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State Profiles and Energy Estimates

Data and Methodology Changes

Tables and data files in the State Energy Data System (SEDS) supply a new year of data each production cycle. Changes made to consumption and price source data for prior years are also regularly incorporated into SEDS. The latest data may be preliminary and, therefore, revised the following cycle.

Changes in SEDS content beyond the standard updates are shown below.

2012 Cycle

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Renewable Energy

  • Geothermal Energy

    Beginning in 2012, estimates for geothermal energy consumed by the commercial, industrial, and residential sectors are no longer available from the Oregon Institute of Technology Geo-Heat Center. U.S. consumption by sector from the Monthly Energy Review is allocated to the states using each state's average share of U.S. geothermal energy consumption for 2009 through 2011.

  • Solar Energy

    The method of allocating U.S. distributed solar energy to the states is revised from 2005 forward. The U.S. consumption is first allotted to distributed photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal energy consumption based on EIA Annual Energy Outlook estimates. Distributed PV consumption is allocated to the states using PV cumulative installed capacity, and state allocations for distributed solar thermal energy are based on shipments of solar thermal collectors as before.

  • Wood and Waste

    The prices of wood and waste for 1970 through 1979 for Delaware were corrected to reflect the assumption that wood and waste consumed by the industrial sector was acquired at no cost. The prices of wood and waste for 1970 through 1979 for North Carolina were corrected to reflect the assumption that all wood and waste consumed by the industrial sector was purchased at a cost.

 

2011 Cycle

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Coal

  • Beginning in 2008, the residential sector is no longer covered in any EIA surveys on coal consumption and distribution. Consequently, residential coal consumption is assumed to be zero for 2008 forward. Also, beginning in 2008, the average prices of coal delivered to commercial and institutional users published in the Annual Coal Report are used to estimate commercial coal prices.

Nuclear

  • For 2009 forward, state-level nuclear fuel prices are estimated by EIA based on plant-level fuel cost data compiled by SNL Energy. For states with one nuclear power plant, the average fuel cost of all reactors of the same vintage is used.

Petroleum

  • Asphalt and Road Oil

    For 2009 forward, state-level asphalt and road oil sales are no longer available from the Asphalt Usage Survey for the United States and Canada. The normalized median state shares based on 1996-2008 sales data are used to allocate the U.S. product supplied to the states.

  • Distillate Fuel Oil

    Beginning in 2011, distillate fuel oil prices based on refiner/reseller/retailer sales are no longer available. Distillate fuel oil prices for each end-use sector are based on regression equations developed for the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts and subdistricts relating historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices to refiner prices. For states that have refiner prices, historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices, and sizable sales volumes, the regression equation for the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict is used to calculate the state price. All other states are assigned the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict estimated price. See Section 4 of the Price Technical Notes.

  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

    Beginning in 2011, LPG prices based on refiner/reseller/retailer sales are no longer available. LPG prices for each end-use sector are based on regression equations developed for the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts and subdistricts relating historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices to refiner prices. For states that have refiner prices, historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices, and sizable sales volumes in the residential sector, the regression equation for the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict is used to calculate the state residential LPG price. All other states are assigned the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict estimated end-use price. See Section 4 of the Price Technical Notes.

  • Lubricants

    From 1983 forward, lubricant prices are estimated by applying the annual growth rate of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' producer price index for finished lubricants to the previous year's lubricant price estimate. Previously, lubricant price was estimated by dividing the value of shipments from the U.S. Census Bureau with EIA's lubricant product supplied data, further adjusted to account for trade margin and differences between product supplied and shipments. The new method removes variations caused by incompatibility of two different sources.

  • Motor Gasoline

    Beginning in 2011, motor gasoline prices based on resellers and retailers sales are no longer available. Motor gasoline physical unit prices are based on the average annual refiner sales prices (excluding taxes) of finished motor gasoline through retail outlets. Missing state prices are estimated by first calculating the ratio of the old 2010 state price to the corresponding 2010 Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district or subdistrict price, and then applying that ratio to the current refiner price of the PAD district or subdistrict to which the state belongs.

  • Residual Fuel Oil

    Beginning in 2011, residual fuel oil prices based on refiner/reseller/retailer sales are no longer available. Residual fuel oil prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are based on regression equations developed for the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts and subdistricts relating historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices to refiner prices. For states that have refiner prices, historical refiner/reseller/retailer prices, and sizable sales volumes, the regression equation for the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict is used to calculate the state price. All other states are assigned the corresponding PAD district or subdistrict estimated price. See Section 4 of the Price Technical Notes.

    For 2011, missing state prices in the electric power sector are estimated by applying the U.S. percentage price change to the previous year's state prices.

Renewable Energy

  • Solar Energy

    Data for electricity produced from solar energy sources at commercial and industrial facilities with capacity of 1 megawatt or greater are incorporated into the State Energy Data System. Data are available from 2008 forward.

  • Wind Energy

    Data for electricity produced from wind energy at commercial and industrial facilities with capacity of 1 megawatt or greater are incorporated into the State Energy Data System. Data are available from 2009 forward.

 

2010 Cycle

PRODUCTION


Crude Oil

  • From 1981 forward, federal offshore crude oil production data in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts 3 and 5 are reported separately in SEDS. Previously, they were assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, and California. Federal offshore crude oil production data prior to 1980 were covered in the states and were not available from the data source.

Natural Gas

  • From 1997 forward, federal offshore dry natural gas production data in the Gulf of Mexico are reported separately in SEDS. Previously, they were assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. Federal offshore dry natural gas production data prior to 1997 were covered in the states and were not available from the data source.

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Total Energy

Estimates of total energy consumption by state and end-use sector have been significantly revised because of the following changes:

  • Net interstate electricity trade data in kilowatthours, recently published in EIA's State Electricity Profiles and available from 1990 forward, are now incorporated into SEDS.  A new method is used to estimate the heat content of the energy used to generate electricity that is traded across state lines. "Net interstate flow of electricity," as it is termed in SEDS, is a component of total energy consumption.  See Section 6 of the Consumption Technical Notes.
  • The method of estimating electrical system energy losses, which are included in total energy consumption by end-use sector, is revised from 1990 forward.  The revised energy loss estimates take into account the heat content of the energy sources consumed by the state's electric power sector and the net interstate flow of electricity.  See Section 6 of the Consumption Technical Notes.
  • The method of estimating petrochemical feedstocks has been revised (see explanation under Other Petroleum Products below).  As a result, total energy consumption estimates for Texas and Louisiana are revised upward significantly.  Total energy consumption for other states (those for which petrochemical feedstock estimates previously existed) are revised downward.

Because of these major changes, total energy consumption series published in 2012 should not be compared with series published in earlier years.

Natural Gas

For 2008 forward, if the state-level price of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector is not available from the Natural Gas Annual, the average delivered cost of natural gas to regulated electric power plants from Schedule 2 of the EIA-923, Power Plant Operations Report, is used as the secondary source.

Petroleum

  • Asphalt and Road Oil

    For 2009 forward, state-level asphalt and road oil sales are no longer available. The U.S. total consumption estimate is disaggregated to each state using the state's share of total U.S. asphalt and road oil sales in 2008, as published in the 2008 Asphalt Usage Survey for the United States and Canada.

  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

    The approximate heat content of propane is used to convert barrels of LPG consumed by the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors to British thermal units (Btu). The conversion factor for the industrial sector is calculated by dividing U.S. industrial LPG consumption in billion Btu by the volume in thousand barrels. The price estimates in dollars per million Btu are also adjusted accordingly.

    Previously, the average heat content of LPG was used to convert LPG consumption and prices for all sectors.

  • Other Petroleum Products

    • Pentanes Plus and Petrochemical Feedstocks, Naphtha less than 401°F

      The U.S. consumption estimates of pentanes plus and naphtha used as petrochemical feedstocks are allocated to the states using a new data series called “state share of capacity of steam crackers using naphtha as feedstocks.” The series is compiled using plant-level information on nameplate capacity and average share of naphtha in the feedstock mixture for steam cracker plants producing ethylene. Data were collected for 1997 through 1999, 2002, 2004, 2008, and 2010. The shares of the interim years are interpolated using the compound annual growth rates of the years with data, and the shares for 1997 are used for the earlier years. The new method allocates the feedstocks consumption to Louisiana and Texas only.

      Three other data series - natural gasoline, plant condensate, and unfractionated streams - that have been discontinued in 1984 were also revised because they were also used as feedstocks for petrochemicals.

      Previously, the U.S. consumption of these products was allocated to the states by the value of shipments or value added of the organic industrial manufacturing industry.

    • Petrochemical Feedstocks, Other Oils equal to or greater than 401°F
    • The U.S. consumption of other oils equal to or greater than 401°F used as petrochemical feedstocks is allocated to the states using a new series called “state share of capacity of steam crackers using other oils as feedstocks.” The series is compiled using plant-level information on nameplate capacity and average share of other oils in the feedstock mixture for steam cracker plants producing ethylene. The new method allocates the feedstocks consumption to Louisiana and Texas only.

      Previously, the U.S. consumption of other oils was allocated to the states by the value of shipments or value added of the organic industrial manufacturing industry.

    • Special Naphthas, Waxes, and Miscellaneous Petroleum Products

      Beginning in 2001, the U.S. total consumption of these products is allocated to the states by using value of shipments data from the Economic Census. Allocations for prior years are based on value added.

Renewable Energy

  • Solar Energy

    The survey that collects data on shipments of solar thermal collectors, EIA-63A, Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey, was terminated for data year 2010.  State-level residential/commercial consumption of solar energy in 2010 was estimated by applying the 2009 state share to the 2010 U.S. total.

 

2009 Cycle

PRODUCTION


Natural Gas

  • Data for natural gas marketed production in physical units for 1960 through 1969 have been incorporated into SEDS. Production estimates in Btu are computed by multiplying the 1970 state-level average heat content of natural gas marketed production to the physical unit data.

Renewable Energy

  • Fuel Ethanol

    For 1981 forward, the Btu content of biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol has been revised to reflect the removal of denaturant in fuel ethanol.

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Total Energy and Other Indicators

  • Total End-Use Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures

    A new set of tables for total end-use energy consumption, price, and expenditure estimates is introduced in this cycle. Estimates for total end-use consumption and expenditures are calculated by summing the consumption and expenditures, respectively, of the four end-use sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Estimates for total end-use prices are calculated by dividing total end-use expenditures by the sum of all end-use consumption with prices associated with them.

  • Gross Domestic Product

    The source for real and current-dollar gross domestic product (GDP) for the United States has been revised to the national series from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) National Income and Product Accounts. Previously, the United States series in the state GDP dataset were used. Also, real GDP is converted to chained (2005) dollars by BEA.

Petroleum

  • Asphalt and Road Oil

    For 2009, only the U.S. total of asphalt and road oil sales is available from the Asphalt Institute. To estimate state-level sales, the U.S. total is disaggregated to each state in proportion to the state’s share of total U.S. asphalt and road oil sales in 2008, as published in the 2008 Asphalt Usage Survey for the United States and Canada.

  • Other Petroleum Products

    Beginning in 2006, “other petroleum product” consumption by state is allocated by using value of shipments data from the Economic Census. Allocations for prior years are based on value added.

Electricity

  • The approach for assigning missing state transportation consumption volumes has been revised. Information from the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Transit Data (NTD) System, is used to supplement the EIA retail sales data only for states with missing or incomplete volumes in 2003, the first year for which transportation sector data were collected by EIA. In 2003, NTD transportation consumption volumes were assigned to the following states: Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. From 2004 forward, all transportation consumption volumes are from the EIA Electric Sales and Revenues database.

    The approach for assigning missing state transportation consumption volumes has been revised. Information from the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Transit Data (NTD) System, is used to supplement the EIA retail sales data only for states with missing or incomplete volumes in 2003, the first year for which transportation sector data were collected by EIA. In 2003, NTD transportation consumption volumes were assigned to the following states: Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. From 2004 forward, all transportation consumption volumes are from the EIA Electric Sales and Revenues database.

Renewable Energy

  • Fuel Ethanol

    For 1981 forward, Btu consumption of fuel ethanol has been revised to reflect the removal of denaturant. Energy losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol also have been adjusted for these years.

  • Geothermal Energy

    Electricity produced from geothermal energy is converted from kilowatthours to British thermal units (Btu) by using the U.S. average heat rate of fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants, FFETKUS, as a conversion factor. This is consistent with the approach followed for other non-combustible renewable energy sources – hydroelectric power, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. The technology-based geothermal conversion factors are no longer used in Btu calculations.

  • Wood and Waste

    Beginning in 2006, wood and waste consumed by the manufacturing sector by state is allocated by using value of shipments data from the Economic Census; allocations for prior years are based on value added. In addition, beginning in 2005, residential wood consumption by state is allocated by using data on housing units that use wood as the primary heating fuel from the American Community Survey; allocations for prior years are based on total housing units.

 

2008 Cycle

PRODUCTION


Renewable Energy

  • Fuel Ethanol

    Beginning in 2005, production estimates for the states with no production data are based on state capacity shares computed from average monthly operating capacity data.

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Total Energy

  • Beginning in 1981, energy losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol are incorporated into state and U.S. industrial sector energy consumption. Energy losses for the United States are allocated to the states according to their fuel ethanol production shares. They are then added to the state and U.S. industrial and total energy consumption.

    Subtotals for fossil fuels and renewable energy consumption are presented in the tables on “Total Energy by Source.” In the fossil fuel subtotal, the double-counting of supplemental gaseous fuels is removed, and fuel ethanol is excluded from petroleum consumption. Fuel ethanol and energy losses and co-products from fuel ethanol production are covered in the renewable energy subtotal. However, in the tables on consumption by sector, estimates for natural gas and motor gasoline are presented as they are consumed, that is, including supplemental gaseous fuels and fuel ethanol, respectively.

Petroleum and Fuel Ethanol

  • Distillate Fuel Oil

    Beginning in 2000, state and federal diesel tax rates are taken from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Petroleum Marketing Monthly, supplemented by information on effective date of rate changes collected from other sources. In addition, the approach for assigning missing state residential distillate prices is revised: states in Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District 3 with missing prices from 2003 forward are now assigned the PAD District 3 average distillate retail sales price instead of the PAD District 4 residential distillate price.

  • Fuel Ethanol

    The heat content of fuel ethanol is revised from 3.539 to 3.563 to account for denaturant (pentanes plus or motor gasoline added to ethanol to make it undrinkable).

    Energy losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol are now incorporated into state and U.S. industrial sector energy consumption. Beginning in 1981, energy losses for the United States are allocated to each state according to the fuel ethanol production share for each state. Energy losses for each state and the United States are then added to the state and U.S. industrial and total energy consumption.

  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

    The 2008 Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases, published by the American Petroleum Institute (API), no longer includes state-level sales estimates for natural gas liquids and liquefied refinery gases. Only propane sales data are available at the state level. A new methodology has been developed to estimate state-level propane consumption and all other LPG consumption in 2008. For propane consumption, API’s state shares of propane sales are applied to the U.S. product supplied published in EIA Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). For all other LPG, state shares derived from the 2007 API report are used to allocate the 2008 U.S. product supplied of LPG other than propane from PSA.

    In addition, a new variable has been created to estimate LPG sold for residential use as shares of LPG sold for residential and commercial use. Previously, a fixed share of 85 percent was assumed for all states. State-level estimates from 2003 forward are based on propane sales data in the API report, and the average shares of 2003 through 2008 are applied to the earlier years. Data for LPG sold for residential and commercial use are then split into the two end-use sectors using this new variable.

  • Lubricants

    The method of estimating lubricant price has been enhanced to include the application of the year-on-year growth rate of the composite price of crude oil when the value data from the Economic Census or the Annual Survey of Manufactures are not available.

  • Motor Gasoline

    Beginning in 2000, motor gasoline prices are based on the average annual sales prices (excluding taxes) of finished motor gasoline to end users through retail outlets, which cover data reported by refiners, resellers, and retailers. State and federal motor gasoline tax rates are added to the prices. The tax rates are taken from the EIA Petroleum Marketing Monthly, supplemented by information on effective date of rate changes collected from additional sources.

  • Petroleum Coke

    Beginning in 1993, the series used to allocate petroleum coke consumed by other industrial users, state’s aluminum production capacity adjusted for under-utilization of the plants, is revised.

  • Special Naphthas

    Beginning in 1991, the price of special naphthas is estimated by applying the year-on-year growth rate of the average U.S. motor gasoline price to the previous year’s special naphtha price.

 

2007 Cycle

PRODUCTION


Renewable Energy

  • Fuel Ethanol

    Fuel ethanol production is now disaggregated from renewable energy production. Estimates for 1981 forward are calculated using state-level data on production and production capacity and national-level data on production. Estimates of state-level biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol, in billion Btu, are also calculated.

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Total Energy

  • Beginning in 1980, supplemental gaseous fuels, which are accounted for both in the fossil fuels from which they are derived and in natural gas, are removed once from total energy consumption for the residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors to prevent double-counting. In addition, beginning in 1981, the industrial sector consumption includes energy losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol in the U.S. total. Individual state estimates are not available because reliable state allocators have not been identified.

Natural Gas

  • Natural gas consumption estimates in Btu are revised to include the small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels that are commingled with natural gas. Price and expenditure estimates are also based on this definition.

Nuclear

  • For 2007, nuclear fuel prices are computed using plant-level fuel cost and net generation data extracted from the Ventyx Velocity Suite.

Petroleum and Fuel Ethanol

  • Fuel Ethanol

    The method for estimating fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline by state is revised beginning in 2005. The state estimates are now based on several data series: (1) prime supplier sales of conventional and reformulated gasoline; (2) production of conventional and reformulated gasoline with and without alcohol; (3) a standard ethanol-to-motor-gasoline “blend ratio” of 10 percent for all states except California and Minnesota; and (4) estimated fuel ethanol “product supplied.” See Section 5 of the Consumption Technical Notes for detailed information.

  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)

    In 2000, the general sales tax rates were corrected in the computation of prices of LPG consumed by the industrial sector. For 2000, 2005, and 2006, the prices of LPG consumed by the petrochemical industry that are not available from the data source are now assigned the U.S. average price.

  • Lubricants

    The method of estimating U.S. lubricant prices described in Section 4 of the Price Technical Notes cannot be used for 2007, as the 2007 Economic Census data for lubricating oils and greases were not available when the lubricant data were processed. Instead, the 2007 U.S. lubricant price is estimated by applying the 2006-to-2007 growth rate of the composite refiner acquisition cost of crude oil, published in EIA Petroleum Supply Annual, to the 2006 price.

  • Motor Fuel Taxes

    Corrections are incorporated in the average tax rates for motor gasoline and diesel from 2004 through 2006 and liquefied petroleum gases for 2004 and 2005, which causes revisions to the corresponding transportation, commercial, and industrial sector prices.

 

2006 Cycle

PRODUCTION


Coal

  • The Btu conversion factors for coal production for some states are adjusted for all years to account for the production of metallurgical coal, which has a higher Btu content than steam coal used in electric power generation.

Natural Gas

  • The Btu conversion factors for natural gas extraction loss for 1970 through 1980 are revised using the same methodology employed for all other years.

Renewable Energy

CONSUMPTION, PRICES, AND EXPENDITURES


Natural Gas

  • Beginning in 1980, natural gas consumption in Btu is revised to remove supplemental gaseous fuels (SGF). Since SGF are mostly derived from fossil fuels, which are already accounted for, they are removed to eliminate double counting in total energy consumption. Price and expenditure estimates are also based on the new definition. Consumption estimates in physical units continue to include small amounts of SGF, as reported by the data source.

Petroleum

  • Distillate Fuel Oil

    Beginning in 1997, the methodology for assigning a residential price estimate to a state without a price in the Petroleum Market Annual is simplified by assigning the state its corresponding Petroleum Administration Defense (PAD) district or subdistrict price.

  • Kerosene

    Kerosene consumed by all sectors for 1984 is revised to incorporate the use of unadjusted sales in the estimation methodology. The revised data are available in the EIA Petroleum Navigator but were not published in Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  • Petroleum Coke

    Beginning in 1993, state-level aluminum production capacity data, which are used as state allocators for petroleum coke use in the industrial sector other than refineries and combined-heat-and-power plants, have been adjusted to account for under-utilization of the plants.

  • Motor Fuel Taxes

    Corrections were made to the average tax rates for motor gasoline and diesel for 2004 and 2005, and those for liquefied petroleum gas for 2002 through 2005. The corresponding transportation sector prices are revised. Commercial and industrial prices for motor gasoline, which are the same as those for the transportation sector, are also affected.

Renewable Energy

  • Fuel Ethanol

    Fuel ethanol consumption is now allocated to the commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors using the motor gasoline consumption share for each sector. Previously, all fuel ethanol consumption was assigned to the transportation sector.

  • Waste

    The definition of waste is revised to exclude non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels) beginning in 2001. Because this portion is mostly derived from fossil fuels, which are already accounted for, it is removed from total energy to eliminate the previous double counting. See article, “Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy,” on the Renewable & Alternative Fuels website under “Analyses.”

Real and Nominal Gross Domestic Product by State

  • Real gross domestic product (GDP) by state (beginning in 1977), and nominal GDP by state (beginning in 1970), from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, are incorporated into SEDS for the first time. The real GDP data are used in SEDS to calculate total energy consumed per chained (2000) dollar of output by state. The nominal GDP data are used in SEDS to calculate total energy consumed per nominal dollar of output by state. The GDP data used in SEDS through 1996 are based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), while the GDP data used in SEDS for 1997 forward are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). See the SEDS Technical Notes for more information on data sources, estimation procedures, and assumptions.