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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table E1. Major fuel consumption (Btu) by end use, 2012

Released: May 2016

Total major fuel consumption (trillion Btu)
  Total Space
heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water
heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office
equip-
ment
Com-
puting
Other
All buildings 6,963 1,756 656 668 507 724 517 670 172 405 857
Building floorspace (square feet)                      
1,001 to 5,000 723 155 50 45 56 59 105 131 21 33 56
5,001 to 10,000 646 157 45 48 42 58 82 93 17 33 62
10,001 to 25,000 876 244 67 79 56 92 60 92 28 50 103
25,001 to 50,000 823 223 79 84 61 97 33 68 21 46 108
50,001 to 100,000 1,067 288 103 108 83 110 42 103 27 60 141
100,001 to 200,000 1,035 243 95 116 77 119 54 92 21 73 144
200,001 to 500,000 1,026 267 125 106 74 109 59 68 19 62 136
Over 500,000 767 178 92 82 57 80 81 23 19 48 106
Principal building activity                      
Education 842 299 91 68 68 78 15 40 21 78 84
Food sales 262 31 6 12 3 16 29 147 2 2 14
Food service 514 46 30 31 43 19 199 114 7 4 21
Health care 718 210 79 82 82 61 52 19 17 34 82
Inpatient 549 164 67 46 78 40 47 14 12 21 59
Outpatient 169 46 12 37 4 21 4 4 5 13 23
Lodging 564 67 39 49 136 40 69 33 43 6 83
Mercantile 1,008 181 91 121 66 140 72 191 18 23 103
Retail (other than mall) 364 76 40 47 5 72 8 53 7 11 46
Enclosed and strip malls 644 106 52 75 61 68 64 139 11 12 57
Office 1,241 305 118 214 35 148 Q 28 37 167 153
Public assembly 480 189 86 24 7 35 14 25 7 16 72
Public order and safety 133 36 16 5 21 15 4 3 3 8 22
Religious worship 173 75 15 13 Q 9 11 4 3 3 26
Service 272 118 21 14 22 37 1 5 4 8 39
Warehouse and storage 429 116 35 13 11 85 Q 47 6 16 74
Other 286 69 26 16 2 37 Q 15 2 40 77
Vacant 41 13 2 4 Q 5 Q 1 0 1 8
Year constructed                      
Before 1920 238 102 10 19 9 20 19 15 4 10 27
1920 to 1945 418 143 34 35 34 38 23 33 9 23 45
1946 to 1959 537 177 44 48 40 50 35 41 12 25 63
1960 to 1969 902 280 74 73 71 90 44 70 23 56 118
1970 to 1979 1,012 251 87 100 98 98 89 90 25 58 113
1980 to 1989 1,164 219 142 130 78 132 84 115 31 77 150
1990 to 1999 1,102 227 113 108 70 121 101 128 27 65 135
2000 to 2003 579 139 58 61 31 67 33 57 14 40 78
2004 to 2007 528 104 50 47 41 57 Q 66 15 25 62
2008 to 2012 484 114 46 49 35 50 33 54 12 26 64
Census region and division                      
Northeast 1,459 503 89 134 100 134 91 121 27 81 176
New England 368 159 15 27 15 29 17 34 7 16 46
Middle Atlantic 1,092 344 73 107 85 105 74 87 21 65 130
Midwest 1,566 574 98 141 94 155 82 128 33 79 176
East North Central 1,131 431 67 100 67 109 58 91 22 55 126
West North Central 435 143 30 41 27 46 24 37 11 24 50
South 2,566 405 376 259 183 295 201 278 72 152 332
South Atlantic 1,358 203 199 140 92 154 103 154 42 89 174
East South Central 369 73 39 37 35 40 30 42 11 18 42
West South Central 839 128 138 82 56 101 67 82 19 45 116
West 1,372 275 94 134 129 139 143 143 40 93 173
Mountain 417 108 30 39 35 38 Q 35 13 22 44
Pacific 954 167 64 95 95 101 91 109 27 71 129
Climate region1                      
Very cold/Cold 2,746 1,011 135 246 165 257 170 237 58 138 317
Mixed-humid 2,270 522 228 221 182 243 179 217 61 138 270
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 804 114 79 76 83 87 83 88 23 60 106
Hot-humid 947 63 207 103 60 117 72 109 25 53 135
Marine 197 46 7 22 17 21 12 18 5 17 29
Number of floors                      
One 2,831 621 260 243 170 324 248 434 61 127 317
Two 1,460 383 125 139 103 154 104 132 36 101 180
Three 668 223 59 64 47 63 28 38 18 43 84
Four to nine 1,432 411 145 154 136 127 76 50 38 94 199
Ten or more 572 119 66 68 52 55 Q 16 19 41 77
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any elevators 3,183 853 328 349 261 304 200 136 83 237 428
Number of elevators                      
One 884 265 72 95 74 88 46 52 24 58 108
Two to five 1,242 328 125 140 86 122 52 51 32 120 185
Six or more 1,058 259 132 115 101 94 102 33 28 59 135
Any escalators 377 73 45 43 25 42 Q 16 12 17 52
Number of workers (main shift)                      
Fewer than 5 756 229 55 45 52 78 41 93 22 24 91
5 to 9 598 142 51 49 40 61 60 79 17 24 72
10 to 19 772 184 57 60 65 71 102 99 22 32 79
20 to 49 1,188 284 106 112 81 126 90 145 30 73 140
50 to 99 1,150 290 118 119 83 128 50 118 27 75 143
100 to 249 1,058 286 101 110 63 116 51 86 21 68 156
250 or more 1,441 341 168 172 123 143 124 50 34 109 177
Weekly operating hours                      
Fewer than 40 229 95 20 8 10 17 11 15 6 12 25
40 to 48 832 256 87 74 36 99 19 40 27 82 107
49 to 60 1,258 371 127 138 49 150 33 64 33 121 168
61 to 84 1,370 330 128 148 88 143 123 173 25 65 143
85 to 167 1,098 253 89 92 59 106 130 212 13 27 112
Open continuously 2,177 450 204 209 265 209 201 166 67 97 302
Ownership and occupancy                      
Nongovernment owned 5,375 1,236 485 530 385 571 448 602 136 293 663
Owner occupied 2,615 646 238 222 206 262 229 267 72 117 346
Leased to tenant(s) 2,041 410 180 230 136 229 180 268 48 122 225
Owner occupied and leased 709 176 67 78 42 79 38 67 16 54 92
Unoccupied 10 4 0 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government owned 1,588 520 171 139 122 153 69 68 36 112 194
Federal 137 40 13 17 7 15 11 3 2 8 21
State 555 191 36 55 55 50 Q 23 13 34 64
Local 896 289 122 66 60 87 24 43 21 71 109
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
                     
Building owner 5,808 1,517 557 561 415 606 403 476 149 357 738
Business owner or tenant 983 204 80 90 76 101 99 176 18 39 98
Property management 96 17 10 12 11 9 8 8 3 7 12
Other 75 18 8 5 6 7 8 10 2 2 9
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
                     
Building owner 5,984 1,557 571 577 430 625 414 505 153 365 756
Business owner or tenant 766 156 65 70 58 78 81 133 14 32 78
Property management 61 12 6 8 5 7 5 5 2 3 8
Other 153 31 14 14 14 14 17 27 3 5 15
Number of establishments                      
One 4,485 1,155 407 387 356 455 369 405 120 248 556
2 to 5 1,400 382 130 143 90 145 81 147 29 71 181
6 to 10 364 85 34 45 21 37 22 47 8 28 38
11 to 20 355 78 36 46 22 38 26 45 7 19 37
More than 20 347 51 48 47 17 48 19 26 7 39 44
Currently unoccupied 13 6 0 0 Q 0 Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                      
Brick, stone, or stucco 3,457 917 319 335 284 330 262 292 92 207 408
Concrete (block or poured) 1,720 366 178 163 127 186 130 232 39 81 214
Concrete panels 664 157 57 69 42 77 Q 47 18 50 91
Siding or shingles 400 106 28 35 26 39 40 46 11 19 45
Metal panels 428 137 43 32 13 64 9 31 7 22 61
Window glass 170 46 17 22 Q 17 5 7 3 21 23
Other 79 13 11 7 3 7 Q Q 1 3 9
No one major type 45 15 3 5 2 5 Q 4 1 2 6
Predominant roof material                      
Metal surfacing 865 209 92 65 39 115 56 98 21 45 112
Synthetic or rubber 2,442 667 210 245 164 243 181 228 55 144 302
Built-up 1,862 437 194 199 145 198 131 163 42 118 232
Slate or tile shingles 371 101 26 30 36 30 38 34 12 19 42
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
92 26 6 6 9 7 12 12 2 3 8
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,105 276 100 99 97 107 86 113 35 56 130
Concrete 132 16 20 16 10 16 4 11 4 16 20
Other 58 11 6 5 4 5 7 9 1 2 8
No one major type 35 13 3 3 Q 4 Q Q 1 2 5
Roof characteristics                      
Roof tilt                      
Flat 4,476 1,103 446 464 348 472 314 382 102 276 560
Shallow pitch 1,597 382 139 136 85 177 131 213 41 87 193
Steeper pitch 890 271 71 69 74 75 72 75 29 42 104
Cool roof 1,837 434 180 183 139 186 143 179 40 113 236
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any type of renovation 3,762 992 352 368 277 367 291 320 89 229 469
Addition or annex 1,292 365 131 113 109 118 123 84 32 59 158
Reduction in floorspace 226 50 20 23 Q 22 Q 18 4 9 23
Roof replacement 1,986 554 183 194 153 189 147 145 44 118 255
Exterior wall replacement 399 89 41 38 28 37 45 35 8 28 49
Interior wall reconfiguration 2,056 539 201 219 139 199 155 143 48 155 255
Window replacement 1,090 304 98 100 88 97 96 64 30 73 138
HVAC equipment upgrade 2,545 651 252 252 197 245 210 198 59 157 322
Lighting upgrade 2,440 662 221 235 183 227 195 208 56 147 305
Electrical upgrade 1,608 421 150 149 122 144 149 121 37 100 212
Plumbing system upgrade 1,397 365 120 129 119 116 143 99 35 86 183
Insulation upgrade 771 196 68 66 52 63 90 69 19 52 96
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 1,685 445 167 164 140 150 126 118 38 113 221
Structural upgrade 424 83 42 35 30 35 68 30 11 29 59
Other 69 19 9 9 3 8 1 3 2 6 9
No renovations 2,718 650 258 251 195 307 193 295 71 150 324
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 484 114 46 49 35 50 33 54 12 26 64
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 6,963 1,756 656 668 507 724 517 670 172 405 857
Natural gas 5,544 1,520 472 498 476 514 483 523 127 283 640
Fuel oil 2,231 587 243 226 161 222 151 116 51 157 313
District heat 808 256 39 83 82 68 90 23 19 40 108
District chilled water 665 207 18 68 68 58 79 18 16 40 94
Propane 583 122 49 47 35 64 Q 78 17 23 93
Other 301 85 27 31 15 30 15 26 5 16 51
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 3,898 779 430 408 271 432 286 435 106 246 497
Natural gas 4,446 1,396 361 393 337 414 312 419 95 226 487
Fuel oil 360 146 29 28 18 34 12 19 7 17 48
District heat 804 256 38 83 81 67 89 22 19 40 107
Propane 151 27 12 14 5 19 10 26 5 7 26
Other 48 13 2 5 2 7 Q 5 1 2 7
Primary space-heating
energy source
                     
Electricity 1,846 106 258 216 139 237 166 236 64 149 271
Natural gas 3,871 1,297 309 339 268 360 242 361 78 197 414
Fuel oil 187 92 10 12 4 17 5 9 4 8 27
District heat 794 253 37 82 80 67 89 22 18 39 105
Propane 63 4 5 6 0 9 Q 17 2 3 11
Other 21 5 1 2 Q 4 Q 2 Q 1 4
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 6,322 1,533 649 619 450 659 451 637 157 373 783
Natural gas 97 37 15 9 9 7 3 2 2 4 11
District chilled water 665 207 18 68 68 58 79 18 16 40 94
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 3,102 649 347 339 95 380 207 378 74 222 405
Natural gas 4,029 1,093 341 348 432 350 347 407 93 184 429
Fuel oil 174 75 12 12 6 14 8 10 4 7 25
District heat 652 188 33 67 74 56 81 17 16 31 89
Propane 87 6 10 8 0 9 6 24 3 3 15
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
                     
Electricity 2,511 574 253 231 200 219 280 312 56 121 263
Natural gas 3,015 635 274 258 296 232 466 398 65 100 289
Propane 167 34 16 14 8 14 10 33 5 Q 22
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
                     
Buildings with space heating 6,782 1,756 619 657 492 693 506 647 168 397 832
Buildings with cooling 6,774 1,679 656 665 493 699 511 650 169 401 838
Buildings with water heating 6,798 1,707 641 658 507 696 516 664 168 396 832
Buildings with cooking 4,079 897 390 364 357 340 517 528 94 171 420
Buildings with manufacturing 360 89 34 28 14 49 14 32 5 15 80
Buildings with electricity
generation
2,803 688 292 287 206 274 183 211 65 195 401
Percent of floorspace heated                      
Not heated 181 N 36 11 15 31 11 23 4 8 25
1 to 50 468 71 38 38 25 63 40 63 11 39 78
51 to 99 1,298 304 129 129 91 131 114 158 29 60 152
100 5,016 1,381 453 491 376 499 351 426 127 298 602
Percent of floorspace cooled                      
Not cooled 189 78 N 3 13 24 5 20 3 4 19
1 to 50 989 363 42 65 57 122 49 82 19 40 147
51 to 99 2,143 553 192 214 154 206 156 231 49 138 247
100 3,642 763 421 385 283 370 306 336 102 224 444
Percent lit when open                      
Zero 4 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 642 182 54 61 47 50 34 49 23 27 105
51 to 99 3,049 828 274 295 230 284 204 307 72 175 375
100 3,244 733 326 311 229 387 278 314 77 203 374
Building never open/electricity
not used
24 13 1 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Percent lit during off hours                      
Zero 1,293 394 117 116 59 126 71 102 32 94 161
1 to 50 4,346 1,105 427 432 312 463 294 418 106 251 531
51 to 100 1,018 208 80 88 108 98 134 105 23 47 123
Building always open with
no "off hours"
306 49 31 32 28 36 18 44 11 13 41
Electricity not used N N N N N N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heat pumps 899 143 117 86 84 97 70 87 34 62 117
Furnaces 615 179 47 53 37 58 55 68 18 32 67
Individual space heaters 1,572 471 129 148 114 166 81 132 42 84 201
District heat 804 256 38 83 81 67 89 22 19 40 107
Boilers 2,262 741 217 211 198 197 106 123 52 137 279
Packaged heating units 4,083 925 411 419 260 431 345 493 91 222 479
Other 191 33 9 18 12 15 21 62 2 3 16
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,086 281 93 75 81 108 98 144 29 47 128
Heat pumps 939 154 115 93 85 104 66 96 34 66 123
Individual air conditioners 1,013 298 97 81 106 89 64 70 34 47 125
District chilled water 665 207 18 68 68 58 79 18 16 40 94
Central chillers 1,853 481 234 210 143 179 85 80 43 147 249
Packaged air conditioning units 3,972 957 403 415 265 404 320 452 85 202 463
Swamp coolers 176 45 14 14 16 16 21 23 3 6 17
Other 45 9 4 5 2 5 Q 1 0 Q 7
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 2,164 551 199 202 170 215 159 222 58 135 249
Cooling 2,521 650 252 235 204 243 182 233 68 158 292
Water-heating equipment                      
Centralized system 4,210 1,109 377 391 335 415 347 387 111 230 499
Distributed system 832 192 82 83 43 105 46 75 19 55 130
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
1,756 406 182 185 129 176 124 202 38 111 203
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
                     
Incandescent 3,540 878 353 336 287 340 321 344 86 184 403
Standard fluorescent 6,714 1,698 632 650 491 693 492 649 166 394 830
Compact fluorescent 5,094 1,265 497 507 407 493 426 451 129 305 610
High-intensity discharge (HID) 2,187 557 227 215 159 229 173 190 49 112 272
Halogen 2,695 636 275 271 206 266 240 272 64 138 323
LED 2,363 561 242 248 174 220 206 251 52 117 292
Other 59 16 9 5 4 4 4 6 1 2 6
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Any refrigeration 6,471 1,600 610 623 486 647 517 670 159 365 788
Walk-in units 3,525 733 329 309 307 283 451 547 73 130 361
Cases or cabinets 3,316 697 291 307 273 282 400 523 70 126 346
Large cold storage areas 530 102 40 37 32 42 61 145 7 13 53
Commercial ice makers 3,731 789 370 357 335 326 416 457 91 172 418
Residential-type or compact units 5,183 1,383 499 513 388 537 332 413 131 324 657
Vending machines 4,178 1,034 418 430 337 439 273 379 102 243 524
No refrigeration 492 156 45 46 21 77 Q N 13 40 69
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
                     
Desktop computers 6,586 1,657 629 647 483 687 473 620 163 399 828
With flat screen monitors 6,523 1,644 624 641 478 678 466 614 162 398 817
With multiple monitors 2,942 745 296 321 195 298 216 212 69 233 358
Laptop computers 5,466 1,411 545 556 403 570 354 427 136 363 700
Dedicated servers 4,784 1,169 476 496 340 498 328 425 115 341 596
Laser printers 4,795 1,239 451 488 346 495 316 428 126 316 590
Inkjet printers 2,903 707 298 273 200 306 228 280 66 161 384
FAX machines 5,706 1,425 554 574 404 612 399 541 140 345 710
Photocopiers 5,110 1,342 509 528 357 540 305 387 132 344 665
Number of desktop computers                      
None 377 99 27 22 24 36 44 50 9 Q 29
1 to 4 1,184 270 82 82 104 106 162 189 30 22 135
5 to 9 738 192 60 62 44 77 55 106 20 27 95
10 to 19 676 173 58 69 41 79 31 79 17 41 87
20 to 49 1,121 269 118 118 86 131 52 117 29 55 146
50 to 99 645 165 69 73 44 77 36 45 16 41 80
100 to 249 961 249 82 99 76 101 Q 48 25 81 131
250 or more 1,261 339 160 144 89 116 67 35 27 132 152
Number of laptop computers                      
None 1,497 345 111 112 103 154 162 243 36 43 157
1 to 4 1,516 394 137 125 101 165 120 181 40 60 192
5 to 9 698 157 65 73 59 81 58 70 16 32 85
10 to 19 719 169 82 79 66 75 42 63 16 38 88
20 to 49 907 244 73 96 68 91 70 56 25 74 111
50 to 99 506 149 55 53 31 51 14 22 11 37 83
100 to 249 525 152 51 58 38 50 21 17 12 61 66
250 or more 596 147 83 72 40 57 29 18 15 60 74
Number of dedicated servers                      
None 2,179 588 180 172 167 225 189 245 57 64 261
1 to 4 2,718 657 246 266 206 295 191 309 68 136 345
5 to 9 565 138 54 60 40 59 47 55 12 35 67
10 to 19 593 140 66 74 29 63 Q 34 16 51 77
20 to 49 396 113 51 45 26 39 16 13 9 36 48
50 or more 512 122 59 51 38 42 32 14 10 83 60
Number of photocopiers                      
None 1,854 414 147 141 150 184 212 282 40 62 191
One 1,202 325 103 102 88 127 80 143 31 49 154
2 to 4 1,596 428 156 167 102 178 67 137 45 104 211
5 to 9 784 187 76 84 50 92 56 58 17 66 97
10 or more 1,527 401 174 174 117 143 101 49 39 124 204
Number of TVs or video displays                      
None 1,214 348 89 97 53 145 72 140 14 73 152
One 697 207 54 59 40 74 52 84 13 32 83
2 to 4 1,311 352 123 125 64 146 85 136 27 67 186
5 to 9 777 178 79 80 45 78 64 91 17 58 87
10 to 19 810 185 81 91 57 84 76 76 16 54 89
20 to 49 717 153 81 86 50 80 43 73 21 46 84
50 to 99 432 105 39 43 44 43 18 29 19 38 52
100 or more 1,006 227 109 87 156 73 107 41 46 37 123
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
                     
Snack bar or concession stand 1,112 266 124 99 79 93 121 131 25 51 123
Fast food or small restaurant 1,206 217 120 122 92 113 141 202 29 43 127
Cafeteria or large restaurant 1,624 400 185 156 163 138 167 105 41 87 181
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
1,798 421 184 157 196 142 190 200 47 64 196
Small kitchen area 1,187 314 129 106 90 103 104 108 33 54 145
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
                     
Data center or server farm 1,356 345 171 141 89 124 93 46 31 151 163
Computer-based training room 1,696 426 196 177 118 174 124 123 39 123 197
Student or public computer center 1,275 374 130 114 121 111 90 79 36 78 141
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
                     
Economizer cycle 3,142 824 295 343 221 312 236 237 66 200 406
Regular HVAC maintenance 6,203 1,538 604 620 455 640 463 576 151 377 769
Building automation system (BAS)2 3,709 896 389 403 262 379 243 311 81 253 488
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
                     
Multipaned windows 5,250 1,346 476 516 382 524 405 515 131 307 634
Tinted window glass 3,973 937 411 408 290 416 305 364 95 240 501
Reflective window glass 1,652 368 174 174 121 163 147 154 41 118 191
External overhangs or awnings 3,089 702 283 296 233 295 317 381 74 158 346
Skylights or atriums 2,010 534 187 205 147 197 178 142 45 105 268
Light scheduling 2,930 668 299 318 194 284 235 327 67 183 351
Occupancy sensors 3,434 880 344 362 225 331 224 310 77 224 452
Multi-level lighting or dimming 1,618 360 156 161 141 132 186 182 39 72 188
Daylight harvesting 619 160 61 68 31 61 44 64 12 29 89
Demand responsive lighting 410 77 42 45 32 44 33 65 9 16 44
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 1,201 246 131 144 65 130 80 165 21 71 147
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
                     
Heating 5,022 1,324 485 502 328 509 364 480 118 296 603
Cooling 5,008 1,268 516 508 336 511 367 476 119 297 602
Lighting 6,426 1,658 606 620 460 664 478 595 156 376 791
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial builidngs. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Total of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. • Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forms EIA-871A, C, D, E, and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.