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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E6. Electricity consumption intensities (kWh) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Electricity energy intensity1 (kWh/square foot in buildings using electricity for the end use)
  Total Space
heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water
heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office
equip-
ment
Com-
puting
Other
All buildings 14.6 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Building floorspace (square feet)                      
1,001 to 5,000 17.4 0.9 2.4 1.9 0.2 2.4 6.0 7.0 1.0 1.7 2.5
5,001 to 10,000 13.3 0.5 1.8 1.8 0.2 2.1 2.9 4.1 0.7 1.4 2.3
10,001 to 25,000 11.7 0.6 1.6 1.8 0.2 2.0 1.5 2.5 0.6 1.2 2.2
25,001 to 50,000 12.8 0.5 2.1 2.2 0.1 2.5 0.6 2.0 0.6 1.2 2.5
50,001 to 100,000 14.1 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.4 0.5 2.5 0.6 1.3 2.5
100,001 to 200,000 15.3 0.4 2.5 2.8 0.1 2.8 0.5 2.4 0.5 1.8 2.7
200,001 to 500,000 16.9 0.4 3.4 2.9 0.2 3.0 0.5 2.0 0.5 1.7 3.2
Over 500,000 18.4 0.4 3.9 3.5 0.1 3.3 0.7 1.0 0.8 2.0 3.8
Principal building activity                      
Education 11.0 0.5 2.5 1.6 0.2 1.9 0.2 1.0 0.5 1.9 1.6
Food sales 48.7 0.6 1.6 2.8 0.0 3.6 4.3 34.5 0.5 0.6 2.7
Food service 44.9 1.4 5.3 5.0 1.1 3.0 15.9 18.3 1.2 0.8 3.4
Health care 25.8 0.5 5.1 5.8 0.2 4.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 2.4 4.9
Inpatient 31.0 0.5 7.7 5.6 0.7 4.9 1.3 1.8 1.5 2.6 6.2
Outpatient 18.7 0.6 1.9 6.1 0.0 3.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 2.1 3.2
Lodging 15.3 0.6 2.1 2.5 0.7 2.0 1.4 1.7 2.2 0.3 3.7
Mercantile 18.3 0.5 2.4 3.2 0.2 3.6 0.4 5.4 0.5 0.6 2.4
Retail (other than mall) 15.2 0.5 2.2 2.5 0.0 3.9 0.4 3.5 0.4 0.6 2.4
Enclosed and strip malls 21.1 0.4 2.6 3.7 0.4 3.4 0.4 6.9 0.5 0.6 2.5
Office 15.9 0.6 2.2 3.9 0.1 2.7 0.2 0.6 0.7 3.1 2.4
Public assembly 14.5 1.0 5.2 1.3 0.0 1.9 0.5 1.5 0.4 0.9 3.8
Public order and safety 14.9 0.4 3.3 1.1 0.6 3.2 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.6 4.0
Religious worship 5.2 0.3 1.0 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.8
Service 8.3 0.4 1.3 1.0 0.1 2.5 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.6 2.5
Warehouse and storage 6.6 0.2 1.0 0.4 0.0 2.1 0.0 1.6 0.2 0.4 1.8
Other 28.3 0.7 4.2 2.5 0.0 5.7 Q 2.5 0.4 6.5 7.6
Vacant 4.5 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.0 1.3 Q 0.4 0.1 0.4 2.0
Year constructed                      
Before 1920 8.4 0.4 1.0 1.6 0.1 1.6 0.8 1.5 0.4 0.9 1.9
1920 to 1945 10.9 0.4 1.8 1.8 0.1 1.9 0.6 2.0 0.5 1.3 2.1
1946 to 1959 11.8 0.5 1.9 2.0 0.2 2.1 0.9 1.9 0.5 1.1 2.4
1960 to 1969 14.4 0.6 2.2 2.2 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.3 0.7 1.7 2.8
1970 to 1979 16.2 0.6 2.4 2.8 0.2 2.8 1.5 2.9 0.7 1.7 2.8
1980 to 1989 15.8 0.5 3.0 2.6 0.1 2.6 1.0 2.6 0.6 1.6 2.7
1990 to 1999 16.2 0.6 2.8 2.5 0.2 2.7 1.3 3.2 0.6 1.6 2.8
2000 to 2003 15.5 0.5 2.6 2.5 0.1 2.8 1.1 2.6 0.6 1.7 2.8
2004 to 2007 14.9 0.4 2.5 2.2 0.1 2.6 0.8 3.4 0.7 1.2 2.7
2008 to 2012 15.7 0.4 2.5 2.6 0.1 2.6 1.3 3.2 0.6 1.4 2.8
Census region and division                      
Northeast 14.4 0.7 1.7 2.6 0.1 2.6 0.9 2.6 0.5 1.6 2.8
New England 12.1 0.8 1.2 2.0 0.1 2.1 1.0 2.8 0.5 1.2 2.6
Middle Atlantic 15.3 0.7 1.8 2.9 0.1 2.8 0.9 2.5 0.6 1.8 2.8
Midwest 13.4 0.9 1.7 2.3 0.1 2.5 1.1 2.3 0.6 1.4 2.6
East North Central 13.9 0.8 1.7 2.4 0.1 2.6 1.0 2.3 0.5 1.4 2.8
West North Central 12.5 0.9 1.7 2.1 0.1 2.3 1.2 2.1 0.6 1.3 2.4
South 16.1 0.4 3.6 2.4 0.2 2.7 1.1 2.8 0.7 1.5 2.7
South Atlantic 16.3 0.3 3.5 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.0 3.0 0.7 1.6 2.7
East South Central 14.6 0.5 2.6 2.3 0.1 2.5 1.3 2.7 0.7 1.2 2.5
West South Central 16.3 0.3 4.2 2.4 0.2 2.8 1.4 2.7 0.6 1.4 2.9
West 13.5 0.4 1.7 2.3 0.1 2.3 1.2 2.9 0.7 1.6 2.5
Mountain 13.9 0.5 2.1 2.4 0.1 2.4 1.0 2.4 0.8 1.5 2.5
Pacific 13.3 0.3 1.5 2.2 0.1 2.3 1.3 3.0 0.6 1.7 2.5
Climate region2                      
Very cold/Cold 13.4 0.8 1.4 2.4 0.1 2.5 1.0 2.5 0.6 1.4 2.6
Mixed-humid 15.2 0.5 2.5 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.6 0.7 1.6 2.7
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 13.0 0.1 2.1 2.0 0.1 2.2 1.4 2.7 0.6 1.6 2.3
Hot-humid 18.4 0.2 5.4 2.6 0.2 2.9 1.2 3.1 0.6 1.4 2.9
Marine 14.6 0.5 0.9 2.8 0.1 2.5 0.9 2.6 0.6 2.2 3.1
Number of floors                      
One 14.3 0.5 2.2 2.0 0.2 2.6 1.7 4.1 0.5 1.1 2.3
Two 13.0 0.5 2.0 2.1 0.1 2.3 0.6 2.2 0.5 1.6 2.4
Three 13.5 0.5 2.2 2.4 0.1 2.3 0.9 1.6 0.7 1.6 2.7
Four to nine 17.2 0.5 3.5 3.4 0.1 2.8 0.8 1.2 0.9 2.1 3.6
Ten or more 18.3 0.4 3.6 3.7 0.1 3.0 0.6 0.9 1.0 2.2 3.6
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any elevators 16.9 0.5 3.2 3.2 0.1 2.8 0.7 1.3 0.8 2.2 3.3
Number of elevators                      
One 13.2 0.5 2.1 2.5 0.1 2.3 0.5 1.5 0.6 1.6 2.5
Two to five 17.5 0.5 3.2 3.2 0.1 2.8 0.7 1.3 0.8 2.8 3.4
Six or more 21.0 0.4 4.6 4.1 0.1 3.4 0.7 1.2 1.0 2.1 4.2
Any escalators 18.2 0.5 3.6 3.5 0.1 3.4 0.6 1.4 1.0 1.4 3.8
Number of workers (main shift)                      
Fewer than 5 8.6 0.6 1.4 1.0 0.1 1.6 1.4 2.7 0.6 0.7 2.1
5 to 9 12.5 0.5 1.8 1.7 0.1 2.0 2.7 3.1 0.6 0.8 2.3
10 to 19 13.7 0.6 1.8 1.9 0.2 2.2 2.9 3.5 0.7 1.0 2.3
20 to 49 15.1 0.5 2.2 2.3 0.2 2.6 1.3 3.3 0.6 1.5 2.5
50 to 99 15.9 0.5 2.7 2.6 0.2 2.8 0.5 2.7 0.6 1.6 2.6
100 to 249 16.9 0.4 2.9 2.9 0.1 3.1 0.4 2.4 0.6 1.8 3.0
250 or more 20.8 0.5 4.1 4.3 0.2 3.5 0.6 1.3 0.8 2.7 3.8
Weekly operating hours                      
Fewer than 40 5.3 0.5 1.2 0.4 0.1 0.9 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.9 1.5
40 to 48 9.8 0.4 1.8 1.4 0.1 1.9 0.3 0.9 0.5 1.6 1.9
49 to 60 11.7 0.5 2.0 2.0 0.1 2.2 0.4 1.1 0.5 1.8 2.2
61 to 84 15.8 0.5 2.5 2.8 0.2 2.7 0.8 3.5 0.5 1.2 2.4
85 to 167 21.4 0.7 2.9 3.0 0.1 3.3 3.3 7.3 0.4 0.9 3.1
Open continuously 21.5 0.5 3.7 3.7 0.2 3.6 1.5 3.1 1.2 1.8 4.4
Ownership and occupancy                      
Nongovernment owned 15.1 0.5 2.3 2.5 0.1 2.6 1.4 3.2 0.6 1.4 2.7
Owner occupied 15.0 0.6 2.5 2.2 0.1 2.6 1.6 2.9 0.7 1.3 2.9
Leased to tenant(s) 15.4 0.5 2.2 2.7 0.2 2.6 1.5 3.7 0.6 1.5 2.5
Owner occupied and leased 15.0 0.4 2.2 2.6 0.1 2.6 0.8 2.5 0.5 1.8 2.6
Unoccupied 2.5 Q 0.5 0.0 Q 0.6 Q Q Q Q 1.8
Government owned 13.3 0.5 2.8 2.1 0.2 2.3 0.4 1.1 0.6 1.8 2.6
Federal 14.4 0.4 2.7 3.2 0.1 2.9 0.4 0.5 0.4 1.4 3.3
State 14.6 0.6 2.5 3.0 0.1 2.7 0.6 1.3 0.7 1.9 2.9
Local 12.5 0.5 2.9 1.6 0.2 2.1 0.4 1.1 0.5 1.8 2.3
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                     
Building owner 14.4 0.5 2.5 2.4 0.1 2.5 1.0 2.3 0.6 1.6 2.7
Business owner or tenant 16.3 0.4 2.1 2.4 0.2 2.7 1.5 5.2 0.5 1.1 2.3
Property management 14.8 0.4 2.7 2.9 0.1 2.2 1.3 2.1 0.8 1.8 2.5
Other 16.2 0.5 3.0 1.9 Q 2.4 1.7 3.8 0.7 0.9 2.9
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                     
Building owner 14.3 0.5 2.5 2.4 0.1 2.5 1.0 2.3 0.6 1.6 2.7
Business owner or tenant 17.4 0.5 2.3 2.5 0.2 2.8 1.9 5.2 0.5 1.2 2.5
Property management 13.5 0.5 2.0 2.8 0.1 2.2 1.3 2.0 0.6 1.2 2.3
Other 16.4 0.4 2.7 2.4 0.1 2.4 1.3 5.1 0.6 0.9 2.4
Number of establishments                      
One 14.3 0.6 2.4 2.2 0.1 2.5 1.4 2.5 0.7 1.5 2.7
2 to 5 14.0 0.4 2.1 2.4 0.1 2.4 0.8 2.8 0.5 1.2 2.6
6 to 10 16.3 0.4 2.3 3.1 0.2 2.5 0.4 3.6 0.5 1.9 2.3
11 to 20 18.6 0.5 2.9 3.7 0.2 3.0 0.4 3.8 0.6 1.5 2.7
More than 20 20.1 0.4 3.7 3.6 0.2 3.7 0.4 2.2 0.6 3.0 3.0
Currently unoccupied 2.2 Q 0.5 0.0 Q 0.5 Q Q Q Q 1.6
Predominant exterior wall material                      
Brick, stone, or stucco 15.1 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.2 2.5 1.2 2.4 0.7 1.6 2.7
Concrete (block or poured) 15.8 0.4 2.7 2.4 0.2 2.7 1.0 3.8 0.6 1.2 2.6
Concrete panels 14.3 0.3 2.1 2.4 0.1 2.7 0.8 1.9 0.6 1.8 2.9
Siding or shingles 12.8 0.7 1.7 1.9 0.2 2.1 1.9 3.0 0.6 1.2 2.4
Metal panels 9.8 0.5 2.0 1.3 0.1 2.5 0.6 1.5 0.3 1.0 2.2
Window glass 23.4 0.7 4.1 4.8 0.1 3.8 0.6 1.7 0.7 4.7 3.9
Other 16.0 0.7 2.7 2.2 0.2 2.2 Q 4.6 0.5 1.5 3.0
No one major type 13.1 0.4 1.5 2.4 0.1 2.4 Q 2.1 0.5 1.2 2.8
Predominant roof material                      
Metal surfacing 11.2 0.5 2.2 1.4 0.1 2.3 1.1 2.5 0.5 1.0 2.2
Synthetic or rubber 16.5 0.6 2.5 2.8 0.1 2.8 1.0 2.9 0.6 1.7 3.0
Built-up 15.8 0.4 2.8 2.8 0.2 2.7 1.0 2.5 0.6 1.7 2.7
Slate or tile shingles 13.9 0.4 2.3 2.2 0.3 2.1 1.3 2.6 0.9 1.5 2.8
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
12.5 0.3 1.8 1.6 0.2 1.9 3.4 4.0 0.7 1.0 2.1
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
13.4 0.6 2.1 2.0 0.2 2.2 1.3 2.6 0.7 1.2 2.5
Concrete 18.9 0.3 3.9 3.3 Q 3.0 0.6 2.4 0.7 3.2 3.2
Other 15.8 0.2 2.6 2.3 Q 2.3 Q 4.3 0.5 1.0 2.9
No one major type 8.0 0.4 1.2 1.1 Q 1.6 Q Q 0.3 0.8 2.0
Roof characteristics                      
Roof tilt                      
Flat 16.4 0.5 2.8 2.8 0.2 2.9 1.1 2.6 0.6 1.7 2.9
Shallow pitch 13.0 0.5 2.0 1.8 0.1 2.3 1.1 3.3 0.6 1.3 2.3
Steeper pitch 11.1 0.6 1.8 1.6 0.2 1.7 1.0 2.0 0.7 1.1 2.3
Cool roof 16.8 0.4 2.8 2.8 0.2 2.9 0.9 3.0 0.6 1.8 2.9
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any type of renovation 15.5 0.5 2.5 2.6 0.2 2.6 1.0 2.5 0.6 1.7 2.8
Addition or annex 15.8 0.5 3.0 2.6 0.2 2.7 0.7 2.0 0.7 1.4 3.1
Reduction in floorspace 20.5 0.4 4.0 3.9 0.1 3.8 0.9 3.2 0.6 1.6 3.5
Roof replacement 15.9 0.5 2.6 2.8 0.2 2.7 1.0 2.2 0.6 1.7 2.9
Exterior wall replacement 16.6 0.6 2.9 2.7 0.2 2.6 0.9 2.6 0.6 2.0 2.9
Interior wall reconfiguration 16.8 0.5 2.7 3.0 0.1 2.8 0.9 2.1 0.7 2.2 3.0
Window replacement 14.4 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.1 2.3 1.0 1.7 0.7 1.8 2.7
HVAC equipment upgrade 16.2 0.5 2.7 2.8 0.2 2.7 0.9 2.3 0.7 1.8 2.9
Lighting upgrade 16.1 0.5 2.6 2.7 0.1 2.6 1.1 2.6 0.7 1.7 2.9
Electrical upgrade 16.4 0.5 2.8 2.7 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.4 0.7 1.9 3.0
Plumbing system upgrade 16.1 0.5 2.6 2.8 0.2 2.5 1.2 2.2 0.8 1.9 3.0
Insulation upgrade 16.6 0.6 2.8 2.6 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.9 0.8 2.1 2.9
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 16.4 0.5 2.9 2.9 0.1 2.6 1.0 2.2 0.7 2.0 2.9
Structural upgrade 17.6 0.5 3.4 2.6 0.1 2.6 0.9 2.4 0.9 2.3 3.4
Other 15.3 0.4 3.1 3.1 0.1 2.7 Q 1.3 0.6 2.3 2.7
No renovations 13.6 0.5 2.3 2.1 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.8 0.6 1.3 2.5
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 15.7 0.4 2.5 2.6 0.1 2.6 1.3 3.2 0.6 1.4 2.8
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 14.6 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Natural gas 15.4 0.5 2.4 2.5 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.9 0.7 1.5 2.7
Fuel oil 18.9 0.6 3.6 3.3 0.1 3.2 0.7 1.8 0.7 2.3 3.8
District heat 17.3 0.5 2.2 4.1 0.2 3.4 0.8 1.2 1.0 2.0 4.1
District chilled water 18.6 0.5 2.2 4.3 0.3 3.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 2.6 4.5
Propane 14.4 0.8 2.1 1.8 0.1 2.4 1.2 3.2 0.7 0.9 2.9
Other 13.1 0.4 2.2 2.4 0.1 2.3 0.6 2.1 0.4 1.2 2.4
Space-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 15.8 0.5 2.6 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.0 2.9 0.6 1.5 2.6
Electricity main 16.8 0.6 3.0 2.4 0.2 2.7 1.2 3.0 0.7 1.8 2.7
Electricity secondary 14.7 0.4 2.1 2.5 0.1 2.5 0.9 2.8 0.5 1.3 2.5
Other excluding electricity 13.7 N 2.0 2.4 0.1 2.5 1.2 2.3 0.6 1.5 2.8
Buildings without heating 9.4 N 4.4 1.3 0.1 2.1 1.2 3.1 0.4 0.9 2.3
Primary space-heating
energy source
                     
Electricity 16.8 0.6 3.0 2.4 0.2 2.7 1.2 3.0 0.7 1.8 2.7
Natural gas 14.2 0.3 2.1 2.3 0.1 2.5 1.1 2.7 0.5 1.4 2.5
Fuel oil 9.3 0.8 1.4 1.4 0.1 2.0 0.4 1.2 0.5 1.1 2.2
District heat 17.4 0.5 2.1 4.2 0.2 3.4 0.9 1.2 1.0 2.0 4.2
Propane 9.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.1 1.4 2.8 3.0 0.4 0.5 1.7
Other 8.0 Q 0.5 1.1 0.1 1.9 Q 1.2 0.5 0.7 2.0
Cooling energy sources                      
Electricity 15.2 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.6
Other excluding electricity 17.3 0.5 N 4.1 0.2 3.7 1.5 1.3 1.1 2.6 4.3
Buildings without cooling 4.9 0.4 N 0.3 0.1 1.5 0.9 2.4 0.3 0.5 1.9
Water-heating energy sources                      
Electricity 15.2 0.5 2.5 2.3 0.2 2.6 0.9 2.9 0.5 1.6 2.5
Other excluding electricity 15.5 0.5 2.5 2.6 N 2.6 1.4 2.5 0.8 1.5 2.9
Buildings without water heating 5.7 0.2 1.5 0.8 N 1.7 Q 0.7 0.4 0.9 2.0
Cooking energy sources                      
Electricity 18.0 0.6 3.0 2.7 0.2 2.6 1.1 3.6 0.7 1.4 2.7
Other excluding electricity 18.4 0.5 3.1 2.9 0.3 2.6 N 4.7 0.8 1.1 3.0
Buildings without cooking 11.7 0.5 1.9 2.0 0.1 2.5 N 1.2 0.5 1.7 2.6
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                     
Buildings with space heating 15.0 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Buildings with cooling 15.3 0.5 2.4 2.5 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Buildings with water heating 15.3 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Buildings with cooking 18.2 0.5 3.0 2.8 0.2 2.6 1.1 4.0 0.7 1.3 2.8
Buildings with manufacturing 13.2 0.4 2.1 1.7 0.1 2.9 1.1 2.1 0.3 0.9 3.3
Buildings with electricity
generation
19.1 0.5 3.4 3.3 0.2 3.1 0.8 2.5 0.7 2.2 3.5
Percent of floorspace heated                      
Not heated 9.4 N 4.4 1.3 0.1 2.1 1.2 3.1 0.4 0.9 2.3
1 to 50 9.7 0.1 1.2 1.1 0.1 1.9 1.0 2.3 0.3 1.3 2.1
51 to 99 16.0 0.4 2.6 2.6 0.2 2.6 0.9 3.4 0.6 1.2 2.6
100 15.7 0.6 2.5 2.6 0.2 2.7 1.1 2.5 0.7 1.7 2.8
Percent of floorspace cooled                      
Not cooled 4.9 0.4 N 0.3 0.1 1.5 0.9 2.4 0.3 0.5 1.9
1 to 50 8.1 0.3 0.7 1.0 0.1 1.9 0.6 1.5 0.3 0.6 2.0
51 to 99 16.8 0.5 2.5 2.8 0.2 2.7 1.0 3.2 0.6 1.8 2.8
100 18.1 0.6 3.3 3.0 0.2 2.9 1.3 2.9 0.8 1.8 3.0
Percent lit when open                      
Zero 3.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 2.3
1 to 50 9.0 0.4 1.5 1.5 0.1 1.2 0.8 1.5 0.6 0.7 2.5
51 to 99 15.1 0.5 2.4 2.5 0.2 2.4 1.0 2.8 0.6 1.5 2.6
100 16.8 0.5 2.8 2.6 0.1 3.2 1.2 2.9 0.7 1.8 2.8
Building never open/electricity
not used
2.3 0.4 0.6 0.0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 1.4
Percent lit during off hours                      
Zero 9.4 0.5 1.7 1.5 0.1 1.6 0.7 1.5 0.4 1.3 2.0
1 to 50 15.4 0.5 2.6 2.5 0.2 2.7 1.0 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
51 to 100 23.8 0.5 3.5 3.8 0.2 4.2 2.1 4.7 1.0 2.1 4.2
Building always open with
no "off hours"
25.5 0.4 4.0 4.0 0.2 4.4 1.7 5.9 1.4 1.7 4.5
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heat pumps 15.2 0.4 2.8 2.1 0.2 2.4 0.7 2.4 0.9 1.6 2.6
Furnaces 12.3 0.6 1.6 1.8 0.1 2.0 1.3 2.6 0.6 1.1 2.1
Individual space heaters 13.1 0.5 1.9 2.1 0.1 2.4 0.8 2.1 0.6 1.3 2.5
District heat 17.3 0.5 2.1 4.1 0.2 3.4 0.8 1.2 1.0 2.0 4.1
Boilers 15.6 0.4 2.9 2.8 0.1 2.6 0.6 1.7 0.7 1.8 3.0
Packaged heating units 15.7 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.2 2.6 1.3 3.3 0.6 1.4 2.6
Other 24.4 0.9 1.8 3.3 0.2 2.9 1.2 11.7 0.3 0.6 2.5
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Residential-type central air
conditioners
12.6 0.5 1.8 1.5 0.1 2.1 0.9 3.3 0.6 1.0 2.2
Heat pumps 15.1 0.4 2.6 2.2 0.2 2.4 0.6 2.5 0.8 1.6 2.5
Individual air conditioners 12.9 0.5 2.1 1.9 0.2 2.1 0.8 1.8 0.8 1.2 2.5
District chilled water 18.6 0.5 2.2 4.3 0.3 3.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 2.6 4.5
Central chillers 19.3 0.4 3.7 3.6 0.1 3.1 0.6 1.4 0.7 2.6 3.6
Packaged air conditioning units 16.1 0.5 2.5 2.7 0.2 2.6 1.3 3.2 0.6 1.3 2.6
Swamp coolers 15.0 0.6 2.0 2.2 0.2 2.5 2.2 3.9 0.5 0.9 2.3
Other 28.7 Q 3.5 4.4 Q 4.5 Q 1.3 0.4 Q 4.1
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 14.1 0.5 2.2 2.1 0.2 2.3 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.4
Cooling 14.5 0.5 2.4 2.2 0.2 2.3 1.0 2.5 0.7 1.6 2.5
Water-heating equipment                      
Centralized system 15.3 0.6 2.5 2.4 0.2 2.6 1.4 2.6 0.7 1.5 2.8
Distributed system 12.4 0.4 2.0 1.9 0.1 2.4 0.8 2.1 0.4 1.3 2.3
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
17.2 0.4 2.8 2.9 0.2 2.8 0.7 3.3 0.6 1.8 2.7
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                     
Incandescent 15.9 0.5 2.8 2.6 0.2 2.6 0.9 2.8 0.7 1.5 2.7
Standard fluorescent 15.0 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Compact fluorescent 16.5 0.5 2.8 2.8 0.2 2.7 1.0 2.6 0.7 1.7 2.9
High-intensity discharge (HID) 16.3 0.4 3.0 2.7 0.2 2.9 0.7 2.6 0.6 1.4 3.0
Halogen 17.0 0.5 2.9 2.8 0.2 2.8 0.9 3.0 0.7 1.5 2.9
LED 18.8 0.5 3.2 3.3 0.2 2.9 0.8 3.5 0.7 1.6 3.2
Other 21.4 Q 3.8 3.5 Q 2.9 1.1 4.1 0.9 1.6 3.4
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any refrigeration 15.6 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.7 0.6 1.5 2.7
Walk-in units 21.4 0.5 3.4 3.2 0.2 2.9 1.4 5.7 0.8 1.4 3.0
Cases or cabinets 20.3 0.5 3.1 3.1 0.2 2.9 1.3 5.3 0.7 1.3 2.9
Large cold storage areas 23.5 0.3 2.8 2.6 0.2 2.9 1.2 10.2 0.5 0.9 2.9
Commercial ice makers 19.9 0.5 3.4 3.2 0.2 2.9 1.3 4.1 0.8 1.6 3.1
Residential-type or compact units 14.6 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.5 0.8 1.9 0.6 1.6 2.7
Vending machines 16.9 0.5 2.8 2.9 0.2 2.9 0.7 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.0
No refrigeration 8.3 0.5 1.7 1.4 0.1 2.2 Q N 0.5 1.5 2.3
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Desktop computers 15.3 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.1 2.6 1.0 2.6 0.6 1.5 2.7
With flat screen monitors 15.3 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.1 2.6 1.0 2.6 0.6 1.5 2.7
With multiple monitors 16.9 0.5 2.9 3.0 0.1 2.8 0.7 2.1 0.7 2.2 2.9
Laptop computers 15.2 0.5 2.6 2.6 0.2 2.6 0.7 2.1 0.6 1.7 2.7
Dedicated servers 16.3 0.5 2.7 2.7 0.1 2.7 0.8 2.5 0.6 1.9 2.8
Laser printers 15.8 0.5 2.5 2.6 0.1 2.7 0.9 2.5 0.7 1.7 2.8
Inkjet printers 14.5 0.5 2.4 2.2 0.2 2.5 1.2 2.5 0.5 1.3 2.6
FAX machines 15.4 0.5 2.5 2.5 0.1 2.7 0.9 2.6 0.6 1.5 2.7
Photocopiers 15.3 0.5 2.6 2.6 0.1 2.7 0.6 2.1 0.7 1.7 2.8
Number of desktop computers                      
None 8.4 0.7 1.8 1.1 0.2 1.6 2.1 3.6 0.8 Q 2.2
1 to 4 13.1 0.5 1.7 1.6 0.1 2.0 3.5 4.2 0.6 0.4 2.4
5 to 9 14.2 0.5 1.9 1.9 0.2 2.4 1.5 3.8 0.6 0.8 2.5
10 to 19 13.8 0.5 1.9 2.2 0.1 2.5 0.9 2.8 0.5 1.3 2.4
20 to 49 16.0 0.5 2.6 2.6 0.2 2.9 0.6 3.0 0.7 1.2 2.8
50 to 99 14.4 0.6 2.6 2.6 0.2 2.7 0.5 1.7 0.6 1.5 2.6
100 to 249 16.4 0.4 2.6 3.0 0.2 3.0 0.4 1.5 0.7 2.4 3.0
250 or more 19.2 0.4 4.2 3.7 0.1 3.0 0.5 0.9 0.7 3.4 3.2
Number of laptop computers                      
None 12.9 0.5 1.8 1.7 0.1 2.2 3.1 4.6 0.6 0.8 2.4
1 to 4 12.9 0.5 2.0 1.8 0.1 2.3 1.3 2.9 0.6 0.8 2.4
5 to 9 15.1 0.4 2.4 2.6 0.2 2.9 0.7 2.8 0.6 1.1 2.7
10 to 19 15.6 0.6 2.8 2.8 0.2 2.6 0.6 2.4 0.6 1.4 2.7
20 to 49 16.0 0.4 2.4 2.9 0.2 2.8 0.5 1.8 0.8 2.2 2.9
50 to 99 16.3 0.5 3.3 3.0 0.1 2.9 0.5 1.3 0.6 2.1 3.1
100 to 249 17.3 0.4 3.3 3.3 0.1 2.8 0.4 1.0 0.7 3.4 3.0
250 or more 19.7 0.5 4.2 3.8 0.1 3.0 0.4 1.0 0.8 3.2 3.3
Number of dedicated servers                      
None 11.9 0.5 2.0 1.7 0.2 2.2 1.9 3.0 0.6 0.7 2.4
1 to 4 14.6 0.5 2.2 2.3 0.1 2.5 1.0 2.9 0.6 1.2 2.6
5 to 9 16.1 0.5 2.6 2.8 0.2 2.8 0.5 2.7 0.6 1.7 2.6
10 to 19 19.1 0.5 3.6 3.8 0.1 3.2 0.6 1.9 0.8 2.6 3.3
20 to 49 18.7 0.5 4.0 3.5 0.1 3.1 0.5 1.1 0.7 2.8 3.2
50 or more 25.8 0.5 5.0 4.2 0.1 3.5 0.6 1.2 0.8 6.8 4.1
Number of photocopiers                      
None 13.1 0.6 2.0 1.8 0.2 2.2 3.1 4.5 0.6 0.9 2.4
One 12.6 0.5 1.8 1.8 0.1 2.2 1.0 2.7 0.5 0.9 2.4
2 to 4 14.4 0.5 2.3 2.4 0.1 2.6 0.5 2.1 0.6 1.5 2.5
5 to 9 16.3 0.4 2.7 2.8 0.2 3.0 0.4 2.0 0.6 2.2 2.7
10 or more 19.7 0.4 4.1 3.9 0.1 3.2 0.6 1.1 0.9 2.8 3.7
Number of TVs or video displays                      
None 10.1 0.5 1.5 1.4 0.1 2.0 1.9 2.7 0.2 1.2 2.2
One 12.1 0.4 1.5 1.8 0.1 2.2 1.7 2.8 0.4 1.0 2.3
2 to 4 14.3 0.5 2.3 2.2 0.1 2.6 1.3 2.7 0.5 1.2 2.6
5 to 9 18.4 0.7 3.0 2.9 0.2 2.8 1.6 3.5 0.6 2.1 2.8
10 to 19 18.0 0.5 3.1 3.3 0.2 3.0 0.8 2.9 0.6 2.0 2.8
20 to 49 17.3 0.5 3.0 3.1 0.2 2.9 0.4 2.8 0.7 1.7 2.6
50 to 99 17.7 0.6 2.9 2.9 0.3 2.9 0.5 2.0 1.3 2.5 3.0
100 or more 19.7 0.4 4.2 3.4 0.2 2.8 1.0 1.6 1.8 1.4 4.0
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                     
Snack bar or concession stand 19.3 0.5 3.8 2.9 0.2 2.8 0.6 3.9 0.7 1.5 3.0
Fast food or small restaurant 22.9 0.4 3.7 3.6 0.2 3.4 0.7 6.0 0.9 1.3 3.3
Cafeteria or large restaurant 17.1 0.5 3.6 3.0 0.2 2.7 0.5 2.0 0.8 1.7 2.9
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
18.1 0.5 3.4 2.9 0.2 2.6 0.7 3.6 0.9 1.2 3.0
Small kitchen area 14.5 0.5 2.8 2.2 0.1 2.2 0.5 2.3 0.7 1.2 2.7
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                     
Data center or server farm 21.5 0.6 4.8 3.7 0.1 3.3 0.5 1.2 0.8 4.0 3.6
Computer-based training room 16.9 0.4 3.3 2.9 0.1 2.9 0.5 2.1 0.7 2.0 2.8
Student or public computer center 14.1 0.5 2.9 2.3 0.2 2.3 0.5 1.7 0.7 1.6 2.4
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                     
Economizer cycle 17.5 0.5 2.8 3.3 0.1 3.0 0.8 2.4 0.6 1.9 3.1
Regular HVAC maintenance 16.0 0.5 2.6 2.6 0.2 2.7 1.1 2.7 0.7 1.6 2.8
Building automation system (BAS)3 18.1 0.5 3.2 3.2 0.2 3.0 0.7 2.6 0.7 2.0 3.2
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                     
Multipaned windows 15.6 0.5 2.5 2.6 0.2 2.6 1.1 2.8 0.7 1.6 2.7
Tinted window glass 16.2 0.5 2.8 2.7 0.2 2.8 0.9 2.7 0.6 1.6 2.8
Reflective window glass 19.0 0.5 3.3 3.3 0.2 3.0 0.7 3.1 0.8 2.2 3.1
External overhangs or awnings 17.1 0.5 2.7 2.7 0.2 2.7 1.3 3.8 0.7 1.5 2.7
Skylights or atriums 15.0 0.4 2.7 2.7 0.2 2.6 0.7 2.0 0.6 1.4 2.9
Light scheduling 17.9 0.5 2.9 3.1 0.2 2.8 0.9 3.4 0.7 1.8 2.9
Occupancy sensors 17.0 0.5 2.9 3.0 0.1 2.7 0.7 2.7 0.6 1.9 3.0
Multi-level lighting or dimming 18.7 0.6 3.1 3.3 0.2 2.7 0.9 3.8 0.8 1.5 3.1
Daylight harvesting 17.8 0.5 3.0 3.3 0.2 2.9 0.8 3.2 0.6 1.4 3.1
Demand responsive lighting 16.8 0.4 2.6 2.8 0.2 2.8 0.5 4.3 0.6 1.0 2.5
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 19.8 0.5 3.2 3.5 0.2 3.2 0.7 4.1 0.5 1.7 3.0
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 14.1 0.5 2.3 2.3 0.1 2.4 0.9 2.5 0.6 1.4 2.5
Cooling 14.4 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.1 2.4 0.9 2.5 0.6 1.4 2.5
Lighting 14.5 0.5 2.4 2.4 0.2 2.5 1.0 2.5 0.6 1.5 2.6
Annual consumption
(kilowatthours)
                     
10,000 or less 1.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5
10,001 to 50,000 4.8 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.1 1.0 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.6 1.3
50,001 to 100,000 8.2 0.5 1.2 1.1 0.1 1.6 0.9 1.2 0.5 1.0 1.9
100,001 to 500,000 13.3 0.5 1.8 1.8 0.2 2.2 2.0 3.4 0.6 1.1 2.3
500,001 to 1,000,000 16.4 0.6 2.5 2.6 0.2 2.6 1.9 2.8 0.8 1.6 2.7
1,000,001 to 5,000,000 18.3 0.5 2.8 3.2 0.2 3.2 0.8 3.6 0.6 1.5 3.1
Over 5,000,000 25.9 0.6 5.5 4.5 0.2 4.4 0.7 2.4 0.9 3.1 4.9
 
1The electricity intensity calculation (electricity consumption for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use electricity for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings that used electricity. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total electricity intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A and E of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.