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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B8. Year constructed, number of buildings, 2012

Released: May 2016

Number of buildings (thousand)
  Year constructed
  All
buildings
Before 1946 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2007 2008 to 2012
All buildings 5,557 850 599 639 684 915 845 722 303
Building floorspace (square feet)                  
1,001 to 5,000 2,777 502 352 290 336 415 425 339 119
5,001 to 10,000 1,229 160 112 158 148 231 197 145 78
10,001 to 25,000 884 121 81 109 118 152 119 124 57
25,001 to 50,000 332 39 24 40 45 66 44 52 22
50,001 to 100,000 199 16 18 26 22 26 39 37 16
100,001 to 200,000 90 8 7 10 10 14 14 18 9
200,001 to 500,000 38 3 4 5 4 9 6 5 2
Over 500,000 8 1 (*) 1 1 2 1 1 Q
Principal building activity                  
Education 389 40 48 61 38 47 64 70 21
Food sales 177 Q Q Q Q 30 40 Q Q
Food service 380 70 39 36 50 54 65 42 Q
Health care 157 15 12 17 28 34 22 19 10
Inpatient 10 Q 1 1 3 1 1 1 1
Outpatient 147 Q Q 17 25 33 20 18 Q
Lodging 158 16 17 27 24 24 25 16 9
Mercantile 602 102 59 64 83 98 77 81 38
Retail (other than mall) 438 100 47 45 45 66 56 55 25
Enclosed and strip malls 164 Q 12 19 38 32 21 26 Q
Office 1,012 170 111 102 132 192 139 123 44
Public assembly 352 86 45 39 37 37 51 34 23
Public order and safety 84 Q Q Q Q Q 16 Q Q
Religious worship 412 85 57 52 52 58 40 55 Q
Service 619 87 67 94 78 99 97 67 30
Warehouse and storage 796 73 55 65 88 160 163 134 58
Other 125 Q Q Q Q 25 24 25 Q
Vacant 296 75 64 33 32 43 21 Q Q
Census region                  
Northeast 805 237 96 100 75 86 90 83 38
Midwest 1237 247 110 159 160 172 203 130 57
South 2247 232 229 232 274 427 385 322 147
West 1267 134 164 148 176 231 168 187 61
Climate region1                  
Very cold/Cold 2,031 425 205 229 257 275 309 229 100
Mixed-humid 1,743 273 187 193 202 274 289 224 102
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 75 129 105 104 153 84 135 Q
Hot-humid 799 55 62 89 106 185 143 120 38
Marine 147 21 Q Q Q Q 19 Q Q
Number of floors                  
One 3,836 317 419 423 515 699 690 538 235
Two 1,158 252 130 170 136 171 109 149 41
Three 374 198 32 27 20 27 31 24 15
Four to nine 177 80 18 18 11 15 13 10 11
Ten or more 13 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any elevators 405 79 28 46 41 53 54 66 37
Number of elevators                  
One 272 63 17 32 28 28 36 46 22
Two to five 118 15 10 11 12 21 17 18 14
Six or more 16 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 1
Any escalators 10 Q Q 1 1 1 1 1 Q
Number of workers (main shift)                  
Fewer than 5 2,892 558 380 316 329 435 421 329 123
5 to 9 1,085 146 96 133 145 178 168 143 76
10 to 19 731 68 59 81 107 131 124 111 50
20 to 49 513 48 32 68 65 105 85 80 30
50 to 99 206 18 25 26 21 38 30 34 13
100 to 249 93 8 6 12 12 19 12 18 7
250 or more 37 4 2 2 6 9 6 6 2
Weekly operating hours                  
Fewer than 40 1,149 275 172 113 147 151 147 112 32
40 to 48 1,346 219 154 173 159 227 190 173 52
49 to 60 1,244 138 126 147 156 238 189 168 81
61 to 84 764 112 66 96 93 114 124 108 51
85 to 167 479 53 44 46 59 77 87 73 39
Open continuously 575 52 38 63 70 108 108 88 48
Ownership and occupancy                  
Nongovernment owned 4,781 734 514 528 596 805 731 612 260
Owner occupied 2,466 434 258 264 311 344 386 327 143
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 208 164 199 219 350 283 231 90
Owner occupied and leased 349 44 38 36 39 80 51 41 21
Unoccupied 221 49 54 29 27 Q Q Q Q
Government owned 776 116 85 111 88 110 114 110 42
Federal 33 Q Q Q Q Q 3 Q N
State 185 24 25 36 24 24 18 23 Q
Local 558 87 60 68 59 78 93 80 33
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                 
Building owner 4,715 744 508 530 581 744 729 614 264
Business owner or tenant 724 85 82 100 94 151 105 73 34
Property management 54 Q Q Q Q 12 Q Q Q
Other 64 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-related equipment purchases                  
Building owner 4,876 750 533 549 608 780 752 634 271
Business owner or tenant 540 69 59 80 64 107 78 56 26
Property management 35 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 106 Q Q Q 11 19 13 26 Q
Number of establishments                  
One 4,205 658 433 484 500 660 668 569 232
2 to 5 862 113 97 100 116 154 129 104 49
6 to 10 147 11 Q 16 20 38 22 24 Q
11 to 20 68 Q Q 7 11 18 9 11 Q
More than 20 27 2 Q Q Q 11 3 Q Q
Currently unoccupied 248 63 58 30 30 33 Q Q Q
Campus or complex activity                  
Not part of a campus or complex 3,683 657 416 440 463 576 512 437 183
Primary or secondary school 237 17 37 35 24 32 42 40 Q
College or university 84 10 14 16 10 8 9 12 Q
Office complex 154 16 Q Q 18 51 25 19 Q
Retail complex 258 Q 22 31 29 50 38 36 25
Storage complex 314 Q Q Q Q 62 110 66 Q
Religious campus or complex 197 37 29 31 27 30 Q 21 Q
Health care complex 52 Q 1 7 11 8 13 4 Q
Lodging or resort complex 65 Q Q Q Q 14 Q Q Q
Transportation complex 35 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government complex 104 16 Q Q 16 24 Q Q Q
Other 371 54 31 39 46 52 57 69 23
Predominant exterior wall material                  
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 485 295 284 294 306 273 272 104
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 109 191 197 136 192 140 107 49
Concrete panels 210 Q Q 25 30 59 31 34 14
Siding or shingles 905 218 78 65 105 140 146 106 46
Metal panels 933 Q 23 56 113 204 248 186 84
Window glass 17 N Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other 37 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type 21 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                  
Metal surfacing 1,672 138 84 120 204 294 390 299 143
Synthetic or rubber 911 175 123 115 114 132 95 100 56
Built-up 836 120 125 150 105 132 81 88 35
Slate or tile shingles 406 94 49 32 56 67 43 45 20
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 28 Q 28 24 Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 280 189 180 167 247 207 170 42
Concrete 51 Q Q Q Q 10 8 Q Q
Other 24 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type 18 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q N
Roof characteristics                  
Roof tilt                  
Flat 1,960 266 257 310 268 319 238 229 75
Shallow pitch 2,148 278 195 206 289 383 354 301 142
Steeper pitch 1,449 306 147 123 127 213 253 193 85
Cool roof 740 85 71 79 94 113 105 132 61
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any type of renovation 2,094 480 284 332 280 365 223 129 N
Addition or annex 444 60 55 87 55 72 69 46 N
Reduction in floorspace 71 Q Q 20 7 9 Q Q N
Roof replacement 987 257 152 169 149 145 81 34 N
Exterior wall replacement 194 55 40 27 22 18 10 21 N
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 188 117 149 127 155 80 74 N
Window replacement 560 191 90 97 71 67 28 15 N
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 255 166 184 164 186 90 56 N
Lighting upgrade 982 236 152 171 134 170 70 49 N
Electrical upgrade 747 210 146 140 82 88 44 38 N
Plumbing system upgrade 644 188 103 109 72 79 49 44 N
Insulation upgrade 382 115 59 62 53 39 28 27 N
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 151 95 105 92 89 44 40 N
Structural upgrade 152 37 24 31 15 14 17 15 N
Other 39 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q N
No renovations 3,160 369 315 307 404 550 622 593 N
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 N N N N N N N 303
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 5,234 795 554 609 651 856 762 711 296
Natural gas 2,933 490 334 401 406 431 407 326 138
Fuel oil 467 100 53 75 58 50 51 53 27
District heat 48 12 5 9 10 2 3 6 Q
District chilled water 54 Q Q 11 9 3 10 11 Q
Propane 510 80 49 54 62 52 89 92 31
Other 172 38 15 20 24 21 19 19 Q
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 2,858 356 320 308 370 513 398 413 182
Natural gas 2,612 452 310 357 353 383 352 279 126
Fuel oil 270 78 39 52 21 19 23 28 Q
District heat 48 12 5 9 10 2 3 6 Q
Propane 342 60 32 27 48 36 59 58 Q
Other 101 26 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
                 
Electricity 1,819 181 187 161 219 363 269 306 133
Natural gas 2,322 424 266 326 311 336 320 237 103
Fuel oil 205 65 29 37 Q Q 20 Q Q
District heat 47 12 5 9 10 2 2 6 Q
Propane 261 40 Q Q 34 28 56 42 Q
Other 67 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 4,413 639 472 528 555 727 654 606 232
Natural gas 12 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District chilled water 54 Q Q 11 9 3 10 11 Q
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 2,658 360 267 278 342 495 377 393 145
Natural gas 1,758 280 189 269 245 243 249 200 83
Fuel oil 77 28 Q 14 Q Q Q Q Q
District heat 25 7 2 5 4 1 2 Q Q
Propane 142 Q Q Q Q 21 30 22 Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                 
Electricity 1,010 166 109 108 130 148 145 144 60
Natural gas 740 118 96 105 93 103 113 78 34
Propane 144 Q 19 Q 14 9 27 31 Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                 
Buildings with space heating 4,722 736 517 559 599 754 675 613 270
Buildings with cooling 4,461 641 477 538 563 730 663 613 235
Buildings with water heating 4,423 669 460 540 577 727 631 587 231
Buildings with cooking 1,589 269 189 188 195 221 232 210 84
Buildings with manufacturing 259 34 21 25 32 51 31 48 Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 36 24 57 60 59 63 69 42
Percent of floorspace heated                  
Not heated 835 114 83 80 85 161 170 109 33
1 to 50 697 107 81 74 101 134 101 69 30
51 to 99 727 144 85 82 76 121 94 87 37
100 3,298 484 350 403 421 500 480 457 203
Percent of floorspace cooled                  
Not cooled 1,096 209 122 100 121 185 182 109 68
1 to 50 1,173 199 141 136 148 203 157 138 51
51 to 99 897 161 93 106 109 130 128 124 46
100 2,391 281 243 297 306 397 378 352 137
Percent lit when open                  
Zero 70 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 1,099 236 130 123 124 179 120 135 52
51 to 99 1,666 243 183 217 232 249 223 226 92
100 2,222 264 208 258 268 399 387 307 130
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 102 74 42 58 77 108 Q Q
Percent lit during off hours                  
Zero 2,489 417 288 258 281 407 367 335 135
1 to 50 2,441 357 247 312 333 393 335 321 143
51 to 100 202 21 17 32 22 32 44 29 5
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 Q Q Q 14 24 17 26 Q
Electricity not used 323 55 45 Q 34 59 83 Q Q
Heating equipment (more than one may apply)                  
Heat pumps 628 68 70 61 57 126 102 99 46
Furnaces 755 112 76 88 107 138 118 81 36
Individual space heaters 1,247 249 170 160 185 167 139 117 60
District heat 48 12 5 9 10 2 3 6 Q
Boilers 544 132 75 91 59 49 50 60 28
Packaged heating units 2,802 382 283 343 370 442 421 397 163
Other 62 Q Q Q Q Q 11 Q Q
Cooling equipment (more than one may apply)                  
Residential-type central air conditioners 1,546 269 145 192 203 234 235 192 76
Heat pumps 692 69 76 71 67 137 124 98 50
Individual air conditioners 709 184 109 89 86 87 78 63 12
District chilled water 54 Q Q 11 9 3 10 11 Q
Central chillers 163 17 18 25 21 26 22 20 15
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 202 185 241 258 341 271 301 110
Swamp coolers 109 16 Q 13 16 13 15 13 Q
Other Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q N
Main equipment replaced since 1990 (more than one may apply)                  
Heating 1,874 447 307 328 360 431 N N N
Cooling 1,971 463 327 358 362 462 N N N
Water-heating equipment                  
Centralized system 3,348 520 356 427 435 527 498 424 161
Distributed system 690 108 78 60 87 139 86 92 39
Combination of centralized and distributed system 385 41 26 53 55 61 48 70 30
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                 
Incandescent 1,826 371 196 234 256 281 217 203 69
Standard fluorescent 4,649 660 489 574 588 787 671 632 249
Compact fluorescent 2,302 356 243 268 299 343 342 310 142
High-intensity discharge 525 54 39 73 66 98 75 90 31
Halogen 905 148 81 101 95 149 123 143 64
LED 473 67 43 50 52 80 56 74 51
Other 10 Q N Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Any refrigeration 3,984 600 433 476 498 626 595 535 220
Walk-in units 811 97 71 101 115 132 132 115 48
Cases or cabinets 915 137 79 109 107 132 156 131 65
Large cold storage areas 78 Q Q 9 7 17 14 12 Q
Commercial ice makers 846 76 75 100 101 147 160 112 74
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 529 377 410 427 528 481 451 185
Vending machines 960 70 89 138 135 169 149 148 62
No refrigeration 1,573 250 166 163 187 289 250 187 83
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                 
Desktop computers 3,977 553 400 495 494 675 579 563 219
With flat screen monitors 3,847 517 385 477 481 664 559 549 215
With multiple monitors 911 99 70 104 118 183 125 147 66
Laptop computers 2,730 381 271 336 349 470 377 394 152
Dedicated servers 1,748 202 167 205 233 330 239 267 106
Laser printers 2,339 312 224 297 284 400 350 342 131
Inkjet printers 2,187 291 231 278 293 359 341 279 115
FAX machines 3,185 425 324 369 410 579 473 440 164
Photocopiers 2,163 273 199 268 294 391 312 312 114
Number of desktop computers                  
None 1,581 297 200 144 190 240 267 160 84
1 to 4 2,039 366 227 240 245 317 276 262 106
5 to 9 821 99 75 117 107 143 126 108 44
10 to 19 482 30 43 64 60 77 86 92 31
20 to 49 355 26 25 36 43 87 57 57 24
50 to 99 143 19 17 18 22 24 16 21 Q
100 to 249 92 10 8 14 11 16 10 16 6
250 or more 44 3 4 5 6 10 7 7 3
Number of laptop computers                  
None 2,827 469 328 303 335 445 468 328 150
1 to 4 1,944 309 196 239 252 305 264 268 109
5 to 9 350 29 34 44 49 70 54 53 Q
10 to 19 181 14 18 16 18 43 24 35 12
20 to 49 144 14 13 21 17 33 19 19 Q
50 to 99 58 8 6 6 7 11 8 8 4
100 to 249 35 5 1 8 3 4 5 7 Q
250 or more 20 2 3 1 2 4 3 3 2
Number of dedicated servers                  
None 3,809 648 433 434 451 585 607 455 197
1 to 4 1,562 186 154 190 209 284 214 233 91
5 to 9 97 7 7 8 15 25 11 16 Q
10 to 19 50 6 2 5 4 12 8 10 Q
20 to 49 25 Q Q 1 3 7 4 4 Q
50 or more 13 1 1 Q 2 2 1 3 Q
Number of photocopiers                  
None 3,394 577 401 371 390 524 533 410 189
One 1,325 180 143 158 188 228 185 183 61
2 to 4 648 72 41 91 84 113 105 102 41
5 to 9 116 9 9 10 13 37 12 19 Q
10 or more 75 12 5 9 9 14 11 9 6
Number of TVs or video displays                  
None 2,718 453 326 281 334 445 423 318 137
One 1,145 177 122 146 141 199 182 136 41
2 to 4 1,035 144 94 124 123 166 131 173 80
5 to 9 314 46 25 40 37 43 55 46 22
10 to 19 154 21 16 15 24 30 21 17 10
20 to 49 106 6 9 16 13 19 17 18 6
50 to 99 48 Q 6 8 6 5 10 8 Q
100 or more 37 1 2 8 5 7 6 6 3
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                 
Snack bar or concession stand 153 13 18 19 22 28 25 19 10
Fast food or small restaurant 173 8 9 29 23 29 32 28 15
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 11 17 20 19 17 20 19 6
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 36 32 39 30 38 43 47 18
Small kitchen area 736 154 96 83 90 102 92 89 29
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                 
Data center or server farm 97 6 6 10 15 25 11 16 8
Computer-based training room 244 19 24 25 34 39 33 48 21
Student or public computer center 238 19 27 39 31 44 33 35 11
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                 
Economizer cycle 601 54 62 67 73 84 92 114 54
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 398 317 397 391 549 466 467 193
Building automation system (BAS)2 781 57 68 108 82 99 114 162 90
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                 
Multipaned windows 3,012 389 256 315 362 490 486 497 218
Tinted window glass 1,875 172 155 203 260 370 292 305 118
Reflective window glass 549 54 48 52 60 102 80 102 51
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 251 210 248 249 287 266 246 112
Skylights or atriums 591 61 37 73 69 139 93 92 27
Light scheduling 918 87 78 100 113 150 173 143 74
Occupancy sensors 813 60 87 82 94 139 98 157 96
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 49 29 30 43 53 42 69 34
Daylight harvesting 125 18 13 12 12 19 11 22 18
Demand responsive lighting 176 21 14 25 28 28 18 28 Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 208 4 14 18 25 29 40 46 32
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                 
Heating 3,699 573 412 451 473 595 526 453 217
Cooling 3,517 508 374 430 457 581 515 463 187
Lighting 4,757 733 503 570 598 781 690 625 257
 
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
(*) = Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.