Capacity and Generation

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: April 8, 2014

Short-term electricity supply, demand, and price projections.

Monthly/Annual Energy Review - Electricity Section

Released: March 27, 2014

Monthly and latest annual statistics on electricity generation, capacity, end-use, fuel use and stocks, and retail price.

Electricity Monthly Update

Released: March 21, 2014

Provides analysis and highlights of the data included in the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) publication and presents tables of electricity generation, fuel consumption for generation, fossil fuel stocks, and average retail sales and prices of electricity. The Electricity Monthly Update is published at the same time as the EPM. (archived versions)

Electric Power Monthly

Released: March 21, 2014

Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. (archived versions)

Electric Power Annual

Released: December 12, 2013

Presents 12 years (2001 - 2012) of national-level data on electricity generating capacity, electricity generation and useful thermal output, fuel receipts, consumption, and emissions. This year's Electric Power Annual has expanded to include several new table series. These include several new annual breakouts of renewable biomass energy sources including wood/wood waste, landfill gas, and biogenic municipal solid waste in Chapter 5 (Consumption of Fossil Fuels); state details of emissions from energy consumption at conventional power plants and combined-heat-and-power plants (Table 9.5); and monthly capacity factors for the past three years and annual capacity factors back to 2008 (Tables 4.8.A. and 4.8.B.) (archived versions)

Modeling Distributed Generation in the Buildings Sectors

Released: August 29, 2013

This report focuses on how the Energy Information Administrationmodels residential and commercial sector distributed generation, including combined heat and power, for the Annual Energy Outlook.

Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

Released: August 7, 2013

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

International Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: July 25, 2013

International electricity projections through 2040.

Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

Released: July 17, 2013

The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants

Released: April 12, 2013

The current and future projected cost and performance characteristics of new electric generating capacity are a critical input into the development of energy projections and analyses.

Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity

Released: December 11, 2012

Presents a summary of the nation’s renewable energy consumption in 2010 along with detailed historical data on renewable energy consumption by energy source and end-use sector. Data presented also includes renewable energy consumption for electricity generation and for non-electric use by energy source, and net summer capacity and net generation by energy source and state. The report covers the period from 2006 through 2010. (archived versions)

Annual Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: June 25, 2012

Electricity projections to 2040.

Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution

Released: June 21, 2012

This report analyzes the competition between coal, natural gas and petroleum used for electricity generation by estimating what is referred to by economists as the elasticity of substitution among the fuels.

State Nuclear Profiles

Released: April 26, 2012

Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the nuclear power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each state, as well as plant specific information for 2010.

State Renewable Electricity Profiles

Released: March 8, 2012

Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the renewable electric power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each type of renewable generator, as well as fossil-fired and nuclear power plant types, for the period 2006 through 2010.

State Electricity Profiles

Released: January 30, 2012

The annual report contains data tables describing the electricity industry in each state. Data include generating capability, electricity generation, fuel use and prices, retail sales, emissions, and net interstate transfers of electricity. (archived versions)

What are renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and how do they affect generation of electricity from renewable sources?

Released: January 23, 2012

Energy in Brief article on renewable portfolio standards.

Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

Released: December 12, 2011

In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman

Released: November 30, 2011

This report addresses an August 2011 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES).

What is the role of hydroelectric power in the United States?

Released: November 26, 2011

The importance of hydropower as a source of electricity generation varies by geographic region. While hydropower accounted for 6% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2010, it provided over half of the electricity in the Pacific Northwest. Because hydroelectric generation relies on precipitation, it varies widely from month to month and year to year.

Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Hall

Released: October 25, 2011

This report responds to a request from Chairman Ralph M. Hall for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES). The request, as outlined in the letter included in Appendix A, sets out specific assumptions and scenarios for the study.

How much of the world's electricity supply is generated from wind and who are the leading generators?

Released: August 30, 2011

Energy in Brief article on wind energy sources in the world's electricity supply.

How old are U.S. power plants?

Released: August 8, 2011

The current fleet of electric power generators has a wide range of ages. About 530 gigawatts, or 51% of all generating capacity, were at least 30 years old at the end of 2010. Trends in generating capacity additions vary by fuel type, for coal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, and wind.

What is the status of the U.S. nuclear industry?

Released: April 22, 2011

Energy in Brief article on the U.S. nuclear industry.

How much of our electricity is generated from renewable sources?

Released: September 1, 2010

Energy in Brief article on renewable energy sources in the U.S. electricity supply.

What is the electric power grid, and what are some challenges it faces?

Released: October 20, 2009

Energy in Brief article on the electric power grid.

Implications of Lower Natural Gas Prices for Electric Generators in the Southeast, The

Released: May 12, 2009

This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) May 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) focuses on changes in the utilization of coal- and natural-gas-fired generation capacity in the electric utility sector as the differential between delivered fuel prices narrows.

Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

Released: April 27, 2009

This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

Tax Credits and Renewable Generation (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Tax incentives have been an important factor in the growth of renewable generation over the past decade, and they could continue to be important in the future. The Energy Tax Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-618) established ITCs for wind, and EPACT92 established the Renewable Electricity Production Credit (more commonly called the PTC) as an incentive to promote certain kinds of renewable generation beyond wind on the basis of production levels. Specifically, the PTC provided an inflation-adjusted tax credit of 1.5 cents per kilowatthour for generation sold from qualifying facilities during the first 10 years of operation. The credit was available initially to wind plants and facilities that used closed-loop biomass fuels and were placed in service after passage of the Act and before June 1999.

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 13, 2009

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

Released: September 24, 2008

Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

Released: June 26, 2008

Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuelsparticularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

Loan Guarantees and the Economics of Electricity Generating Technologies (released in AEO2007)

Released: March 11, 2007

The loan guarantee program authorized in Title XVII of EPACT2005 is not included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2007, because the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 requires congressional authorization of loan guarantees in an appropriations act before a federal agency can make a binding loan guarantee agreement. As of October 2006, Congress had not provided the legislation necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement the loan guarantee program (see Legislation and Regulations). In August 2006, however, DOE invited firms to submit pre-applications for the first $2 billion in potential loan guarantees.

Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

Released: April 1, 2005

In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

Production Tax Credit for Renewable Electricity Generation (released in AEO2005)

Released: April 1, 2005

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, environmental and energy security concerns were addressed at the federal level by several key pieces of energy legislation. Among them, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), P.L. 95-617, required regulated power utilities to purchase alternative electricity generation from qualified generating facilities, including small-scale renewable generators; and the Investment Tax Credit (ITC), P.L. 95-618, part of the Energy Tax Act of 1978, provided a 10% federal tax credit on new investment in capital-intensive wind and solar generation technologies.

Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

Released: March 1, 2005

This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Status Through 2003

Released: July 1, 2004

This report was assembled by the Energy Information Administration from a number of sources and in a series of steps, beginning with a review of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and other program summaries available on web sites, followed by a review of state laws and regulations, and then further clarified by direct contact with State public utility commissions, electric utilities, and others.

Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard, Supplement to

Released: June 30, 2003

On June 10, 2003, Senator Pete Domenici, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested additional analysis of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), expected to be proposed as an amendment to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. This request asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide additional results from two previously released EIA analyses of the proposed legislation, and to conduct further analyses with modified assumptions.

Analysis of a 10% RPS - Response letter summarizing principal conclusions of supplement

Released: June 30, 2003

Transmittal letter for the supplement to the Service Report 'Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard'.

Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard

Released: May 1, 2003

On May 8, 2003, Senator Jeff Bingaman, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested an analysis of a nationwide Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) program proposed to be amended to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. With his request Sen. Bingaman provided specific information on the program to be analyzed. This analysis was prepared in response to his request and projects the impact of the proposed program on energy supply, demand, prices, and emissions. The analysis is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025, as updated in May 2003.

Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States

Released: January 1, 2003

Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes. (archived versions)

Biomass for Electricity Generation

Released: July 1, 2002

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States

Released: March 1, 2002

Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years. (archived versions)

Impacts of Energy Research and Development With Analyses of Price-Andersen Act & Hydro Relicensing

Released: March 1, 2002

This report deals primarily with the Research and Development provisions of S. 1766, organized across four areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil energy, and nuclear energy. The provisions are assessed using the results from Annual Energy Outlook 2002 and other side cases, rather than a direct quantitative analysis.

Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

Released: May 1, 2001

In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

California's Electricity Situation Briefing

Released: February 9, 2001

Briefing on California's electricity situation for the staff of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Relicensing and Environmental Issues Affecting Hydropower

Released: April 1, 1998

This article presents an overview of the hydropower industry and summarizes two recent events that have greatly influenced relicensing and environmental issues.

Renewable Resource Electricity in the Changing Regulatory Environment

Released: December 1, 1995

This article surveys in the development of renewable resource electricity recent actions and proposals and summarizes their implications for the renewables industry.

Electricity Generation and Environmental Externalities: Case Studies

Released: September 1, 1995

Provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the federal and state regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three states.

Opportunities with Fuel Cells

Released: May 1, 1994

The concept for fuel cells was discovered in the nineteenth century. Today, units incorporating this technology are becoming commercially available for cogeneration applications.

Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply

Released: February 1, 1993

Provides an overview of current and long term forecasted uses of renewable resources in the nation's electricity marketplace, the largest domestic application of renewable resources today.


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