‹ Analysis & Projections

Annual Energy Outlook 2015

Release Date: April 14, 2015   |  Next Release Date: March 2016    |  full report

Market Trends

Projections by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) are not statements of what will happen but of what might happen, given the assumptions and methodologies used for any particular case. The Reference case projection is a business-as-usual estimate, given known market, demographic, and technological trends. Most cases in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) generally assume that current laws and regulations are maintained throughout the projections. Such projections provide a baseline starting point that can be used to analyze policy initiatives. EIA explores the impacts of alternative assumptions in other cases with different macroeconomic growth rates, world oil prices, rates of technological progress, and policy changes.

While energy markets are complex, energy models are simplified representations of energy production and consumption, regulations, and producer and consumer behavior. Projections are highly dependent on the data, methodologies, model structures, and assumptions used in their development. Behavioral characteristics are indicative of real-world tendencies rather than representations of specific outcomes.

Energy market projections are subject to much uncertainty. Many of the events that shape energy markets are random and cannot be anticipated. In addition, future developments in technologies, demographics, and resources cannot be foreseen with certainty. Many key uncertainties in the AEO2014 projections are addressed through alternative cases.

EIA has tried to make these projections as objective, reliable, and useful as possible. However, they should serve as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, a complete and focused analysis of public policy initiatives.

Economic Trends



U.S. energy demand



Residential sector energy demand

Commercial sector energy demand


Industrial sector energy demand





Transportation sector energy demand




Natural gas

Petroleum and other liquids



Emissions from energy use