69 6 4 85 21 Q
1990 to 1999 921 844 844 412 73 8 10 113 14 Q
2000 to 2009 924 860 860 454 94 6 6 91 21 Q
2010 to 2018 537 514 508 250 41 4 4 45 11 Q
Census region and division                    
Northeast 793 773 769 373 230 29 5 157 20 47
New England  275 274 274 65 103 16 Q 101 9 Q
Middle Atlantic 518 500 496 308 127 13 3 56 11 Q
Midwest 1,719 1,647 1,647 982 120 15 3 225 14 61
East North Central 1,110 1,074 1,074 712 69 10 3 86 4 37
West North Central 609 573 573 270 Q Q Q 139 Q Q
South 2,143 2,011 2,011 894 147 25 33 219 12 45
South Atlantic  1,034 987 987 361 83 Q 18 138 5 27
East South Central 347 313 313 200 18 Q Q 25 Q Q
West South Central 762 711 711 333 45 8 11 56 Q Q
West 1,264 1,188 1,186 725 89 17 14 75 53 26
Mountain 484 431 431 292 45 3 2 18 Q Q
Pacific 780 757 755 433 44 14 12 57 47 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                    
Fewer than 5 3,270 2,974 2,968 1,264 301 Q Q 391 35 114
5 to 9 1,116 1,112 1,112 635 77 14 Q 117 Q Q
10 to 19 713 713 713 470 60 15 Q 100 Q Q
20 to 49 492 492 492 365 65 12 9 46 17 19
50 to 99 201 201 201 138 38 8 9 14 9 Q
100 to 249 91 91 91 75 23 6 4 5 5 Q
250 or more 37 37 37 27 20 6 4 2 2 Q
Weekly operating hours                    
Fewer than 40 1,388 1,256 1,252 561 107 9 7 194 Q Q
40 to 48 1,474 1,464 1,464 753 164 13 7 128 24 Q
49 to 60 1,243 1,224 1,224 675 114 25 15 148 20 52
61 to 84 643 615 615 395 64 18 15 56 11 27
85 to 167 464 420 420 254 26 6 4 55 10 Q
Open continuously 705 639 637 335 112 15 7 93 23 16
Ownership and occupancy                    
Nongovernment owned 4,982 4,699 4,693 2,502 445 53 25 596 62 172
Owner occupied 3,249 3,110 3,104 1,637 340 48 23 434 44 143
Leased to tenant(s) 1,581 1,511 1,511 844 105 Q 2 140 18 29
Unoccupied 152 78 78 Q Q Q Q Q Q N
Government owned 937 920 920 471 140 34 30 79 37 Q
Federal 70 70 70 20 6 Q 0 Q Q Q
State 256 246 246 139 37 26 26 17 10 Q
Local 610 603 603 312 98 5 4 42 26 Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                   
Electricity 5,613 5,613 5,613 2,974 586 86 55 671 97 180
Natural gas 2,974 2,974 2,974 2,974 217 38 31 106 68 76
Fuel oil 586 586 586 217 586 14 7 83 4 41
District heat 86 86 86 38 14 86 40 Q 5 Q
District chilled water 55 55 55 31 7 40 55 Q 3 Q
Propane 676 676 671 106 83 Q Q 676 9 41
Solar 99 99 97 68 4 5 3 9 99 Q
Wood, coal, and other 180 180 180 76 41 Q Q 41 Q 180
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                   
Buildings with space heating 4,901 4,901 4,901 2,933 561 85 49 621 84 178
Buildings with cooling 4,631 4,631 4,631 2,728 455 74 55 526 95 122
Buildings with water heating 4,595 4,595 4,590 2,786 501 84 51 564 88 129
Buildings with cooking 1,736 1,736 1,736 1,167 199 19 10 285 52 34
Buildings with manufacturing 322 322 322 187 52 1 Q 48 Q Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
706 706 704 462 343 20 14 98 94 68
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                   
Snack bar/concession stand/coffee shop 144 144 144 104 19 4 3 17 10 Q
Fast food/small restaurant 160 160 160 120 20 3 1 19 11 Q
Cafeteria/large restaurant 131 131 131 104 27 4 3 19 6 Q
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
283 283 283 233 46 5 4 49 11 6
Small kitchen area 1,019 1,019 1,019 626 119 10 6 170 28 Q
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: ● Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. ● See Guide to the 2018 CBECS Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2018/ ● Data are sample survey estimates with RSEs published in a tab on the Excel worksheet for this table.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2018 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.