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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E2. Major fuel consumption intensities (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Major fuel energy intensity1
(thousand Btu/square foot in buildings using any major fuel for the end use)
 
Total
Space
heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water
heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office
equip-
ment
Com-
puting
Other
All buildings 82.0 22.3 8.6 8.1 6.5 8.7 13.8 9.1 2.1 5.2 10.5
Building floorspace (square feet)                      
1,001 to 5,000 96.5 24.3 8.2 6.5 9.5 8.3 54.2 24.0 3.4 5.9 8.9
5,001 to 10,000 76.1 21.7 6.2 6.1 6.1 7.1 32.7 14.2 2.3 4.7 8.4
10,001 to 25,000 64.6 19.6 5.5 6.0 4.7 6.9 15.0 8.4 2.2 4.1 8.0
25,001 to 50,000 70.5 20.8 7.4 7.4 5.6 8.4 9.0 6.8 1.9 4.3 9.5
50,001 to 100,000 78.5 22.2 8.1 8.1 6.4 8.1 6.3 8.4 2.0 4.5 10.5
100,001 to 200,000 83.7 20.4 8.6 9.5 6.5 9.7 8.4 8.1 1.7 6.0 11.7
200,001 to 500,000 96.3 25.8 12.5 10.0 7.2 10.3 8.5 6.8 1.8 5.9 12.9
Over 500,000 109.1 26.5 14.6 11.8 8.2 11.4 15.3 3.2 2.7 6.9 15.1
Principal building activity                      
Education 68.8 25.0 8.5 5.6 5.7 6.3 1.8 3.6 1.8 6.4 6.9
Food sales 209.5 26.9 5.3 9.4 2.6 12.4 31.6 117.6 1.6 2.0 11.2
Food service 282.7 27.2 18.0 17.2 25.3 10.2 120.9 62.4 4.1 2.7 11.7
Health care 172.7 51.5 19.8 19.9 19.8 14.7 20.0 4.6 4.0 8.2 19.7
Inpatient 231.1 70.2 30.0 19.3 33.0 16.7 21.8 6.0 5.1 9.0 24.9
Outpatient 94.8 26.4 6.9 20.7 2.3 11.9 10.5 2.6 2.5 7.2 12.7
Lodging 96.9 11.8 7.4 8.4 24.2 6.8 16.9 5.7 7.5 1.2 14.4
Mercantile 89.0 17.1 8.2 10.8 6.1 12.4 11.3 18.5 1.6 2.1 9.1
Retail (other than mall) 67.0 15.5 7.6 8.6 0.9 13.3 4.5 11.8 1.3 2.0 8.5
Enclosed and strip malls 109.3 18.6 8.8 12.7 10.4 11.5 13.9 23.6 1.8 2.1 9.6
Office 77.8 19.5 7.8 13.4 2.3 9.2 Q 2.0 2.3 10.5 9.6
Public assembly 86.3 36.9 18.6 4.4 1.4 6.4 5.3 5.0 1.4 3.0 13.9
Public order and safety 92.2 27.2 11.4 3.7 16.3 10.8 4.1 2.1 2.2 5.4 15.5
Religious worship 38.0 17.2 3.6 2.9 Q 2.1 3.5 0.9 0.9 0.8 6.3
Service 60.3 29.4 5.4 3.4 6.0 8.4 1.8 1.3 1.0 2.0 9.3
Warehouse and storage 34.1 11.7 3.4 1.2 1.1 7.0 Q 5.4 0.6 1.5 6.9
Other 145.1 36.9 14.4 8.5 1.2 19.3 Q 8.5 1.3 22.1 39.5
Vacant 24.4 9.5 2.2 3.1 0.8 4.4 Q 1.3 0.5 1.3 7.5
Year constructed                      
Before 1920 62.7 29.0 3.6 5.3 2.8 5.5 13.0 5.0 1.3 3.2 7.8
1920 to 1945 71.3 26.1 6.6 6.2 6.6 6.6 8.4 6.8 1.7 4.4 8.0
1946 to 1959 74.5 26.0 6.6 6.9 6.4 7.1 10.7 6.5 1.7 3.9 9.0
1960 to 1969 88.4 29.0 8.2 7.4 7.4 9.0 9.6 7.9 2.3 5.9 11.8
1970 to 1979 95.8 25.6 9.2 9.6 9.8 9.5 19.4 10.0 2.5 5.9 10.9
1980 to 1989 78.7 16.2 10.2 9.0 5.7 9.0 13.0 9.0 2.2 5.5 10.6
1990 to 1999 84.0 18.7 9.5 8.5 5.8 9.4 16.2 11.1 2.2 5.3 10.8
2000 to 2003 80.5 21.0 8.9 8.7 4.5 9.4 11.7 8.8 2.0 5.7 11.2
2004 to 2007 81.4 17.8 8.6 7.6 7.0 8.9 Q 11.7 2.5 4.1 10.3
2008 to 2012 85.6 21.0 8.9 8.8 6.9 9.0 14.2 10.9 2.2 4.9 11.6
Census region and division                      
Northeast 95.4 34.1 6.6 9.0 7.0 8.9 11.8 8.9 1.9 5.6 11.8
New England 87.7 41.0 4.5 6.7 3.9 7.3 10.2 9.5 1.7 4.2 11.6
Middle Atlantic 98.4 31.6 7.3 9.8 8.0 9.5 12.3 8.6 1.9 6.1 11.9
Midwest 84.4 32.5 5.8 7.8 5.5 8.5 9.6 7.7 1.9 4.6 9.8
East North Central 90.2 35.6 5.9 8.2 5.6 8.9 9.5 8.0 1.9 4.7 10.3
West North Central 72.3 25.7 5.7 7.0 5.1 7.9 9.6 7.0 1.9 4.5 8.7
South 77.7 13.4 12.5 8.1 6.1 9.1 14.3 9.7 2.3 5.0 10.4
South Atlantic 77.1 12.9 12.1 8.1 5.8 8.8 13.5 10.1 2.5 5.4 10.3
East South Central 76.5 15.9 9.0 7.8 7.7 8.5 13.9 9.2 2.5 4.1 9.1
West South Central 79.2 13.0 14.9 8.2 5.9 9.7 16.1 9.2 1.9 4.8 11.3
West 76.2 16.9 5.9 7.8 7.9 7.8 19.9 9.7 2.3 5.6 10.1
Mountain 86.7 23.3 7.2 8.3 8.0 8.1 Q 8.3 2.9 5.0 9.6
Pacific 72.4 14.4 5.4 7.6 7.9 7.7 19.0 10.3 2.2 5.8 10.3
Climate region2                      
Very cold/Cold 87.8 34.0 4.9 8.1 5.7 8.4 11.9 8.6 2.0 4.8 10.5
Mixed-humid 82.8 19.8 9.1 8.2 7.2 9.0 13.7 9.0 2.4 5.4 10.2
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 68.4 11.0 7.5 6.8 7.9 7.4 20.8 9.4 2.1 5.6 9.6
Hot-humid 78.9 6.2 18.7 8.9 5.6 9.8 14.4 10.6 2.2 4.7 11.6
Marine 81.4 20.0 3.2 9.7 7.5 8.7 12.7 8.9 2.1 7.6 12.9
Number of floors                      
One 74.4 18.4 7.7 6.7 5.2 8.7 18.3 14.0 1.8 3.8 9.0
Two 73.3 20.0 6.7 7.1 5.5 7.8 11.8 7.4 1.9 5.3 9.2
Three 82.5 28.7 8.0 8.1 6.0 7.9 7.6 5.3 2.3 5.5 10.5
Four to nine 106.7 31.7 12.7 11.7 10.4 9.6 10.5 4.0 2.9 7.2 15.0
Ten or more 106.5 22.5 13.3 12.6 9.8 10.2 14.6 3.1 3.5 7.7 14.4
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any elevators 99.7 27.4 11.4 11.0 8.4 9.6 10.9 4.6 2.6 7.5 13.5
Number of elevators                      
One 79.5 24.6 7.2 8.6 6.9 7.9 8.3 5.0 2.2 5.3 9.8
Two to five 97.7 26.4 10.9 11.0 6.9 9.7 8.4 4.4 2.6 9.6 14.7
Six or more 130.4 32.9 17.7 14.1 12.6 11.6 15.4 4.2 3.4 7.3 16.6
Any escalators 103.5 20.8 13.9 11.8 7.0 11.6 Q 4.8 3.3 4.6 14.5
Number of workers (main shift)                      
Fewer than 5 48.7 18.7 4.8 3.4 4.6 5.5 10.7 9.0 2.0 2.4 7.6
5 to 9 66.6 17.2 6.3 5.7 5.0 6.8 24.6 10.6 1.9 2.9 8.3
10 to 19 80.3 20.9 6.2 6.4 7.2 7.4 33.8 12.1 2.3 3.4 8.4
20 to 49 81.8 20.2 7.7 7.8 5.8 8.7 14.1 11.1 2.1 5.1 9.7
50 to 99 85.3 22.2 9.2 8.8 6.3 9.5 6.9 9.3 2.0 5.5 10.6
100 to 249 96.7 26.5 10.0 10.0 5.8 10.7 8.3 8.2 1.9 6.3 14.3
250 or more 122.0 29.5 15.5 14.6 10.6 12.1 14.6 4.4 2.8 9.2 15.0
Weekly operating hours                      
Fewer than 40 34.9 17.4 4.1 1.4 2.0 3.1 3.8 3.4 1.4 3.0 5.3
40 to 48 52.9 17.5 6.2 4.8 2.5 6.3 3.9 3.0 1.8 5.5 7.1
49 to 60 61.6 19.5 6.8 6.9 2.6 7.3 4.9 3.7 1.7 6.2 8.4
61 to 84 86.7 22.1 8.6 9.5 5.8 9.0 15.4 11.9 1.6 4.3 9.3
85 to 167 117.3 29.4 10.5 10.2 6.7 11.4 29.3 25.0 1.5 3.1 12.5
Open continuously 128.1 28.0 13.4 12.6 16.6 12.4 19.0 10.6 4.1 6.1 18.1
Ownership and occupancy                      
Nongovernment owned 81.9 20.5 8.2 8.4 6.5 8.9 17.2 10.8 2.2 4.9 10.5
Owner occupied 86.3 23.2 8.8 7.6 7.6 8.8 17.9 10.0 2.5 4.3 11.7
Leased to tenant(s) 79.1 17.4 7.6 9.3 5.7 9.0 19.6 12.5 2.0 5.1 9.2
Owner occupied and leased 80.4 21.2 7.9 8.9 5.0 9.0 9.6 8.6 1.8 6.2 10.5
Unoccupied 15.4 8.7 1.7 0.1 Q 1.9 Q Q Q Q 6.4
Government owned 82.5 28.0 10.2 7.3 6.7 8.0 6.1 3.9 1.9 6.0 10.3
Federal 87.3 26.1 9.4 10.9 4.5 9.7 12.1 1.9 1.2 4.8 13.1
State 100.4 35.5 8.7 10.2 10.5 9.3 Q 4.6 2.4 6.4 11.8
Local 73.7 24.8 10.9 5.5 5.3 7.2 3.0 3.8 1.8 6.0 9.3
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                     
Building owner 81.0 22.8 8.8 8.1 6.3 8.6 12.6 7.7 2.2 5.4 10.7
Business owner or tenant 88.3 19.5 7.5 8.2 7.2 9.2 22.1 17.6 1.7 3.6 9.0
Property management 77.3 15.7 9.1 9.9 9.3 7.5 13.3 7.2 2.8 6.0 9.6
Other 91.2 23.0 10.3 6.5 7.8 8.2 17.3 12.9 2.3 3.0 11.2
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                     
Building owner 80.7 22.6 8.6 8.0 6.4 8.6 12.6 7.9 2.2 5.3 10.6
Business owner or tenant 93.9 20.4 8.4 8.7 7.5 9.6 24.6 17.9 1.8 4.1 9.6
Property management 68.8 16.9 6.7 9.5 6.2 7.6 9.9 6.8 2.2 4.0 9.3
Other 90.9 20.4 9.1 8.2 8.9 8.2 21.3 17.4 1.9 3.0 9.0
Number of establishments                      
One 82.3 23.2 8.5 7.4 7.3 8.5 15.9 8.6 2.4 5.0 10.7
2 to 5 78.9 22.5 7.7 8.1 5.4 8.2 11.4 9.4 1.7 4.1 10.3
6 to 10 84.3 20.0 8.1 10.5 5.1 8.5 10.7 12.3 1.9 6.5 8.8
11 to 20 96.6 21.9 10.1 12.5 6.1 10.4 11.2 13.1 2.0 5.3 10.0
More than 20 91.4 14.3 13.2 12.4 4.5 12.6 6.8 7.4 1.9 10.2 11.5
Currently unoccupied 15.2 9.9 1.6 0.1 Q 1.6 Q Q Q Q 5.7
Predominant exterior wall material                      
Brick, stone, or stucco 87.3 24.2 8.9 8.6 7.6 8.4 13.0 8.2 2.4 5.5 10.6
Concrete (block or poured) 84.3 19.6 9.5 8.2 6.7 9.2 13.5 12.9 2.0 4.2 10.7
Concrete panels 78.6 19.7 7.3 8.3 5.3 9.2 Q 6.5 2.2 6.2 11.1
Siding or shingles 71.9 20.9 5.8 6.6 5.5 7.1 20.7 10.2 2.1 4.1 8.9
Metal panels 53.1 21.4 6.9 4.5 2.3 8.5 6.1 5.3 1.1 3.3 8.6
Window glass 127.0 34.5 14.3 16.5 Q 12.8 7.3 5.7 2.5 15.9 17.5
Other 92.7 15.0 14.9 7.7 3.0 7.6 Q 15.9 1.6 5.0 11.3
No one major type 76.1 26.1 5.7 8.2 4.2 8.0 Q 7.2 1.7 4.0 10.2
Predominant roof material                      
Metal surfacing 57.6 17.1 7.5 4.8 3.3 8.0 14.2 8.5 1.6 3.5 8.3
Synthetic or rubber 95.3 26.7 8.8 9.7 6.6 9.6 14.7 9.7 2.2 5.8 11.9
Built-up 87.4 21.4 9.9 9.5 7.1 9.4 11.6 8.7 2.0 5.8 11.1
Slate or tile shingles 87.9 26.0 8.0 7.4 9.3 7.0 19.0 8.8 3.0 5.1 10.6
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
83.7 28.4 6.2 5.6 9.5 6.3 40.0 13.7 2.4 3.4 7.8
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
75.3 19.8 7.3 6.9 7.3 7.4 13.5 8.9 2.5 4.2 9.3
Concrete 83.6 13.1 13.5 11.2 7.2 10.3 7.1 8.3 2.4 11.0 12.7
Other 85.6 17.1 9.0 7.8 5.8 7.7 13.6 14.7 1.6 3.3 11.3
No one major type 53.7 22.7 4.1 3.8 Q 5.4 Q Q 1.0 2.7 7.2
Roof characteristics                      
Roof tilt                      
Flat 91.8 23.8 9.9 9.7 7.5 9.8 13.7 8.8 2.2 5.9 11.7
Shallow pitch 69.4 18.8 7.1 6.3 4.3 7.8 16.7 11.2 1.9 4.3 9.0
Steeper pitch 68.0 22.4 6.3 5.5 6.3 5.8 10.9 6.7 2.5 3.7 8.6
Cool roof 94.8 23.0 10.0 9.5 7.5 9.7 13.6 10.3 2.1 6.0 12.4
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any type of renovation 89.8 24.7 9.1 8.9 7.0 8.9 13.9 8.4 2.2 5.7 11.4
Addition or annex 99.6 28.8 10.6 8.7 8.6 9.1 15.8 6.9 2.5 4.6 12.3
Reduction in floorspace 130.2 30.2 13.7 13.2 16.0 13.0 Q 11.0 2.2 5.6 13.0
Roof replacement 95.6 27.5 9.4 9.5 7.7 9.2 12.3 7.5 2.1 5.9 12.5
Exterior wall replacement 94.4 21.8 10.1 9.1 6.8 8.7 18.1 8.9 2.0 6.8 11.8
Interior wall reconfiguration 96.8 26.3 10.1 10.4 6.8 9.5 14.8 7.3 2.3 7.5 12.1
Window replacement 89.0 25.6 8.6 8.3 7.5 8.0 14.4 5.7 2.5 6.3 11.4
HVAC equipment upgrade 95.5 25.3 10.0 9.5 7.7 9.2 14.1 8.0 2.2 6.1 12.2
Lighting upgrade 96.0 26.9 9.3 9.3 7.5 9.0 14.2 8.7 2.2 5.9 12.1
Electrical upgrade 99.9 27.2 10.0 9.4 7.9 9.0 17.3 8.2 2.3 6.5 13.3
Plumbing system upgrade 101.2 27.2 9.2 9.5 9.0 8.5 18.5 7.6 2.6 6.5 13.3
Insulation upgrade 102.1 27.0 10.0 8.8 7.3 8.4 22.0 9.8 2.6 7.1 12.8
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 98.2 27.0 10.4 9.7 8.5 8.8 12.6 7.4 2.3 6.8 13.0
Structural upgrade 108.4 22.2 12.3 9.0 8.0 8.9 30.0 8.2 2.9 7.7 15.4
Other 81.7 25.0 12.3 10.5 4.2 9.2 2.9 4.5 2.1 7.7 11.0
No renovations 72.9 19.6 7.9 7.1 5.9 8.4 13.6 9.7 2.1 4.5 9.3
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 85.6 21.0 8.9 8.8 6.9 9.0 14.2 10.9 2.2 4.9 11.6
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 82.0 22.3 8.6 8.1 6.5 8.7 13.8 9.1 2.1 5.2 10.5
Natural gas 94.4 26.2 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.8 15.6 9.8 2.2 5.0 11.0
Fuel oil 110.5 30.0 13.3 11.3 8.3 11.1 12.4 6.1 2.6 8.0 15.7
District heat 135.5 43.0 11.1 14.1 14.0 11.5 28.4 4.0 3.3 6.9 18.2
District chilled water 144.4 45.5 11.1 14.7 15.1 12.8 38.0 4.2 3.5 8.8 20.4
Propane 75.9 19.6 7.2 6.3 5.7 8.3 Q 11.1 2.4 3.1 12.4
Other 79.2 24.1 7.6 8.2 4.4 7.9 7.9 7.1 1.4 4.2 13.7
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 79.5 15.9 9.1 8.3 5.8 8.9 12.3 9.8 2.2 5.2 10.3
Natural gas 89.8 28.2 7.6 8.0 7.0 8.4 12.7 9.4 2.0 4.8 10.0
Fuel oil 82.7 33.6 8.0 6.4 4.3 8.0 5.9 4.8 1.8 4.4 11.4
District heat 135.7 43.2 11.1 14.0 14.0 11.6 28.5 4.0 3.3 6.9 18.2
Propane 49.6 13.1 4.6 4.6 2.4 6.2 10.6 9.5 1.8 2.5 9.0
Other 49.2 17.3 2.1 5.4 2.3 6.7 10.8 6.1 1.3 2.0 7.9
Primary space-heating
energy source
                     
Electricity 70.4 4.0 10.2 8.2 5.6 9.1 15.2 10.3 2.5 6.0 10.5
Natural gas 90.1 30.2 7.5 7.9 6.5 8.4 11.4 9.3 1.9 4.8 9.8
Fuel oil 73.7 36.1 5.1 4.7 1.7 6.8 5.3 4.2 1.7 3.7 10.9
District heat 137.0 43.7 11.2 14.2 14.1 11.7 29.4 4.1 3.2 7.0 18.3
Propane 32.3 3.9 3.0 3.2 0.2 4.7 9.6 10.3 1.3 1.6 6.5
Other 36.3 12.5 1.7 3.6 Q 6.5 Q 4.2 1.7 2.4 7.9
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 83.1 21.1 8.5 8.1 6.2 8.7 12.7 9.3 2.1 5.1 10.4
Natural gas 133.2 49.9 20.2 11.7 12.1 9.5 11.6 3.2 2.3 5.1 14.7
District chilled water 144.4 45.5 11.1 14.7 15.1 12.8 38.0 4.2 3.5 8.8 20.4
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 72.5 16.1 8.5 8.0 2.2 8.9 11.3 9.9 1.8 5.4 9.6
Natural gas 101.9 28.0 9.0 8.9 10.9 8.9 14.9 11.1 2.4 4.8 11.0
Fuel oil 91.1 41.8 7.1 6.8 3.2 7.1 8.0 5.6 2.2 3.8 13.3
District heat 143.3 41.3 12.1 14.7 16.3 12.3 31.2 3.9 3.5 6.9 19.7
Propane 55.1 6.2 7.3 5.2 0.7 5.9 11.9 16.5 2.2 2.3 9.8
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 99.8 23.6 10.5 9.2 8.1 8.7 11.1 12.4 2.2 4.9 10.5
Natural gas 121.7 26.0 11.5 10.4 12.0 9.4 18.8 16.1 2.6 4.1 11.7
Propane 83.4 22.0 8.8 7.1 5.5 6.9 10.3 16.3 2.7 Q 11.3
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                     
Buildings with space heating 84.7 22.3 8.4 8.2 6.5 8.7 13.8 9.1 2.2 5.2 10.6
Buildings with cooling 85.4 22.1 8.6 8.4 6.6 8.9 13.9 9.1 2.2 5.3 10.7
Buildings with water heating 86.0 22.6 8.7 8.4 6.5 8.8 13.9 9.3 2.2 5.2 10.7
Buildings with cooking 105.8 24.1 10.6 9.5 9.5 8.8 13.8 13.7 2.5 4.6 10.9
Buildings with manufacturing 71.0 18.7 7.2 5.7 3.1 9.7 11.5 7.1 1.0 3.2 15.8
Buildings with electricity
generation
109.3 27.5 12.2 11.2 8.3 10.7 11.2 8.5 2.5 7.6 15.7
Percent of floorspace heated                      
Not heated 37.6 N 15.1 4.6 6.3 7.3 14.8 10.6 1.5 3.1 8.5
1 to 50 46.2 7.1 4.2 3.7 2.8 6.3 20.6 7.8 1.2 4.3 8.0
51 to 99 88.6 21.1 9.2 8.8 6.6 9.0 14.4 11.7 2.0 4.2 10.4
100 90.7 25.4 8.9 8.9 7.1 9.1 13.1 8.5 2.4 5.7 11.1
Percent of floorspace cooled                      
Not cooled 34.0 26.5 N 1.0 5.5 5.2 7.3 8.4 1.0 1.8 7.0
1 to 50 52.3 20.6 2.2 3.5 3.3 6.5 10.5 5.1 1.0 2.2 7.9
51 to 99 94.3 25.1 8.9 9.4 7.1 9.1 12.2 10.9 2.2 6.2 11.0
100 96.7 21.0 11.8 10.2 7.8 9.9 16.0 9.9 2.8 6.2 12.0
Percent lit when open                      
Zero 13.5 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 8.1
1 to 50 50.9 16.3 5.1 5.3 4.4 4.0 9.7 5.0 2.0 2.5 9.1
51 to 99 87.6 25.1 8.5 8.6 7.0 8.2 11.9 9.6 2.1 5.2 10.9
100 90.8 21.7 10.0 8.8 6.8 10.8 16.7 9.9 2.2 6.0 10.8
Building never open/electricity
not used
17.4 15.1 2.1 0.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q 4.8
Percent lit during off hours                      
Zero 52.3 18.1 5.6 5.0 2.8 5.4 9.6 5.3 1.5 4.6 7.4
1 to 50 85.6 22.9 9.0 8.6 6.5 9.1 12.2 9.2 2.1 5.1 10.6
51 to 100 146.9 31.5 13.7 12.9 16.2 14.2 29.7 16.1 3.5 7.1 18.1
Building always open with
no "off hours"
125.3 21.4 13.8 13.7 12.9 15.1 12.4 20.0 4.8 5.8 17.5
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heat pumps 75.9 12.1 10.0 7.3 7.3 8.2 11.0 8.1 2.9 5.3 10.0
Furnaces 71.1 21.3 5.6 6.1 4.5 6.7 14.6 8.9 2.1 3.9 7.9
Individual space heaters 75.7 23.0 6.9 7.2 5.9 8.1 8.6 7.1 2.1 4.3 9.9
District heat 135.7 43.2 11.1 14.0 14.0 11.6 28.5 4.0 3.3 6.9 18.2
Boilers 100.8 33.3 10.2 9.4 9.1 8.8 7.3 5.8 2.4 6.2 12.5
Packaged heating units 83.0 19.0 8.6 8.5 5.6 8.8 15.3 11.2 1.9 4.7 9.9
Other 121.9 21.7 6.1 11.3 8.0 9.8 16.5 39.8 1.2 2.1 10.4
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Residential-type central air
conditioners
73.6 20.4 6.3 5.1 5.8 7.3 16.8 11.1 2.0 3.4 8.9
Heat pumps 74.9 12.4 9.2 7.4 7.0 8.3 10.0 8.5 2.7 5.4 10.0
Individual air conditioners 81.6 25.2 7.9 6.5 9.1 7.2 9.2 6.2 2.8 4.0 10.2
District chilled water 144.4 45.5 11.1 14.7 15.1 12.8 38.0 4.2 3.5 8.8 20.4
Central chillers 108.7 28.9 13.8 12.3 8.6 10.6 7.2 4.9 2.5 8.7 14.7
Packaged air conditioning units 88.0 22.1 8.9 9.2 6.2 9.0 14.5 11.0 1.9 4.6 10.4
Swamp coolers 91.5 24.4 7.4 7.4 8.9 8.4 21.8 13.3 1.7 3.0 9.0
Other 137.4 26.3 12.1 15.2 4.8 15.4 Q 4.5 1.3 Q 20.9
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 78.5 20.3 7.6 7.3 6.6 7.8 12.4 9.1 2.2 5.2 9.2
Cooling 82.1 22.2 8.2 7.7 7.1 7.9 12.3 8.5 2.3 5.4 9.6
Water-heating equipment                      
Centralized system 88.6 24.5 8.7 8.3 7.2 8.8 16.6 9.0 2.4 5.1 10.7
Distributed system 65.6 16.3 6.9 6.6 3.4 8.3 11.4 7.1 1.5 4.5 10.4
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
93.4 22.1 10.0 9.8 7.0 9.4 10.1 11.3 2.0 6.0 10.9
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                     
Incandescent 92.2 23.9 9.9 8.9 7.8 8.9 14.1 9.6 2.3 5.0 10.7
Standard fluorescent 83.8 22.5 8.6 8.3 6.6 8.7 13.4 9.1 2.1 5.2 10.6
Compact fluorescent 94.7 24.4 10.0 9.5 7.8 9.2 14.2 9.0 2.4 5.8 11.4
High-intensity discharge (HID) 93.5 24.7 10.5 9.3 7.0 9.8 11.9 8.7 2.1 4.9 11.8
Halogen 96.0 23.5 10.3 9.7 7.6 9.5 14.0 10.3 2.3 5.0 11.6
LED 107.1 26.2 11.7 11.2 8.0 10.0 13.9 11.9 2.4 5.3 13.3
Other 131.1 36.3 23.2 12.1 8.8 9.8 10.4 13.9 3.0 5.4 13.2
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any refrigeration 87.9 22.7 8.9 8.5 6.9 8.8 13.8 9.1 2.2 5.1 10.8
Walk-in units 124.3 26.7 12.2 10.9 11.0 10.0 17.9 19.3 2.6 4.7 12.7
Cases or cabinets 115.5 25.0 10.7 10.7 9.7 9.8 17.4 18.2 2.4 4.5 12.1
Large cold storage areas 127.0 25.6 9.9 8.8 7.7 10.0 18.8 34.7 1.7 3.1 12.7
Commercial ice makers 114.0 24.8 12.0 10.9 10.4 10.0 16.6 14.0 2.8 5.3 12.8
Residential-type or compact units 83.1 23.2 8.6 8.3 6.5 8.6 10.9 6.6 2.1 5.4 10.6
Vending machines 95.1 24.1 10.2 9.8 7.9 10.0 11.2 8.6 2.3 5.6 11.9
No refrigeration 43.8 18.7 5.8 4.9 2.8 7.6 Q N 1.7 5.2 8.3
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Desktop computers 85.5 22.5 8.7 8.4 6.6 8.9 13.2 8.9 2.1 5.2 10.8
With flat screen monitors 85.7 22.6 8.8 8.5 6.6 8.9 13.1 8.9 2.1 5.2 10.7
With multiple monitors 95.1 24.9 10.3 10.4 6.4 9.6 13.9 7.3 2.2 7.5 11.6
Laptop computers 86.1 23.2 9.2 8.8 6.6 9.0 11.4 7.3 2.1 5.7 11.1
Dedicated servers 89.6 22.6 9.4 9.3 6.6 9.3 12.0 8.5 2.2 6.4 11.2
Laser printers 88.4 23.7 8.9 9.0 6.6 9.1 12.1 8.6 2.3 5.8 10.9
Inkjet printers 80.1 20.6 8.7 7.6 5.9 8.4 13.8 8.5 1.8 4.5 10.6
FAX machines 85.6 22.3 8.8 8.7 6.3 9.2 12.5 8.9 2.1 5.2 10.7
Photocopiers 86.2 23.5 9.1 8.9 6.2 9.1 10.2 7.0 2.2 5.8 11.2
Number of desktop computers                      
None 48.3 19.0 6.3 3.7 5.4 5.5 28.2 12.3 2.6 Q 7.6
1 to 4 75.6 18.9 5.8 5.4 7.7 6.8 31.0 14.3 1.9 1.4 8.7
5 to 9 78.3 21.6 6.5 6.6 4.8 8.2 17.5 13.0 2.1 2.8 10.2
10 to 19 72.0 19.7 6.4 7.5 4.7 8.4 8.4 9.5 1.8 4.4 9.3
20 to 49 85.6 21.1 9.3 9.0 6.7 10.0 9.4 10.1 2.2 4.2 11.2
50 to 99 77.9 20.6 8.8 8.8 5.3 9.3 9.0 5.9 1.9 5.0 9.7
100 to 249 98.8 26.1 9.5 10.1 7.9 10.4 Q 5.1 2.5 8.4 13.5
250 or more 109.9 30.0 15.2 12.6 7.8 10.1 7.9 3.1 2.4 11.5 13.2
Number of laptop computers                      
None 70.0 19.3 6.5 5.9 6.1 7.6 25.3 15.9 2.2 2.8 8.8
1 to 4 71.7 20.0 6.9 6.0 5.2 7.8 17.0 9.8 1.9 2.8 9.2
5 to 9 83.6 19.4 8.2 8.9 7.4 9.7 14.7 9.5 1.9 3.9 10.2
10 to 19 86.1 20.7 10.1 9.4 8.1 9.0 10.0 8.1 2.0 4.6 10.6
20 to 49 94.1 26.3 8.5 9.9 7.2 9.4 14.3 6.1 2.6 7.6 11.5
50 to 99 96.7 29.4 11.3 10.1 6.1 9.8 4.3 4.3 2.0 7.1 16.0
100 to 249 100.6 29.3 11.5 11.1 7.5 9.6 6.4 3.4 2.3 11.7 12.6
250 or more 107.4 26.9 15.7 13.1 7.2 10.3 6.7 3.3 2.7 10.8 13.4
Number of dedicated servers                      
None 69.2 21.7 7.0 5.9 6.4 7.5 18.6 10.3 2.1 2.5 9.3
1 to 4 79.7 20.0 7.5 7.8 6.3 8.7 12.2 9.8 2.0 4.0 10.1
5 to 9 90.5 22.6 9.0 9.5 6.5 9.4 13.0 9.2 2.0 5.6 10.7
10 to 19 103.8 24.8 13.4 13.0 5.2 11.0 Q 6.3 2.8 8.9 13.5
20 to 49 105.5 30.8 14.3 11.9 7.1 10.5 7.0 3.6 2.4 9.6 12.8
50 or more 143.6 34.9 18.4 14.5 10.9 11.9 12.5 4.1 2.7 23.3 16.7
Number of photocopiers                      
None 72.4 19.2 7.2 6.1 7.3 7.6 28.3 15.3 1.9 3.1 8.7
One 70.4 20.3 6.3 6.0 5.5 7.4 11.6 9.3 1.8 2.9 9.0
2 to 4 78.6 21.7 7.9 8.2 5.1 8.8 7.1 7.3 2.2 5.2 10.4
5 to 9 88.5 21.5 9.2 9.5 5.7 10.3 10.5 6.8 1.9 7.5 10.9
10 or more 117.3 31.4 15.2 13.4 9.2 11.0 12.4 3.9 3.0 9.5 15.7
Number of TVs or video displays                      
None 54.9 18.9 5.1 4.9 3.0 6.9 17.0 9.3 0.8 4.2 8.3
One 69.8 22.3 5.7 6.0 4.5 7.5 17.1 9.6 1.3 3.4 8.3
2 to 4 79.6 22.4 7.8 7.6 4.0 8.9 15.5 9.2 1.6 4.2 11.3
5 to 9 95.3 22.1 10.1 9.9 5.6 9.6 15.5 11.8 2.0 7.3 10.7
10 to 19 99.1 23.7 10.9 11.1 7.2 10.3 14.6 9.8 2.0 6.7 10.9
20 to 49 89.0 19.4 10.4 10.6 6.3 10.0 7.2 9.5 2.6 5.8 10.4
50 to 99 98.6 24.5 10.9 9.9 10.0 9.9 5.9 6.7 4.3 8.7 11.9
100 or more 133.4 31.1 15.7 11.5 21.0 9.6 17.1 5.5 6.1 4.9 16.3
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                     
Snack bar or concession stand 112.5 28.1 13.3 10.0 8.2 9.4 12.5 13.3 2.6 5.2 12.4
Fast food or small restaurant 123.2 22.9 12.8 12.4 9.5 11.6 14.6 20.6 3.0 4.4 13.0
Cafeteria or large restaurant 106.7 26.9 12.9 10.2 10.8 9.1 11.3 6.9 2.7 5.7 11.9
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
111.4 26.8 12.0 9.7 12.2 8.8 12.0 12.4 2.9 4.0 12.2
Small kitchen area 84.5 23.3 9.7 7.5 6.6 7.3 7.6 7.7 2.4 4.0 10.5
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                     
Data center or server farm 122.1 31.5 17.3 12.7 8.1 11.2 13.9 4.3 2.8 13.6 14.7
Computer-based training room 95.7 24.7 12.0 10.0 6.7 9.8 10.2 7.1 2.2 6.9 11.1
Student or public computer center 88.9 26.5 10.1 7.9 8.6 7.7 8.4 5.7 2.5 5.5 9.9
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                     
Economizer cycle 102.2 27.2 10.2 11.1 7.3 10.2 12.9 8.3 2.2 6.5 13.3
Regular HVAC maintenance 89.6 23.0 9.3 9.0 6.8 9.3 13.6 9.2 2.2 5.6 11.3
Building automation system (BAS)3 100.1 24.7 11.4 10.9 7.2 10.3 10.8 8.9 2.2 6.9 13.3
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                     
Multipaned windows 87.9 23.5 8.6 8.7 6.8 8.9 13.9 9.5 2.3 5.4 10.8
Tinted window glass 89.5 22.1 9.8 9.2 6.9 9.4 14.4 9.1 2.2 5.6 11.4
Reflective window glass 104.3 24.0 11.6 11.1 7.8 10.3 16.3 10.5 2.6 7.6 12.1
External overhangs or awnings 96.3 23.0 9.5 9.3 7.6 9.3 19.1 13.0 2.3 5.1 10.9
Skylights or atriums 91.1 25.4 9.4 9.4 6.9 9.0 14.9 7.0 2.1 4.9 12.3
Light scheduling 96.8 23.0 10.4 10.6 6.6 9.4 13.4 11.6 2.3 6.2 11.7
Occupancy sensors 95.7 25.4 10.3 10.2 6.5 9.2 11.6 9.3 2.2 6.4 12.7
Multi-level lighting or dimming 111.3 25.8 11.4 11.1 9.9 9.1 17.8 13.1 2.7 5.0 13.0
Daylight harvesting 101.3 26.8 10.9 11.3 5.2 9.9 11.3 10.8 2.0 4.8 14.7
Demand responsive lighting 86.5 17.0 9.3 9.6 7.0 9.4 11.8 14.8 2.1 3.5 9.8
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting3 99.5 21.0 11.3 12.0 5.5 10.8 9.9 14.1 1.7 5.9 12.3
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 79.5 21.3 8.2 8.0 5.5 8.1 12.2 8.5 1.9 4.9 9.7
Cooling 80.1 21.1 8.5 8.1 5.7 8.2 12.3 8.4 1.9 4.9 9.8
Lighting 81.8 22.5 8.5 8.1 6.3 8.5 13.6 8.6 2.1 5.0 10.3
1The major fuel intensity calculation (total electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and district heat use for the end use divided by the floorspace in buildings that use any of those sources for the particular end use) differs from the calculation used in the 2003 CBECS tables, in which the intensities were not conditional on the presence of the end use; the 2003 CBECS denominator was total floorspace in all buildings. In this table, the intensities for each end use do not sum to the total intensity, whereas they did in the 2003 CBECS table.
2These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
3In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A, C, D, E, and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.