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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table B11. Selected principal building activity: part 1, number of buildings, 2012

Released: May 2016

Number of buildings (thousand)
Principal building activity
  All
buildings
Office Warehouse
and
storage
Service Mercantile Religious worship Education Public assembly
All buildings 5,557 1,012 796 619 602 412 389 352
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000 2,777 532 380 372 250 174 143 162
5,001 to 10,000 1,229 230 180 143 143 111 51 77
10,001 to 25,000 884 129 142 78 116 90 75 73
25,001 to 50,000 332 66 49 19 45 28 41 24
50,001 to 100,000 199 32 24 Q 26 7 48 9
100,001 to 200,000 90 15 13 Q 16 Q 22 4
200,001 to 500,000 38 6 7 Q 5 Q 9 2
Over 500,000 8 3 1 Q 1 N Q 1
Year constructed                
Before 1920 362 83 26 Q 48 38 6 38
1920 to 1945 488 86 48 55 54 47 33 48
1946 to 1959 599 111 55 67 59 57 48 45
1960 to 1969 639 102 65 94 64 52 61 39
1970 to 1979 684 132 88 78 83 52 38 37
1980 to 1989 915 192 160 99 98 58 47 37
1990 to 1999 845 139 163 97 77 40 64 51
2000 to 2003 375 55 59 34 37 32 48 13
2004 to 2007 347 68 75 32 44 Q 22 22
2008 to 2012 303 44 58 30 38 Q 21 23
Census region and division                
Northeast 805 148 89 108 98 51 45 65
New England 302 54 28 41 34 Q 16 36
Middle Atlantic 504 94 61 68 64 28 29 29
Midwest 1,237 230 163 177 131 92 67 100
East North Central 735 154 79 102 84 50 44 65
West North Central 502 76 84 75 47 42 23 34
South 2,247 390 325 230 251 195 159 110
South Atlantic 1,091 198 177 100 142 80 87 45
East South Central 370 63 22 41 31 57 14 34
West South Central 786 129 126 89 78 58 58 31
West 1,267 245 219 103 122 74 118 77
Mountain 338 65 46 Q 31 22 24 16
Pacific 929 179 173 78 91 52 94 61
Climate region1                
Very cold/Cold 2,031 393 273 256 222 128 112 158
Mixed-humid 1,743 316 228 202 210 163 97 93
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 144 177 81 61 46 83 55
Hot-humid 799 129 94 67 92 66 85 31
Marine 147 30 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of floors                
One 3,836 554 661 495 441 261 266 223
Two 1,158 277 114 94 116 125 66 87
Three 374 118 15 24 32 21 36 24
Four to nine 177 56 Q Q Q Q 19 18
Ten or more 13 7 N Q Q N Q Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
               
Any elevators 405 146 19 Q 16 20 62 29
Number of elevators                
One 272 94 12 Q 14 17 47 20
Two to five 118 46 8 Q Q Q 14 8
Six or more 16 6 N Q Q Q Q 1
Any escalators 10 5 N Q 1 Q N 1
Number of workers (main shift)                
Fewer than 5 2,892 320 528 398 265 296 122 230
5 to 9 1,085 254 104 119 132 61 71 65
10 to 19 731 168 89 61 95 42 50 32
20 to 49 513 144 54 30 72 11 82 15
50 to 99 206 70 12 Q 27 Q 45 6
100 to 249 93 34 7 Q 10 Q 17 2
250 or more 37 22 2 Q 2 N 3 1
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 1,149 61 142 71 44 289 60 110
40 to 48 1,346 488 199 194 118 38 127 44
49 to 60 1,244 309 195 207 171 37 121 75
61 to 84 764 79 77 101 185 27 45 69
85 to 167 479 31 53 24 70 Q 28 33
Open continuously 575 45 130 Q 15 Q 8 21
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 4,781 862 743 544 598 411 162 234
Owner occupied 2,466 370 334 282 233 368 124 163
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 357 364 237 314 32 33 53
Owner occupied and leased 349 135 44 25 51 Q Q 18
Unoccupied 221 N N N N N N N
Government owned 776 150 53 74 Q Q 227 118
Federal 33 9 Q Q Q N Q Q
State 185 43 Q Q Q N 60 21
Local 558 98 Q 49 Q Q 162 97
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
               
Building owner 4,715 873 668 495 426 394 368 324
Business owner or tenant 724 118 108 115 167 Q Q 12
Property management 54 14 Q Q Q N Q Q
Other 64 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 4,876 900 715 510 465 393 369 322
Business owner or tenant 540 86 67 94 120 Q Q Q
Property management 35 12 Q Q Q N Q Q
Other 106 15 Q Q 13 Q Q Q
Number of establishments                
One 4,205 657 642 526 372 385 369 300
2 to 5 862 275 110 82 133 26 19 50
6 to 10 147 52 22 Q 58 N N Q
11 to 20 68 19 Q Q 30 N N Q
More than 20 27 8 Q N 8 N N Q
Currently unoccupied 248 N N N N N N N
Campus or complex activity                
Not part of a campus or complex 3,683 742 394 441 467 292 120 212
Primary or secondary school 237 Q Q Q N Q 173 15
College or university 84 15 Q Q N N 35 7
Office complex 154 113 Q Q Q N Q Q
Retail complex 258 Q Q 29 124 N N Q
Storage complex 314 Q 259 Q Q N N N
Religious campus or complex 197 Q N N Q 118 26 Q
Health care complex 52 Q Q N N N Q Q
Lodging or resort complex 65 Q Q Q Q N Q Q
Transportation complex 35 Q Q Q N N N Q
Government complex 104 35 Q Q N N Q Q
Other 371 48 74 93 Q N 22 56
Predominant exterior wall material                
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 518 143 172 239 227 211 133
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 167 154 158 176 47 61 76
Concrete panels 210 44 65 Q 18 Q 12 6
Siding or shingles 905 194 96 60 77 86 68 90
Metal panels 933 71 327 206 89 28 35 43
Window glass 17 4 Q N Q Q Q Q
Other 37 9 Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type 21 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                
Metal surfacing 1,672 192 433 302 158 94 79 100
Synthetic or rubber 911 194 103 91 119 22 73 63
Built-up 836 164 93 68 121 30 112 38
Slate or tile shingles 406 87 Q Q 28 62 29 35
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 26 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 334 108 98 143 190 87 100
Concrete 51 13 Q Q Q N Q Q
Other 24 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No one major type 18 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof characteristics                
Roof tilt                
Flat 1,960 408 248 193 275 42 162 77
Shallow pitch 2,148 317 430 275 232 104 152 158
Steeper pitch 1,449 288 117 151 96 265 75 116
Cool roof 740 141 96 70 94 51 86 51
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
               
Any type of renovation 2,094 460 176 163 236 197 161 140
Addition or annex 444 81 35 44 34 61 49 26
Reduction in floorspace 71 10 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 987 220 67 77 109 117 84 74
Exterior wall replacement 194 44 12 Q 19 Q 19 Q
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 261 69 57 101 52 59 48
Window replacement 560 139 35 36 58 64 48 49
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 254 65 89 123 113 100 79
Lighting upgrade 982 235 58 60 121 76 87 69
Electrical upgrade 747 171 52 49 101 61 57 50
Plumbing system upgrade 644 128 44 42 66 56 52 43
Insulation upgrade 382 89 29 37 39 39 29 27
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 151 40 35 57 56 71 33
Structural upgrade 152 31 Q Q Q Q 9 10
Other 39 Q Q N Q Q Q Q
No renovations 3,160 509 562 426 328 202 207 189
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 44 58 30 38 Q 21 23
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 5,234 1,012 675 602 599 412 389 352
Natural gas 2,933 595 261 339 356 229 234 205
Fuel oil 467 86 26 86 44 23 30 27
District heat 48 12 Q Q Q N 12 7
District chilled water 54 10 N N N Q 25 5
Propane 510 35 45 69 51 66 25 67
Other 172 24 16 39 22 Q 10 17
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,858 653 264 270 387 231 214 162
Natural gas 2,612 554 235 329 324 217 203 187
Fuel oil 270 42 Q 70 35 Q 21 Q
District heat 48 12 Q Q Q N 12 7
Propane 342 27 26 54 35 63 16 46
Other 101 Q Q 39 Q Q Q Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 1,819 424 180 127 229 132 154 94
Natural gas 2,322 493 213 290 283 199 182 164
Fuel oil 205 32 Q 48 Q Q 17 Q
District heat 47 12 Q Q Q N 12 7
Propane 261 24 Q 37 Q 53 Q 44
Other 67 Q Q 26 Q Q Q Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 4,413 985 388 435 560 375 338 291
Natural gas 12 Q Q N Q N Q N
District chilled water 54 10 N N N Q 25 5
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,658 614 264 273 400 233 159 160
Natural gas 1,758 323 117 161 194 144 167 135
Fuel oil 77 Q Q Q Q Q 11 Q
District heat 25 8 N Q Q N 7 3
Propane 142 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 1,010 101 26 28 101 167 116 89
Natural gas 740 39 Q Q 92 93 86 46
Propane 144 Q Q Q Q Q 7 24
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 4,722 989 420 528 572 408 379 330
Buildings with cooling 4,461 995 391 435 560 375 361 295
Buildings with water heating 4,423 943 370 442 531 383 332 317
Buildings with cooking 1,589 130 33 39 157 261 169 143
Buildings with manufacturing 259 31 77 46 28 Q Q Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 94 29 19 31 Q 38 21
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 835 23 375 90 30 Q Q 22
1 to 50 697 73 224 109 73 35 Q 35
51 to 99 727 165 28 86 138 43 56 51
100 3,298 750 168 334 361 330 314 244
Percent of floorspace cooled                
Not cooled 1,096 Q 405 183 42 36 28 57
1 to 50 1,173 136 290 293 129 45 42 56
51 to 99 897 237 29 38 154 64 73 69
100 2,391 622 72 104 278 266 246 170
Percent lit when open                
Zero 70 N 53 Q N N N Q
1 to 50 1,099 227 239 121 73 101 30 84
51 to 99 1,666 399 126 148 275 146 126 120
100 2,222 386 197 311 251 163 233 135
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 N 180 Q Q Q N Q
Percent lit during off hours                
Zero 2,489 455 426 330 142 300 200 214
1 to 50 2,441 532 193 254 439 110 183 126
51 to 100 202 22 26 Q 13 Q 4 10
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 Q Q Q Q N Q Q
Electricity not used 323 N 121 Q Q N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Heat pumps 628 157 53 43 83 52 62 42
Furnaces 755 196 58 70 89 91 26 61
Individual space heaters 1,247 234 150 259 136 89 45 80
District heat 48 12 Q Q Q N 12 7
Boilers 544 110 18 30 59 61 96 41
Packaged heating units 2,802 560 246 285 402 236 223 183
Other 62 Q Q Q 13 Q Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 358 149 138 209 164 68 116
Heat pumps 692 175 57 50 96 57 69 42
Individual air conditioners 709 124 71 126 73 61 45 29
District chilled water 54 10 N N N Q 25 5
Central chillers 163 43 Q Q Q Q 42 15
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 396 158 140 301 146 165 127
Swamp coolers 109 Q Q Q 14 Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q Q N Q Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
               
Heating 1,874 424 142 212 249 165 142 120
Cooling 1,971 481 137 186 272 166 139 122
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 3,348 713 252 347 342 290 244 248
Distributed system 690 160 93 80 90 70 51 41
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 71 26 Q 99 23 38 28
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
               
Incandescent 1,826 361 136 126 273 253 97 144
Standard fluorescent 4,649 949 509 552 570 363 382 299
Compact fluorescent 2,302 484 161 168 301 222 176 165
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 57 76 70 98 39 57 41
Halogen 905 161 66 78 175 90 50 67
LED 473 81 23 Q 117 33 28 46
Other 10 Q N N Q N Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Any refrigeration 3,984 816 314 415 500 351 277 268
Walk-in units 811 23 19 Q 149 Q 80 28
Cases or cabinets 915 43 14 Q 195 38 81 56
Large cold storage areas 78 Q 12 N 19 Q Q Q
Commercial ice makers 846 72 29 Q 113 39 68 51
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 788 286 384 417 330 229 243
Vending machines 960 179 90 118 173 12 97 48
No refrigeration 1,573 197 482 204 102 61 112 84
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Desktop computers 3,977 977 370 428 527 246 357 231
With flat screen monitors 3,847 967 361 412 514 223 347 216
With multiple monitors 911 376 96 48 128 35 50 26
Laptop computers 2,730 753 253 246 350 186 255 155
Dedicated servers 1,748 580 173 116 239 58 150 70
Laser printers 2,339 728 224 209 282 104 223 115
Inkjet printers 2,187 430 200 269 323 162 167 152
FAX machines 3,185 873 329 347 465 143 218 171
Photocopiers 2,163 710 209 133 250 195 199 120
Number of desktop computers                
None 1,581 35 426 191 75 166 31 121
1 to 4 2,039 271 178 332 262 198 100 146
5 to 9 821 284 95 60 141 32 46 37
10 to 19 482 184 64 22 71 Q 45 20
20 to 49 355 128 25 Q 46 Q 62 23
50 to 99 143 60 6 Q 6 Q 45 2
100 to 249 92 31 2 Q 1 Q 41 3
250 or more 44 19 Q N Q N 18 2
Number of laptop computers                
None 2,827 259 543 372 252 226 134 197
1 to 4 1,944 460 193 228 264 162 108 131
5 to 9 350 128 41 Q 52 18 31 11
10 to 19 181 65 9 Q 29 Q 27 8
20 to 49 144 64 8 Q 5 Q 43 2
50 to 99 58 19 Q Q Q Q 24 Q
100 to 249 35 10 Q Q Q N 15 Q
250 or more 20 8 Q N Q N 7 Q
Number of dedicated servers                
None 3,809 433 623 502 364 354 239 282
1 to 4 1,562 479 159 116 222 57 130 67
5 to 9 97 51 9 Q 12 Q 9 Q
10 to 19 50 26 Q Q 5 N 7 Q
20 to 49 25 16 Q Q Q N 2 1
50 or more 13 6 Q N N N Q Q
Number of photocopiers                
None 3,394 302 587 486 352 217 190 232
One 1,325 352 141 103 163 156 83 90
2 to 4 648 259 59 27 70 38 88 24
5 to 9 116 55 7 Q 16 Q 21 3
10 or more 75 44 Q Q 1 Q 7 3
Number of TVs or video displays                
None 2,718 463 626 345 222 173 118 160
One 1,145 249 90 170 150 108 72 67
2 to 4 1,035 200 72 96 121 101 92 90
5 to 9 314 60 6 Q 44 23 39 16
10 to 19 154 25 Q Q 35 Q 28 11
20 to 49 106 11 Q N 25 Q 27 5
50 to 99 48 2 Q N 5 N 10 Q
100 or more 37 1 Q N Q N Q 1
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar or concession stand 153 8 Q Q 31 Q 30 18
Fast food or small restaurant 173 9 Q Q 99 N Q 8
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 12 Q N 15 Q 70 6
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 12 Q Q 30 57 69 28
Small kitchen area 736 95 26 34 49 205 67 98
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
               
Data center or server farm 97 51 7 Q Q Q 13 2
Computer-based training room 244 67 10 Q 38 Q 78 8
Student or public computer center 238 19 Q Q 22 Q 126 21
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 601 134 29 22 94 25 114 42
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 703 248 264 390 238 345 224
Building automation system (BAS)2 781 143 30 24 134 52 180 54
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
               
Multipaned windows 3,012 686 258 265 378 247 221 203
Tinted window glass 1,875 409 159 169 285 152 151 94
Reflective window glass 549 138 51 33 95 52 42 33
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 370 132 159 330 109 125 120
Skylights or atriums 591 113 83 70 80 39 46 42
Light scheduling 918 168 56 71 233 35 80 77
Occupancy sensors 813 187 76 36 142 15 122 63
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 56 4 Q 83 40 26 38
Daylight harvesting 125 28 11 Q 29 Q 9 8
Demand responsive lighting 176 15 Q Q 52 Q 15 Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 208 25 4 Q 93 Q 32 13
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
               
Heating 3,699 798 294 400 479 362 348 272
Cooling 3,517 803 272 343 475 337 333 243
Lighting 4,757 990 518 570 578 404 385 331
     
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definition of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.