U.S. Energy Information Administration logo
Skip to sub-navigation
‹ Consumption & Efficiency

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

‹ BACK TO ALL 2018 CBECS TABLES

Release date: September 2021
Table B11.  Selected principal building activity: part 1, number of buildings, 2018
Number of buildings (thousand)
Principal building activity
  All
buildings
Warehouse
and
storage
Office Service Mercantile Public assembly Religious worship Education
All buildings 5,918 1,004 970 867 518 488 439 438
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000  2,837 444 518 515 181 215 169 148
5,001 to 10,000  1,358 249 198 218 107 115 100 98
10,001 to 25,000 966 194 135 96 142 95 118 62
25,001 to 50,000 397 60 54 28 47 43 42 40
50,001 to 100,000  218 33 35 9 23 14 8 57
100,001 to 200,000  93 15 17 Q 13 3 Q 25
200,001 to 500,000  40 8 9 Q 5 1 Q 7
Over 500,000  9 2 2 Q 1 1 N 0
Year constructed                
Before 1920 329 Q 85 Q Q 64 57 Q
1920 to 1945 379 22 78 57 Q 40 Q 22
1946 to 1959 517 113 54 68 48 33 44 66
1960 to 1969 685 68 82 135 96 61 59 51
1970 to 1979 831 121 159 143 65 63 74 59
1980 to 1989 794 150 164 108 63 35 34 55
1990 to 1999 921 235 130 125 49 70 58 86
2000 to 2009 924 162 152 139 100 78 55 60
2010 to 2018 537 117 67 82 52 43 Q 26
Census region and division                
Northeast 793 119 138 144 60 91 61 44
New England  275 50 23 45 Q 47 Q 21
Middle Atlantic 518 70 115 99 37 44 48 23
Midwest 1,719 307 265 305 139 141 122 90
East North Central 1,110 206 172 184 76 96 80 53
West North Central 609 101 93 120 62 44 42 37
South 2,143 366 375 237 209 167 201 153
South Atlantic  1,034 154 184 110 94 101 106 76
East South Central 347 75 47 29 40 Q 44 24
West South Central 762 136 143 98 75 56 50 53
West 1,264 212 193 181 112 88 55 150
Mountain 484 81 65 77 56 31 Q 38
Pacific 780 131 129 104 56 57 36 112
Number of floors                
One 4,106 846 544 708 408 307 213 278
Two 1,286 137 273 144 79 116 182 111
Three 370 19 105 Q 32 47 37 26
Four to nine 142 Q 38 Q Q 18 Q 23
Ten or more 16 N 9 N N Q N Q
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
               
Any elevators 503 27 150 Q 16 50 47 78
Number of elevators                
One 366 24 98 Q 14 37 44 62
Two to five 121 3 44 Q Q 12 Q 15
Six or more 16 Q 8 Q Q 1 Q 0
Any escalators 14 Q 2 Q 1 2 Q Q
Number of workers (main shift)                
Fewer than 5 3,270 717 340 595 231 324 329 114
5 to 9 1,116 125 254 160 81 94 50 132
10 to 19 713 69 152 70 87 39 43 58
20 to 49 492 68 103 34 77 21 13 64
50 to 99 201 17 66 Q 26 8 Q 50
100 to 249 91 7 32 Q 15 2 N 19
250 or more 37 1 24 Q 1 1 N 2
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 1,388 211 96 142 Q 182 324 105
40 to 48 1,474 230 468 335 106 75 38 108
49 to 60 1,243 200 266 217 172 95 29 167
61 to 84 643 84 66 97 115 57 26 46
85 to 167 464 94 25 34 65 48 Q 9
Open continuously 705 185 48 42 19 30 Q Q
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 4,982 963 796 726 516 327 439 166
Owner occupied 3,249 633 485 465 236 278 412 142
Leased to tenant(s) 1,581 330 311 261 281 48 Q 24
Unoccupied 152 N N N N N N N
Government owned 937 42 175 141 Q 161 N 272
Federal 70 3 11 33 Q Q N Q
State 256 Q 34 Q Q 36 N 92
Local 610 Q 129 75 Q 120 N 169
Party responsible for operation
of energy systems
               
Building owner 4,872 761 816 698 298 440 423 422
Business owner or tenant 831 191 109 153 193 26 Q Q
Property management 97 Q 24 Q Q Q Q Q
Other 118 21 22 Q Q Q Q 12
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 5,127 862 866 709 374 439 428 421
Business owner or tenant 483 77 56 118 96 Q Q Q
Property management 49 Q Q Q Q Q N Q
Other 260 49 46 Q 40 30 Q 13
Number of establishments                
One 4,719 826 671 787 283 432 416 414
2 to 5 811 155 211 78 151 50 Q 24
6 to 10 135 15 44 Q 60 Q N Q
11 to 20 63 Q 32 Q 19 Q N Q
More than 20 19 Q 12 N 5 Q N Q
Currently unoccupied 170 N N N N N N N
Campus or complex activity                
Not part of a campus or complex 3,622 410 629 593 410 286 267 170
Primary or secondary school 247 N Q N N 36 N 179
College or university 103 Q 9 Q Q 9 N 49
Office complex 141 Q 106 Q Q Q Q Q
Retail complex 250 62 Q Q 94 Q N N
Storage complex 418 339 Q Q Q Q N N
Religious campus or complex 253 Q Q Q N Q 166 25
Health care complex 60 Q Q Q N Q N Q
Lodging or resort complex 102 Q Q N Q Q N N
Transportation complex 36 Q Q Q N 2 N Q
Government complex 124 Q 27 48 N Q N N
Other 563 125 100 143 Q 82 Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,490 171 565 243 237 214 266 227
Concrete (block or poured) 935 151 85 158 119 74 51 66
Concrete panels 137 43 31 Q 18 10 Q 3
Siding or shingles 948 90 199 90 51 114 93 92
Metal panels 1,250 527 48 361 67 64 Q Q
Window glass 19 N 10 N Q 2 N Q
Other 139 Q 32 Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant roof material                
Metal surfacing 2,198 662 207 499 136 162 94 111
Synthetic or rubber 940 131 180 72 136 62 20 103
Built-up 708 59 160 91 94 37 27 79
Slate or tile shingles 376 Q 78 Q Q 56 54 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
166 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,311 78 280 144 99 143 213 85
Concrete 83 Q 16 Q Q Q Q Q
Other 136 27 28 Q Q Q Q 7
Roof tilt                
Flat 1,914 227 393 260 245 99 50 190
Shallow pitch 2,313 578 317 384 205 166 99 161
Steeper pitch 1,691 199 261 223 68 223 290 87
Cool roof characteristics (more than one may apply)                
White/reflective coating or paint 1,285 253 200 169 144 74 40 127
White/reflective tiles or shingles 140 Q 13 Q Q Q Q 12
Aluminum coating 528 109 42 140 52 41 Q 29
Ballasted roof system 114 Q 33 Q 7 9 Q 10
Other cool roof property 35 N Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations since 2000
(more than one may apply)
               
Any type of renovation 2,032 198 391 235 204 184 203 180
Addition or annex 327 24 39 41 23 23 44 55
Reduction in floorspace 35 Q 2 Q Q Q Q Q
Roof replacement 847 97 147 54 96 73 99 86
Interior wall reconfiguration 709 57 187 73 69 59 40 82
Window replacement 484 44 91 55 51 46 46 41
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,006 81 196 77 115 89 121 95
Lighting upgrade 1,012 93 204 120 113 91 54 95
Electrical upgrade 565 45 89 56 69 58 37 62
Plumbing system upgrade 584 28 99 51 48 62 52 66
Insulation upgrade 307 43 51 41 29 32 Q 28
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 570 31 87 54 40 57 37 89
Structural upgrade 147 Q 18 Q Q 18 Q 16
Other 43 Q Q Q 4 Q Q Q
No renovations 3,530 717 533 576 280 277 227 241
Buildings constructed 2013 or later 357 89 46 56 34 27 Q 17
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 5,613 792 970 866 514 488 439 438
Natural gas 2,974 320 549 382 329 275 259 216
Fuel oil 586 52 102 156 29 43 32 34
District heat 86 Q 10 Q Q 12 Q 39
District chilled water 55 Q 7 N N 8 Q 29
Propane 676 83 59 107 51 75 96 51
Solar 99 Q 17 Q 10 16 Q 14
Wood, coal, and other 180 Q Q 94 Q Q Q Q
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,566 290 528 289 317 195 183 214
Natural gas 2,583 283 488 351 315 242 227 190
Fuel oil 266 Q 37 87 Q Q Q 19
District heat 83 Q 10 Q Q 11 Q 37
Propane 431 48 Q 78 35 33 82 35
Other sources1 127 Q Q 83 Q Q N Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 1,859 200 390 193 203 158 125 161
Natural gas 2,341 274 457 316 252 230 207 171
Fuel oil 222 Q 35 66 Q Q Q 15
District heat 78 Q 9 Q Q 10 Q 34
Propane 338 45 Q 62 Q Q 73 Q
Other sources1 63 Q Q Q N Q N Q
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 4,584 470 934 512 481 406 420 389
Natural gas 4 Q Q N Q Q Q Q
District chilled water 55 Q 7 N N 8 Q 29
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,785 285 575 376 357 228 241 211
Natural gas 1,885 143 334 199 219 200 158 158
Fuel oil 72 Q 16 Q Q Q Q 9
District heat 38 N 6 Q N 6 N 15
Propane 145 Q Q Q Q Q Q 7
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 1,216 54 166 45 117 113 189 125
Natural gas 726 Q 40 Q 98 80 108 80
Propane 159 Q Q Q Q 35 Q 14
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 4,901 549 925 686 488 444 426 414
Buildings with cooling 4,631 473 939 512 481 412 421 414
Buildings with water heating 4,595 425 902 590 454 449 409 379
Buildings with cooking 1,736 60 198 49 149 197 275 176
Buildings with manufacturing 322 113 24 100 21 Q Q 3
Buildings with electricity
generation
706 70 139 106 44 68 19 62
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 1,017 455 45 181 Q 44 Q Q
1 to 50 693 239 91 167 73 23 Q Q
51 to 99 905 76 159 97 150 99 72 73
100 3,303 234 676 422 264 322 339 331
Percent of floorspace cooled                
Not cooled 1,288 532 Q 355 Q 76 Q 24
1 to 50 1,111 313 101 322 84 64 38 40
51 to 99 998 76 193 46 156 106 104 91
100 2,522 84 645 145 240 242 280 283
Percent lit when open                
Zero Q Q N Q N N N N
1 to 50 1,280 294 188 237 58 131 140 50
51 to 99 1,784 120 401 198 267 176 161 137
100 2,272 267 381 405 189 159 137 251
Building never open/electricity
not used
513 259 N Q Q Q N N
Percent lit during off hours                
Zero 2,054 423 267 458 98 201 232 148
1 to 50 3,243 326 670 378 401 258 205 282
51 to 100 238 25 32 Q 15 24 Q 8
Building always open with
no "off hours"
78 Q Q Q Q Q N Q
Electricity not used 305 213 N Q Q N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Packaged heating units 2,187 200 419 214 362 178 162 157
Furnaces 1,621 187 313 268 177 168 178 76
Individual space heaters 1,246 220 184 337 124 58 79 63
Boilers 703 34 133 69 49 68 70 133
Heat pumps 673 48 132 36 82 51 72 89
District heat 83 Q 10 Q Q 11 Q 37
Duct reheat 134 Q 21 Q 29 13 Q 20
Other 17 Q Q N Q Q N Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Packaged air-conditioning units 2,565 230 504 220 383 226 224 218
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,309 161 321 137 108 125 127 100
Individual air conditioners 735 79 60 134 73 64 69 65
Central chillers 202 Q 53 Q 15 18 15 47
Heat pumps 492 36 85 38 52 40 68 56
District chilled water 55 Q 7 N N 8 Q 29
Swamp coolers 85 17 3 Q Q Q Q Q
Other Q Q Q N N N N N
HVAC features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 747 37 152 23 93 73 42 133
Variable air volume (VAV) system 698 69 178 46 35 64 42 109
Dedicated outside air system (DOAS) 249 15 43 Q Q 34 Q 44
Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) 349 40 49 42 19 28 37 72
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,554 354 719 356 342 331 284 400
Building automation system (BAS) controls heating/cooling 933 46 188 30 112 83 92 185
Internet-connected/smart thermostat 325 31 42 Q 30 39 62 27
Programmable thermostat 1,545 176 406 206 108 118 112 114
Main equipment replaced since
2000 (more than one may apply)
               
Heating 1,937 247 377 264 207 143 223 124
Cooling 1,269 158 212 197 79 103 146 118
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 3,538 321 727 457 274 368 322 284
Distributed system 782 94 122 122 125 52 52 58
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
274 10 54 Q 55 30 35 37
Generation technologies
(more than one may apply)
               
Reciprocating engine generators 578 55 120 100 32 48 16 47
Solar panels 94 Q 17 Q 10 16 Q 14
Other generation technology 43 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
               
Incandescent 1,100 117 196 79 138 120 176 41
Standard fluorescent 4,019 497 756 615 397 334 334 340
Compact fluorescent 1,133 114 217 99 174 123 91 67
High-intensity discharge (HID) 238 58 26 47 23 21 16 18
Halogen 552 52 74 46 122 53 75 26
LED 2,592 255 457 328 288 238 222 200
Other Q N Q N Q Q N N
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Any refrigeration 3,850 337 738 458 402 383 365 273
Walk-in units 706 8 19 Q 132 58 10 78
Cases or cabinets 837 25 43 Q 153 93 38 65
Large cold storage areas 69 7 Q N 13 Q N 2
Commercial ice makers 872 37 70 42 96 114 59 61
Residential-type or compact units 3,321 305 709 423 337 331 349 238
Vending machines 800 67 127 106 133 58 26 89
No refrigeration 2,068 667 233 409 116 105 74 165
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Desktop computers 3,804 369 907 431 457 300 233 384
With multiple monitors 1,504 174 537 121 149 80 86 146
Laptop computers 2,786 281 666 304 293 212 233 319
Dedicated servers 1,400 143 455 91 194 67 36 150
Tablets charged in building 1,556 130 353 125 215 110 96 197
Large floor-standing office devices3 1,456 107 496 88 129 111 130 201
Smaller desktop office devices3 3,560 371 791 456 438 272 239 327
Interactive whiteboards 262 5 43 Q 13 6 Q 150
Televisions/video displays 2,451 180 452 210 291 251 229 255
Point-of-sales devices/cash registers 1,420 50 126 178 379 128 Q 62
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar/concession stand/coffee shop 144 Q 13 N 25 42 Q 14
Fast food/small restaurant 160 Q 8 Q 56 21 Q 5
Cafeteria/large restaurant 131 Q 7 Q 3 26 Q 68
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
283 Q 7 Q 39 48 58 42
Small kitchen area 1,019 58 182 45 69 119 209 109
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
               
Server closet 1,237 132 445 81 137 63 32 144
Data center 116 Q 32 Q 4 4 Q 19
Computer-based training room 228 16 47 Q 18 16 Q 88
Student or public computer center 236 Q 25 Q 31 32 Q 115
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
               
Multipaned windows 3,527 344 692 443 356 284 303 291
Tinted window glass 1,679 156 371 163 239 110 161 146
Reflective window glass 497 39 110 49 85 31 30 45
External overhangs or awnings 1,513 119 269 134 288 131 95 131
Skylights or atriums 509 86 93 69 37 49 28 45
Light scheduling 910 76 164 62 160 78 58 83
Occupancy sensors 1,025 123 197 94 119 75 52 180
Multi-level lighting or dimming 332 16 59 Q 32 56 51 36
Daylight harvesting 138 14 16 Q 32 7 Q 11
Plug-load control 58 Q Q N Q Q Q Q
Demand responsive lighting 98 Q 8 Q Q Q Q Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting 317 Q 47 Q 76 23 Q 66
Electric vehicle (EV) charging                
Charging stations associated with the building 132 26 21 32 11 7 N 4
     
1Other sources includes wood, coal, solar, and all other energy sources.
2Office devices refers to any combination of printers, copiers, scanners, or FAX machines.
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: ● Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. ●
See Guide to the 2018 CBECS Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2018/ ● Data are sample survey estimates with RSEs published in a tab on the Excel worksheet for this table.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Form EIA-871A of the 2018 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.