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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

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Table C1. Total energy consumption by major fuel, 2012

Released: May 2016

All buildings Total energy consumption (trillion Btu)
Total
floorspace
(million
square feet)
Sum of
major
fuels
Electricity
  Number of buildings (thousand) Primary Site Natural
gas
Fuel
oil
District
heat
All buildings 5,557 87,093 6,963 12,934 4,241 2,248 134 341
Building floorspace (square feet)                
1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 723 1,357 445 256 21 Q
5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 646 1,179 386 248 10 Q
10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 876 1,655 543 304 20 Q
25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 823 1,549 508 284 14 17
50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 1,067 1,996 654 338 23 52
100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 1,035 1,974 647 290 20 77
200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 1,026 1,876 615 310 14 88
Over 500,000 8 7,074 767 1,349 442 219 12 94
Principal building activity                
Education 389 12,239 842 1,396 458 291 28 65
Food sales 177 1,252 262 634 208 53 Q N
Food service 380 1,819 514 850 279 227 Q Q
Health care 157 4,155 718 1,114 365 265 20 68
Inpatient 10 2,374 549 766 251 219 16 62
Outpatient 147 1,781 169 348 114 46 Q Q
Lodging 158 5,826 564 928 304 221 8 31
Mercantile 602 11,330 1,008 2,151 705 291 9 Q
Retail (other than mall) 438 5,439 364 857 281 74 7 Q
Enclosed and strip malls 164 5,890 644 1,293 424 217 Q Q
Office 1,012 15,952 1,241 2,637 865 282 18 76
Public assembly 352 5,559 480 837 275 135 7 64
Public order and safety 84 1,440 133 223 73 41 2 Q
Religious worship 412 4,557 173 247 81 87 5 N
Service 619 4,630 272 389 127 122 16 Q
Warehouse and storage 796 13,077 429 866 284 139 5 Q
Other 125 2,002 286 581 191 81 10 Q
Vacant 296 3,256 41 80 26 13 Q Q
Year constructed                
Before 1920 362 3,983 238 332 109 87 16 25
1920 to 1945 488 6,025 418 668 219 145 14 40
1946 to 1959 599 7,381 537 884 290 199 18 29
1960 to 1969 639 10,362 902 1,531 502 314 20 66
1970 to 1979 684 10,846 1,012 1,776 582 340 16 73
1980 to 1989 915 15,230 1,164 2,431 797 335 16 17
1990 to 1999 845 13,803 1,102 2,217 727 338 14 23
2000 to 2003 375 7,215 579 1,159 380 158 10 Q
2004 to 2007 347 6,524 528 1,008 330 172 3 23
2008 to 2012 303 5,723 484 926 304 159 6 Q
Census region and division                
Northeast 805 15,534 1,459 2,293 752 499 90 119
New England 302 4,302 368 526 172 111 47 Q
Middle Atlantic 504 11,232 1,092 1,767 579 389 42 81
Midwest 1,237 18,919 1,566 2,595 851 642 15 58
East North Central 735 12,742 1,131 1,815 595 494 10 32
West North Central 502 6,178 435 780 256 149 5 Q
South 2,247 34,279 2,566 5,518 1,809 615 23 119
South Atlantic 1,091 17,981 1,358 2,983 978 305 16 59
East South Central 370 4,904 369 735 241 104 3 Q
West South Central 786 11,394 839 1,800 590 207 4 Q
West 1,267 18,360 1,372 2,528 829 491 7 45
Mountain 338 4,981 417 698 229 163 Q 23
Pacific 929 13,379 954 1,831 600 328 5 22
Climate region1                
Very cold/Cold 2,031 31,898 2,746 4,363 1,430 1,097 81 137
Mixed-humid 1,743 27,873 2,270 4,324 1,418 657 43 152
Mixed-dry/Hot-dry 837 12,037 804 1,586 520 255 2 Q
Hot-humid 799 12,831 947 2,294 752 171 6 18
Marine 147 2,454 197 367 120 68 1 Q
Number of floors                
One 3,836 39,809 2,831 5,676 1,861 918 42 Q
Two 1,158 20,206 1,460 2,696 884 511 32 Q
Three 374 8,140 668 1,139 373 224 23 47
Four to nine 177 13,535 1,432 2,402 788 443 28 173
Ten or more 13 5,404 572 1,021 335 151 8 77
Elevators and escalators
(more than one may apply)
               
Any elevators 405 32,120 3,183 5,612 1,840 972 56 315
Number of elevators                
One 272 11,158 884 1,528 501 296 16 71
Two to five 118 12,817 1,242 2,315 759 353 26 104
Six or more 16 8,145 1,058 1,769 580 322 15 140
Any escalators 10 3,654 377 689 226 98 5 48
Number of workers (main shift)                
Fewer than 5 2,892 17,751 756 1,390 456 264 31 Q
5 to 9 1,085 8,973 598 1,163 381 202 9 Q
10 to 19 731 9,623 772 1,375 451 298 11 Q
20 to 49 513 14,514 1,188 2,287 750 379 17 43
50 to 99 206 13,476 1,150 2,228 730 360 21 38
100 to 249 93 10,941 1,058 1,928 632 337 22 67
250 or more 37 11,815 1,441 2,562 840 408 22 171
Weekly operating hours                
Fewer than 40 1,149 8,220 229 364 119 97 10 Q
40 to 48 1,346 15,828 832 1,609 527 259 27 19
49 to 60 1,244 20,529 1,258 2,482 814 369 25 50
61 to 84 764 15,867 1,370 2,591 850 469 20 31
85 to 167 479 9,395 1,098 2,081 682 349 9 58
Open continuously 575 17,253 2,177 3,806 1,248 705 44 180
Ownership and occupancy                
Nongovernment owned 4,781 67,550 5,375 10,278 3,370 1,747 91 168
Owner occupied 2,466 30,637 2,615 4,739 1,554 890 56 115
Leased to tenant(s) 1,745 26,115 2,041 4,143 1,358 634 23 25
Owner occupied and leased 349 8,873 709 1,379 452 219 11 27
Unoccupied 221 1,925 10 18 6 4 Q Q
Government owned 776 19,543 1,588 2,656 871 501 43 173
Federal 33 1,573 137 236 77 30 Q 27
State 185 5,539 555 839 275 169 5 105
Local 558 12,431 896 1,580 518 302 34 41
Party responsible for operation
and maintenance of energy
systems
               
Building owner 4,715 73,702 5,808 10,710 3,512 1,852 121 324
Business owner or tenant 724 11,309 983 1,892 620 343 10 Q
Property management 54 1,250 96 192 63 27 1 Q
Other 64 832 75 139 46 27 Q Q
Provider of direct input on energy-
related equipment purchases
               
Building owner 4,876 76,271 5,984 11,045 3,621 1,915 123 325
Business owner or tenant 540 8,256 766 1,479 485 264 6 Q
Property management 35 880 61 123 40 17 2 Q
Other 106 1,686 153 287 94 52 3 Q
Number of establishments                
One 4,205 54,994 4,485 8,087 2,651 1,527 98 208
2 to 5 862 17,756 1,400 2,588 849 429 25 98
6 to 10 147 4,425 364 733 240 107 5 11
11 to 20 68 3,704 355 713 234 112 1 Q
More than 20 27 3,821 347 794 260 67 4 15
Currently unoccupied 248 2,393 13 19 6 6 Q Q
Predominant exterior wall material                
Brick, stone, or stucco 2,312 40,463 3,457 6,206 2,035 1,160 59 203
Concrete (block or poured) 1,121 20,726 1,720 3,357 1,101 535 28 56
Concrete panels 210 8,693 664 1,254 411 208 7 38
Siding or shingles 905 5,750 400 743 244 134 21 Q
Metal panels 933 8,673 428 823 270 126 13 Q
Window glass 17 1,340 170 326 107 48 2 13
Other 37 856 79 143 47 Q Q Q
No one major type 21 592 45 81 26 14 Q Q
Predominant roof material                
Metal surfacing 1,672 15,916 865 1,758 576 241 23 Q
Synthetic or rubber 911 25,817 2,442 4,391 1,440 850 40 112
Built-up 836 21,835 1,862 3,508 1,150 582 31 98
Slate or tile shingles 406 4,306 371 610 200 114 4 Q
Wooden materials (including
shingles)
157 1,139 92 144 47 41 Q Q
Asphalt, fiberglass, or
other shingles
1,483 15,104 1,105 2,045 670 368 27 40
Concrete 51 1,642 132 311 102 24 3 Q
Other 24 678 58 111 36 18 Q Q
No one major type 18 657 35 55 18 10 Q Q
Roof characteristics                
Roof tilt                
Flat 1,960 49,623 4,476 8,320 2,728 1,455 68 225
Shallow pitch 2,148 23,853 1,597 3,103 1,017 481 34 64
Steeper pitch 1,449 13,617 890 1,511 495 312 32 Q
Cool roof 740 19,630 1,837 3,381 1,108 602 33 94
Renovations in buildings
constructed before 2008
(more than one may apply)
               
Any type of renovation 2,094 42,216 3,762 6,747 2,212 1,230 80 240
Addition or annex 444 13,022 1,292 2,129 698 468 34 91
Reduction in floorspace 71 1,753 226 370 121 70 Q Q
Roof replacement 987 20,917 1,986 3,429 1,124 681 55 126
Exterior wall replacement 194 4,230 399 731 240 129 11 18
Interior wall reconfiguration 889 21,340 2,056 3,709 1,216 644 39 157
Window replacement 560 12,265 1,090 1,832 601 387 35 68
HVAC equipment upgrade 1,101 26,779 2,545 4,504 1,477 842 48 177
Lighting upgrade 982 25,503 2,440 4,264 1,398 810 52 180
Electrical upgrade 747 16,160 1,608 2,753 903 551 38 116
Plumbing system upgrade 644 13,828 1,397 2,311 758 515 33 90
Insulation upgrade 382 7,607 771 1,309 429 269 13 60
Fire, safety, or security upgrade 616 17,196 1,685 2,936 963 569 39 115
Structural upgrade 152 3,913 424 716 235 151 9 29
Other 39 848 69 135 44 14 Q Q
No renovations 3,160 39,154 2,718 5,261 1,725 859 47 87
Buildings constructed 2008 or later 303 5,723 484 926 304 159 6 Q
Energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 5,234 84,869 6,963 12,934 4,241 2,248 134 341
Natural gas 2,933 58,725 5,544 9,400 3,082 2,248 41 173
Fuel oil 467 20,200 2,231 3,973 1,303 623 134 171
District heat 48 5,964 808 1,076 353 108 6 341
District chilled water 54 4,608 665 890 292 133 4 236
Propane 510 7,706 583 1,148 376 146 43 Q
Other 172 3,826 301 518 170 108 8 15
Space-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,858 49,030 3,898 8,057 2,642 1,123 43 90
Natural gas 2,612 49,511 4,446 7,423 2,434 1,971 24 17
Fuel oil 270 4,351 360 540 177 78 104 Q
District heat 48 5,925 804 1,068 350 108 6 340
Propane 342 3,067 151 358 117 21 13 Q
Other 101 1,010 48 93 30 12 2 Q
Primary space-heating
energy source
               
Electricity 1,819 26,205 1,846 4,573 1,499 335 10 Q
Natural gas 2,322 42,988 3,871 6,359 2,085 1,769 16 Q
Fuel oil 205 2,542 187 247 81 8 98 Q
District heat 47 5,797 794 1,053 345 106 5 338
Propane 261 1,948 63 186 61 Q Q N
Other 67 598 21 48 16 Q Q N
Cooling energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 4,413 76,034 6,322 12,061 3,954 2,080 110 177
Natural gas 12 732 97 115 38 58 1 Q
District chilled water 54 4,608 665 890 292 133 4 236
Water-heating energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 2,658 42,755 3,102 6,755 2,215 743 57 88
Natural gas 1,758 39,523 4,029 6,665 2,185 1,771 24 49
Fuel oil 77 1,911 174 234 77 37 60 Q
District heat 25 4,551 652 858 281 88 4 279
Propane 142 1,575 87 242 79 Q 5 Q
Cooking energy sources
(more than one may apply)
               
Electricity 1,010 25,151 2,511 4,720 1,547 810 43 111
Natural gas 740 24,770 3,015 5,033 1,650 1,238 24 103
Propane 144 2,001 167 365 120 19 27 Q
Energy end uses
(more than one may apply)
               
Buildings with space heating 4,722 80,078 6,782 12,464 4,086 2,223 132 341
Buildings with cooling 4,461 79,294 6,774 12,648 4,147 2,178 112 337
Buildings with water heating 4,423 79,015 6,798 12,587 4,127 2,210 125 336
Buildings with cooking 1,589 38,546 4,079 7,289 2,390 1,443 76 171
Buildings with manufacturing 259 5,078 360 695 228 123 6 Q
Buildings with electricity
generation
410 25,642 2,803 5,102 1,673 855 68 208
Percent of floorspace heated                
Not heated 835 7,015 181 470 154 25 2 Q
1 to 50 697 10,130 468 1,019 334 123 10 Q
51 to 99 727 14,650 1,298 2,433 798 443 18 39
100 3,298 55,298 5,016 9,011 2,955 1,657 104 300
Percent of floorspace cooled                
Not cooled 1,096 7,799 189 285 94 70 22 Q
1 to 50 1,173 18,891 989 1,592 522 418 34 15
51 to 99 897 22,728 2,143 3,968 1,301 667 37 138
100 2,391 37,676 3,642 7,089 2,324 1,093 41 184
Percent lit when open                
Zero 70 322 4 11 3 Q Q Q
1 to 50 1,099 12,628 642 1,184 388 215 16 23
51 to 99 1,666 34,814 3,049 5,469 1,793 1,033 56 167
100 2,222 35,726 3,244 6,237 2,045 990 59 151
Building never open/electricity
not used
501 3,603 24 33 11 10 Q Q
Percent lit during off hours                
Zero 2,489 24,746 1,293 2,412 791 439 42 23
1 to 50 2,441 50,753 4,346 8,159 2,675 1,395 72 204
51 to 100 202 6,926 1,018 1,715 562 342 15 99
Building always open with
no "off hours"
102 2,443 306 648 213 73 Q 15
Electricity not used 323 2,225 N N N N N N
Heating equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Heat pumps 628 11,846 899 1,870 613 247 12 27
Furnaces 755 8,654 615 1,106 363 244 7 Q
Individual space heaters 1,247 20,766 1,572 2,824 926 545 38 63
District heat 48 5,925 804 1,068 350 108 6 340
Boilers 544 22,443 2,262 3,640 1,193 984 80 Q
Packaged heating units 2,802 49,188 4,083 8,028 2,632 1,360 46 45
Other 62 1,574 191 399 131 54 Q Q
Cooling equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Residential-type central air
conditioners
1,546 14,765 1,086 1,941 636 416 15 Q
Heat pumps 692 12,538 939 1,966 644 257 12 26
Individual air conditioners 709 12,420 1,013 1,665 546 374 37 56
District chilled water 54 4,608 665 890 292 133 4 236
Central chillers 163 17,041 1,853 3,417 1,120 598 41 93
Packaged air conditioning units 1,909 45,153 3,972 7,563 2,480 1,318 62 112
Swamp coolers 109 1,918 176 299 98 71 1 Q
Other Q 328 45 98 32 10 Q Q
Main equipment replaced since
1990 (more than one may apply)
               
Heating 1,874 27,558 2,164 4,035 1,323 790 51 Q
Cooling 1,971 30,702 2,521 4,633 1,519 882 57 63
Water-heating equipment                
Centralized system 3,348 47,534 4,210 7,577 2,484 1,414 85 227
Distributed system 690 12,688 832 1,643 539 257 13 23
Combination of centralized and
distributed system
385 18,793 1,756 3,367 1,104 539 27 86
Lighting equipment types
(more than one may apply)
               
Incandescent 1,826 38,406 3,540 6,366 2,087 1,199 71 183
Standard fluorescent 4,649 80,081 6,714 12,461 4,085 2,166 127 336
Compact fluorescent 2,302 53,816 5,094 9,254 3,034 1,672 89 299
High-intensity discharge (HID) 525 23,396 2,187 3,976 1,303 706 50 128
Halogen 905 28,059 2,695 4,977 1,632 884 42 136
LED 473 22,071 2,363 4,318 1,416 762 29 156
Other 10 446 59 99 33 15 Q Q
Refrigeration equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Any refrigeration 3,984 73,645 6,471 11,964 3,923 2,105 118 325
Walk-in units 811 28,361 3,525 6,309 2,069 1,249 53 154
Cases or cabinets 915 28,719 3,316 6,061 1,987 1,117 48 163
Large cold storage areas 78 4,171 530 1,019 334 175 5 15
Commercial ice makers 846 32,734 3,731 6,796 2,228 1,239 51 213
Residential-type or compact units 3,388 62,381 5,183 9,482 3,109 1,688 106 279
Vending machines 960 43,936 4,178 7,723 2,532 1,295 71 280
No refrigeration 1,573 13,448 492 970 318 143 16 15
Office equipment
(more than one may apply)
               
Desktop computers 3,977 77,063 6,586 12,252 4,017 2,112 120 336
With flat screen monitors 3,847 76,160 6,523 12,130 3,977 2,090 119 336
With multiple monitors 911 30,946 2,942 5,445 1,785 887 49 221
Laptop computers 2,730 63,486 5,466 10,073 3,303 1,755 100 308
Dedicated servers 1,748 53,369 4,784 9,041 2,964 1,485 92 243
Laser printers 2,339 54,256 4,795 8,910 2,921 1,509 86 278
Inkjet printers 2,187 36,235 2,903 5,449 1,787 955 59 103
FAX machines 3,185 66,682 5,706 10,712 3,512 1,823 104 268
Photocopiers 2,163 59,277 5,110 9,451 3,099 1,597 101 312
Number of desktop computers                
None 1,581 10,030 377 681 223 136 13 Q
1 to 4 2,039 15,669 1,184 2,134 700 453 27 Q
5 to 9 821 9,422 738 1,391 456 267 11 Q
10 to 19 482 9,388 676 1,344 441 212 12 Q
20 to 49 355 13,094 1,121 2,185 716 346 16 42
50 to 99 143 8,284 645 1,244 408 204 13 21
100 to 249 92 9,728 961 1,663 545 274 16 125
250 or more 44 11,478 1,261 2,292 751 356 26 128
Number of laptop computers                
None 2,827 23,607 1,497 2,860 938 493 34 32
1 to 4 1,944 21,161 1,516 2,837 930 540 28 17
5 to 9 350 8,345 698 1,314 431 227 14 Q
10 to 19 181 8,343 719 1,358 445 242 8 24
20 to 49 144 9,643 907 1,603 525 287 16 78
50 to 99 58 5,234 506 889 292 161 14 40
100 to 249 35 5,217 525 939 308 141 12 64
250 or more 20 5,542 596 1,134 372 157 8 59
Number of dedicated servers                
None 3,809 33,724 2,179 3,893 1,276 763 42 98
1 to 4 1,562 34,097 2,718 5,170 1,695 896 59 68
5 to 9 97 6,241 565 1,048 343 190 5 26
10 to 19 50 5,711 593 1,137 373 152 13 56
20 to 49 25 3,758 396 730 239 122 7 28
50 or more 13 3,562 512 956 313 125 9 65
Number of photocopiers                
None 3,394 27,816 1,854 3,483 1,142 651 33 28
One 1,325 17,080 1,202 2,233 732 420 29 Q
2 to 4 648 20,312 1,596 3,044 998 516 30 52
5 to 9 116 8,863 784 1,501 492 239 10 43
10 or more 75 13,022 1,527 2,673 876 423 32 196
Number of TVs or video displays                
None 2,718 24,339 1,214 2,328 763 395 36 20
One 1,145 9,990 697 1,256 412 254 20 Q
2 to 4 1,035 16,465 1,311 2,455 805 465 19 22
5 to 9 314 8,148 777 1,562 512 223 10 Q
10 to 19 154 8,168 810 1,526 500 234 11 65
20 to 49 106 8,058 717 1,452 476 193 14 35
50 to 99 48 4,378 432 805 264 104 10 54
100 or more 37 7,547 1,006 1,550 508 380 16 102
Food preparation or serving areas
in non-food service buildings
(more than one may apply)
               
Snack bar or concession stand 153 9,884 1,112 1,986 651 364 16 81
Fast food or small restaurant 173 9,787 1,206 2,334 765 372 8 61
Cafeteria or large restaurant 130 15,222 1,624 2,714 890 587 42 105
Commercial kitchen/
food preparation area
282 16,150 1,798 3,038 996 673 33 97
Small kitchen area 736 14,054 1,187 2,113 693 409 31 55
Separate computer areas
(more than one may apply)
               
Data center or server farm 97 11,105 1,356 2,481 814 386 27 128
Computer-based training room 244 17,723 1,696 3,119 1,022 515 36 122
Student or public computer center 238 14,341 1,275 2,112 692 435 24 124
HVAC conservation features
(more than one may apply)
               
Economizer cycle 601 30,749 3,142 5,609 1,839 1,015 43 245
Regular HVAC maintenance 3,178 69,244 6,203 11,536 3,782 1,991 111 319
Building automation system (BAS)2 781 37,051 3,709 6,971 2,285 1,100 58 266
Window and interior lighting
features (more than one may
apply)
               
Multipaned windows 3,012 60,362 5,250 9,682 3,174 1,752 95 229
Tinted window glass 1,875 45,025 3,973 7,476 2,451 1,290 48 184
Reflective window glass 549 15,908 1,652 3,127 1,025 541 21 65
External overhangs or awnings 1,867 32,188 3,089 5,716 1,874 1,030 41 143
Skylights or atriums 591 22,261 2,010 3,450 1,131 681 39 159
Light scheduling 918 30,263 2,930 5,632 1,847 927 37 119
Occupancy sensors 813 35,871 3,434 6,333 2,076 1,067 59 231
Multi-level lighting or dimming 349 14,534 1,618 2,834 929 573 16 100
Daylight harvesting 125 6,114 619 1,133 371 197 7 44
Demand responsive lighting 176 4,738 410 830 272 127 Q Q
Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 208 12,068 1,201 2,488 816 335 10 40
Equipment usage reduced when
building not in full use
(more than one may apply)
               
Heating 3,699 63,167 5,022 9,290 3,046 1,675 92 208
Cooling 3,517 62,516 5,008 9,387 3,078 1,644 78 209
Lighting 4,757 78,594 6,426 11,833 3,880 2,105 123 318
   
1These climate regions were created by the Building America program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).
2In earlier CBECS publications, BAS was referred to as Energy Management and Control System (EMCS).
Q = Data withheld either because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N = No cases in reporting sample.
Notes: • Because of rounding, data may not sum to totals. • See the
Guide to the 2012 CBECS Detailed Tables or CBECS Terminology for definitions of terms used in these tables and/or comparison of differences with prior CBECS tables. Both references can be accessed from http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/ • Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial buildings. Primary electricity, which is not included in the Sum of major fuelscategory, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. •Statistics for the Energy end uses category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. • HVAC = Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Forma EIA-871A, C, D, E, and F of the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.