Electricity

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Today in Energy - Electricity

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent electricity issues and trends.

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: July 8, 2014

Short-term electricity supply, demand, and price projections.

Short-Term Energy Outlook

Released: July 8, 2014

Short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2015 for the United States and international oil forecasts.

 
Monthly/Annual Energy Review - Electricity Section

Released: June 25, 2014

Monthly and latest annual statistics on electricity generation, capacity, end-use, fuel use and stocks, and retail price.

 
Monthly Energy Review

Released: June 25, 2014

The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

 
Electricity Monthly Update

Released: June 23, 2014

Provides analysis and highlights of the data included in the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) publication and presents tables of electricity generation, fuel consumption for generation, fossil fuel stocks, and average retail sales and prices of electricity. The Electricity Monthly Update is published at the same time as the EPM. (archived versions)

Electric Power Monthly

Released: June 23, 2014

Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. (archived versions)

 
Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: June 11, 2014

This report presents the major assumptions of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook, including general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are the most significant in formulating the model results.

 
State Electricity Profiles

Released: May 1, 2014

The annual report contains data tables describing the electricity industry in each state. Data include generating capability, electricity generation, fuel use and prices, retail sales, emissions, and net interstate transfers of electricity. (archived versions)

 
Electric Power Annual

Released: December 12, 2013

Presents 12 years (2001 - 2012) of national-level data on electricity generating capacity, electricity generation and useful thermal output, fuel receipts, consumption, and emissions. This year's Electric Power Annual has expanded to include several new table series. These include several new annual breakouts of renewable biomass energy sources including wood/wood waste, landfill gas, and biogenic municipal solid waste in Chapter 5 (Consumption of Fossil Fuels); state details of emissions from energy consumption at conventional power plants and combined-heat-and-power plants (Table 9.5); and monthly capacity factors for the past three years and annual capacity factors back to 2008 (Tables 4.8.A. and 4.8.B.) (archived versions)

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price

Released: November 8, 2013

Annual report providing state totals for sales, revenue, customer counts, average retail price, and average monthly bills. (archived versions)

Modeling Distributed Generation in the Buildings Sectors

Released: August 29, 2013

This report focuses on how the Energy Information Administrationmodels residential and commercial sector distributed generation, including combined heat and power, for the Annual Energy Outlook.

 
Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

Released: August 7, 2013

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

 
International Energy Outlook

Released: July 25, 2013

This report presents international energy projections through 2040, prepared by the Energy Information Administration, including outlooks for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. (archived versions)

 
International Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: July 25, 2013

International electricity projections through 2040.

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Released: July 18, 2013

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

 
Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

Released: July 17, 2013

The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

 
Gulf of Mexico Fact Sheet

Released: July 1, 2013

Updated data and maps of energy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico, and updated information on past energy disruptions in the United States. (archived versions)

Feed-In Tariffs and similar programs

Released: May 30, 2013

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are a policy mechanism used to encourage deployment of renewable electricity technologies. FITs are used to a limited extent around the United States as listed. A FIT program typically guarantees that customers who own a FIT-eligible renewable electricity generation facility, such as a roof-top solar photovoltaic system, will receive a set price from their utility for all of the electricity they generate and provide to the grid.

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2010

Released: May 13, 2013

This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

 
Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 1, 2013

The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants

Released: April 12, 2013

The current and future projected cost and performance characteristics of new electric generating capacity are a critical input into the development of energy projections and analyses.

 
Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity

Released: December 11, 2012

Presents a summary of the nation’s renewable energy consumption in 2010 along with detailed historical data on renewable energy consumption by energy source and end-use sector. Data presented also includes renewable energy consumption for electricity generation and for non-electric use by energy source, and net summer capacity and net generation by energy source and state. The report covers the period from 2006 through 2010. (archived versions)

Rail Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

Released: November 16, 2012

Average annual rail transportation rates and related analysis are based on the confidential, carload waybill sample obtained from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board. The data are aggregated across select state-to-state and coal basin-to-state combinations for 2001 to 2010.

 
Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

Released: November 16, 2012

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) releases new data on coal transportation rates to the electric power sector to incorporate new EIA survey data from the EIA-923. This expanded coverage enables EIA to publish data over numerous routes that were previously withheld due to confidentiality concerns. It allowed for more in-depth analysis especially for state to state rates. Another feature of this release is the incorporation – for the first time – of coal transport rates by barge and truck.

Annual Energy Outlook - Electricity Section

Released: June 25, 2012

Electricity projections to 2040.

Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution

Released: June 21, 2012

This report analyzes the competition between coal, natural gas and petroleum used for electricity generation by estimating what is referred to by economists as the elasticity of substitution among the fuels.

 
Analysis of the Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012

Released: May 2, 2012

Analyzes the impacts of proposed legislation to enact a Clean Energy Standard (CES), as proposed by Senator Bingaman. This policy would require covered electricity retailers to supply a specified share of their electricity sales from qualifying clean energy resources, including renewable energy and nuclear. Fossil fuels with low carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of generation) may also partially qualify as clean energy resources.

 
State Nuclear Profiles

Released: April 26, 2012

Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the nuclear power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each state, as well as plant specific information for 2010.

 
What Is a Cap-and-Trade Program and How Does It Work?

Released: March 13, 2012

Energy in Brief article on cap-and-trade programs for greenhouse gas emissions.

State Renewable Electricity Profiles

Released: March 8, 2012

Presents a summary of current and recent historical data for the renewable electric power industry. The data focuses on net summer capacity and net generation for each type of renewable generator, as well as fossil-fired and nuclear power plant types, for the period 2006 through 2010.

 
What Were the Key Energy Commodity Price Trends in 2011?

Released: February 14, 2012

Energy commodity price trends varied widely during 2011. Crude oil and petroleum products prices increased during 2011, while natural gas, coal, and electricity prices declined. This article provides an overview of key energy commodity price trends in 2011 based on prices seen in futures markets.

What are renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and how do they affect generation of electricity from renewable sources?

Released: January 23, 2012

Energy in Brief article on renewable portfolio standards.

Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

Released: December 12, 2011

In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

 
Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman

Released: November 30, 2011

This report addresses an August 2011 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES).

 
What is the role of hydroelectric power in the United States?

Released: November 26, 2011

The importance of hydropower as a source of electricity generation varies by geographic region. While hydropower accounted for 6% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2010, it provided over half of the electricity in the Pacific Northwest. Because hydroelectric generation relies on precipitation, it varies widely from month to month and year to year.

What Are the Major Sources and Users of Energy in the United States?

Released: October 25, 2011

Energy in Brief article on energy sources in the United States.

Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Hall

Released: October 25, 2011

This report responds to a request from Chairman Ralph M. Hall for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES). The request, as outlined in the letter included in Appendix A, sets out specific assumptions and scenarios for the study.

 
How much of the world's electricity supply is generated from wind and who are the leading generators?

Released: August 30, 2011

Energy in Brief article on wind energy sources in the world's electricity supply.

How old are U.S. power plants?

Released: August 8, 2011

The current fleet of electric power generators has a wide range of ages. About 530 gigawatts, or 51% of all generating capacity, were at least 30 years old at the end of 2010. Trends in generating capacity additions vary by fuel type, for coal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, and wind.

What is the status of the U.S. nuclear industry?

Released: April 22, 2011

Energy in Brief article on the U.S. nuclear industry.

How much of our electricity is generated from renewable sources?

Released: September 1, 2010

Energy in Brief article on renewable energy sources in the U.S. electricity supply.

Status of State Electric Industry Restructuring Activity

Released: September 1, 2010

Presents an overview of the status of electric industry restructuring in each state. Restructuring means that a monopoly system of electric utilities has been replaced with competing sellers. (archived versions)

Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the Carbon Limits and Energy for America’s Renewal (CLEAR) Act and an Electric-Power Only Cap-and-Trade Program

Released: July 15, 2010

This paper responds to a request from Senators Bingaman, Cantwell, Collins, Murkowski and Voinovich to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide technical assistance to help inform deliberations on energy and climate legislation, including an evaluation of the Carbon Limits and Energy for America’s Renewal (CLEAR) Act and several possible variants of that legislation (some of which had quite extensive components), as well as a separate electric power sector only cap and trade (EPOCT) proposal.

 
What is the electric power grid, and what are some challenges it faces?

Released: October 20, 2009

Energy in Brief article on the electric power grid.

Implications of Lower Natural Gas Prices for Electric Generators in the Southeast, The

Released: May 12, 2009

This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) May 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) focuses on changes in the utilization of coal- and natural-gas-fired generation capacity in the electric utility sector as the differential between delivered fuel prices narrows.

 
Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

Released: April 27, 2009

This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

 
Tax Credits and Renewable Generation (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Tax incentives have been an important factor in the growth of renewable generation over the past decade, and they could continue to be important in the future. The Energy Tax Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-618) established ITCs for wind, and EPACT92 established the Renewable Electricity Production Credit (more commonly called the PTC) as an incentive to promote certain kinds of renewable generation beyond wind on the basis of production levels. Specifically, the PTC provided an inflation-adjusted tax credit of 1.5 cents per kilowatthour for generation sold from qualifying facilities during the first 10 years of operation. The credit was available initially to wind plants and facilities that used closed-loop biomass fuels and were placed in service after passage of the Act and before June 1999.

Electricity Plant Cost Uncertainties (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Construction costs for new power plants have increased at an extraordinary rate over the past several years. One study, published in mid-2008, reported that construction costs had more than doubled since 2000, with most of the increase occurring since 2005. Construction costs have increased for plants of all types, including coal, nuclear, natural gas, and wind.

Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 13, 2009

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

Released: September 24, 2008

Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

Impacts of Uncertainty in Energy Project Costs (released in AEO2008)

Released: September 24, 2008

From the late 1970s through 2002, steel, cement, and concrete prices followed a general downward trend. Since then, however, iron and steel prices have increased by 8% in 2003, 10% in 2004, and 31% in 2005. Although iron and steel prices declined in 2006, early data for 2007 show another increase. Cement and concrete prices, as well as the composite cost index for all construction commodities, have shown similar trends but with smaller increases in 2004 and 2005.

Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

Released: June 26, 2008

Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

Released: April 1, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

 
Electricity Prices in Transition (released in AEO2007)

Released: March 11, 2007

The push by some states to restructure electricity markets progressed rapidly throughout the late 1990s. Although the energy crisis in California during 2000 and 2001 slowed the momentum, 19 states and the District of Columbia currently have some form of restructuring in place. In addition, Washington State, which has not restructured its electricity market, allows its largest industrial customers to choose their suppliers.

Loan Guarantees and the Economics of Electricity Generating Technologies (released in AEO2007)

Released: March 11, 2007

The loan guarantee program authorized in Title XVII of EPACT2005 is not included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2007, because the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 requires congressional authorization of loan guarantees in an appropriations act before a federal agency can make a binding loan guarantee agreement. As of October 2006, Congress had not provided the legislation necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement the loan guarantee program (see Legislation and Regulations). In August 2006, however, DOE invited firms to submit pre-applications for the first $2 billion in potential loan guarantees.

Impacts of Rising Construction and Equipment Costs on Energy Industries (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

Costs related to the construction industry have been volatile in recent years. Some of the volatility may be related to higher energy prices. Prices for iron and steel, cement, and concrete -- commodities used heavily in the construction of new energy projects -- rose sharply from 2004 to 2006, and shortages have been reported. How such price fluctuations may affect the cost or pace of new development in the energy industries is not known with any certainty, and short-term changes in commodity prices are not accounted for in the 25-year projections in Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Most projects in the energy industries require long planning and construction lead times, which can lessen the impacts of short-term trends.

Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio - Follow-up

Released: February 1, 2007

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy portfolio standard (CEPS).

 
Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio Standard

Released: June 30, 2006

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Norm Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy resources policy.

 
Energy Technologies on the Horizon (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

A key issue in mid-term forecasting is the representation of changing and developing technologies. How existing technologies will evolve, and what new technologies might emerge, cannot be known with certainty. The issue is of particular importance in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), the first AEO with projections out to 2030.

Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

Released: April 1, 2005

In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

Production Tax Credit for Renewable Electricity Generation (released in AEO2005)

Released: April 1, 2005

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, environmental and energy security concerns were addressed at the federal level by several key pieces of energy legislation. Among them, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), P.L. 95-617, required regulated power utilities to purchase alternative electricity generation from qualified generating facilities, including small-scale renewable generators; and the Investment Tax Credit (ITC), P.L. 95-618, part of the Energy Tax Act of 1978, provided a 10% federal tax credit on new investment in capital-intensive wind and solar generation technologies.

Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

Released: March 1, 2005

This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

 
Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

Released: January 1, 2005

This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

 
Electricity Transmission in a Restructured Industry: Data Needs for Public Policy Analysis

Released: December 1, 2004

A report to evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information.

 
State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Status Through 2003

Released: July 1, 2004

This report was assembled by the Energy Information Administration from a number of sources and in a series of steps, beginning with a review of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and other program summaries available on web sites, followed by a review of state laws and regulations, and then further clarified by direct contact with State public utility commissions, electric utilities, and others.

 
Analysis of S. 1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

 
Analysis of Senate Amendment 2028, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

On May 11, 2004, Senator Landrieu asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to evaluate SA 2028. This paper responds to that request, relying on the modeling methodology, data sources, and assumptions used to analyze the original bill, as extensively documented in EIA's June 2003 report.

 
Analyses of Selected Provisions of Proposed Energy Legislation: 2003

Released: September 1, 2003

This study responds to a July 31, 2003 request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan. The study is based primarily on analyses the Energy Information Administration has previously done for studies requested by Congress. It includes analysis of the Renewable Portfolio Standard, Renewable Fuels Standard, production in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, the construction of an Alaskan Natural Gas pipeline, and various tax provisions.

 
Analysis of S. 485, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, and S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003

Released: September 1, 2003

On July 30, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested the Energy Information Administration to undertake analyses of S.843, The Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper, and S.485, Clear Skies Act of 2003. Senator Inhofe also asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze S. 485 without the mercury provisions and S. 843 without the mercury and carbon dioxide provisions. This service report responds to both requests.

 
Analysis of a 10% RPS - Response letter summarizing principal conclusions of supplement

Released: June 30, 2003

Transmittal letter for the supplement to the Service Report 'Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard'.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard, Supplement to

Released: June 30, 2003

On June 10, 2003, Senator Pete Domenici, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested additional analysis of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), expected to be proposed as an amendment to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. This request asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide additional results from two previously released EIA analyses of the proposed legislation, and to conduct further analyses with modified assumptions.

 
Analysis of S.139, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: June 1, 2003

On January 9, 2003, Senators John McCain and Joseph I. Lieberman introduced Senate Bill 139 (S.139), the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003, in the U.S. Senate. S.139 would require the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions. On January 28, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) perform a comprehensive analysis of S.139. On April 2, 2003, Senators McCain and Lieberman, cosponsors of S.139, made a further request for analyses of their bill. This Service Report responds to both requests.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard, Addendum

Released: June 1, 2003

On May 8, 2003, Senator Jeff Bingaman, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested an analysis of a nationwide Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) program proposed to be amended to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. With his request Sen. Bingaman provided specific information on the program to be analyzed. This analysis was prepared in response to his request and projects the impact of the proposed program on energy supply, demand, prices, and emissions. The analysis is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025, as updated in May 2003.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard

Released: May 1, 2003

On May 8, 2003, Senator Jeff Bingaman, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested an analysis of a nationwide Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) program proposed to be amended to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. With his request Sen. Bingaman provided specific information on the program to be analyzed. This analysis was prepared in response to his request and projects the impact of the proposed program on energy supply, demand, prices, and emissions. The analysis is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025, as updated in May 2003.

 
Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States

Released: January 1, 2003

Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes. (archived versions)

 
U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

Released: December 1, 2002

Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. (archived versions)

 
Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

Released: October 1, 2002

In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

 
Biomass for Electricity Generation

Released: July 1, 2002

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

 
State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated 2002

Released: April 1, 2002

This report documents the preparation of updated state-level electricity coefficients for carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), and nitrous oxide (NO), which represent a three-year weighted average for 1998-2000.

 
Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States

Released: March 1, 2002

Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years. (archived versions)

 
Impacts of Energy Research and Development With Analyses of Price-Andersen Act & Hydro Relicensing

Released: March 1, 2002

This report deals primarily with the Research and Development provisions of S. 1766, organized across four areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil energy, and nuclear energy. The provisions are assessed using the results from Annual Energy Outlook 2002 and other side cases, rather than a direct quantitative analysis.

 
Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities

Released: November 1, 2001

2000 - Final issue. Presents summary financial data for 1994 through 2000 and detailed financial data for 2000 on major publicly owned electric utilities. (archived versions)

 
Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

Released: July 1, 2001

At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

Released: July 1, 2001

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

 
Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply

Released: June 1, 2001

This report addresses the potential impact of rotating electrical outages on petroleum product and natural gas supply in California.

Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

Released: May 1, 2001

In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

 
State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

Released: March 1, 2001

To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

 
California's Electricity Situation Briefing

Released: February 9, 2001

Briefing on California's electricity situation for the staff of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry 2000: An Update, The

Released: October 1, 2000

Provides a comprehensive overview of the structure of the U.S. electric power industry over the past 10 years, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

 
Electric Transmission Network: A Multi-Region Analysis, The

Released: August 1, 2000

This paper examines the ability of the existing transmission network to respond efficiently to increased trade over four reliability regions in the northeastern United States.

 
Changing Structure of Electric Power Industry 1999: Mergers and Other Corporate Combinations, The

Released: December 1, 1999

Presents data about corporate combinations involving investor-owned utilities in the United States, discusses corporate objectives for entering into such combinations, and assesses their cumulative effects on the structure of the electric power industry.

 
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

Released: October 15, 1999

The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

 
Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act: A Comparison of Model Results, The

Released: September 1, 1999

This report describes the Energy Information Administration's use of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to evaluate the effects of the Administration's restructuring proposal using the parameter settings and assumptions from the Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS) analysis.

 
Renewable Electricity Purchases: History and Recent Developments

Released: February 1, 1999

This article presents an analysis of prices of renewable-based electricity that utilities have paid to nonutilities, the primary generators of renewable electricity.

 
Transmission Pricing Issues for Electricity Generation From Renewable Resources

Released: February 1, 1999

This article discusses how the resolution of transmission pricing issues which have arisen under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) open access environment may affect the prospects for renewable-based electricity.

 
Electric Trade in the United States

Released: December 1, 1998

Final Issue. Presents information on bulk power transactions by investor-owned utilities, federal and other publicly-owned utilities, and cooperative utilities. (archived versions)

 
Challenges of Electric Power Industry Restructuring for Fuel Suppliers

Released: September 1, 1998

Provides an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry.

 
Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

Released: July 6, 1998

Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

 
Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

Released: July 1, 1998

Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

 
Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

Released: May 1, 1998

The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

 
Relicensing and Environmental Issues Affecting Hydropower

Released: April 1, 1998

This article presents an overview of the hydropower industry and summarizes two recent events that have greatly influenced relicensing and environmental issues.

 
Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities

Released: December 1, 1997

1996 - Final issue. Presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. (archived versions)

 
Electricity Reform Abroad and U.S. Investment

Released: September 1, 1997

Reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom in an attempt to better understand how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries of Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

 
Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

Released: August 1, 1997

Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

 
U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Trends and Analysis

Released: April 1, 1997

A look at one of the primary tools utilities are using to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in the context of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

Released: March 1, 1997

Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

 
Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: An Update, The

Released: December 1, 1996

Provides a comprehensive overview of the structure of the U.S. electric power industry over the past 10 years, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

 
Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

Released: October 1, 1996

Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

 
Analysis of FERC's Final EIS for Electricity Open Access & Recovery of Stranded Costs

Released: September 1, 1996

Reviews the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) prepared by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its electricity transmission system open access prepared in April 1996 and uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to analyze the open access rule (Orders 888 and 889).

 
Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

Released: December 1, 1995

This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

 
Renewable Resource Electricity in the Changing Regulatory Environment

Released: December 1, 1995

This article surveys in the development of renewable resource electricity recent actions and proposals and summarizes their implications for the renewables industry.

 
Electricity Generation and Environmental Externalities: Case Studies

Released: September 1, 1995

Provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the federal and state regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three states.

 
Performance Issues for a Changing Electric Power Industry

Released: January 1, 1995

Provides an overview of some of the factors affecting reliability within the electric bulk power system. Historical and projected data related to reliability issues are discussed on a national and regional basis. Current research on economic considerations associated with reliability levels is also reviewed.

 
Opportunities with Fuel Cells

Released: May 1, 1994

The concept for fuel cells was discovered in the nineteenth century. Today, units incorporating this technology are becoming commercially available for cogeneration applications.

 
Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Released: March 1, 1994

The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

 
Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

Released: March 1, 1993

The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

 
Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply

Released: February 1, 1993

Provides an overview of current and long term forecasted uses of renewable resources in the nation's electricity marketplace, the largest domestic application of renewable resources today.

 
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935-1992

Released: January 1, 1993

This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry.

 

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