Analysis & Projections

Congressional & Other Requests

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

Released: June 19, 2014

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that total sales of fossil fuels from production1 on federal and Indian lands decreased by 7% during fiscal year 2013. The decrease in production on federal lands alone was also 7%. Sales from production on Indian lands, which account for less than 7% of total federal and Indian lands production, increased by 9%.

 
Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran, The

Released: April 24, 2014

This report was prepared in fulfillment of Section 1245(d)(4)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012, which requires that, not later than 60 days from enactment and every 60 days thereafter, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) "submit to Congress a report on the availability and price of petroleum and petroleum products produced in countries other than Iran in the 60-day period preceding the submission of the report." (archived versions)

 
Natural Gas Exports from Iran

Released: October 9, 2012

This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

 
Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution

Released: June 21, 2012

This report analyzes the competition between coal, natural gas and petroleum used for electricity generation by estimating what is referred to by economists as the elasticity of substitution among the fuels.

 
Analysis of the Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012

Released: May 2, 2012

Analyzes the impacts of proposed legislation to enact a Clean Energy Standard (CES), as proposed by Senator Bingaman. This policy would require covered electricity retailers to supply a specified share of their electricity sales from qualifying clean energy resources, including renewable energy and nuclear. Fossil fuels with low carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of generation) may also partially qualify as clean energy resources.

 
Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

Released: February 27, 2012

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

 
Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

Released: January 19, 2012

This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

 
Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

Released: December 23, 2011

This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

 
Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

Released: December 12, 2011

In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

 
Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman

Released: November 30, 2011

This report addresses an August 2011 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES).

 
Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Hall

Released: October 25, 2011

This report responds to a request from Chairman Ralph M. Hall for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES). The request, as outlined in the letter included in Appendix A, sets out specific assumptions and scenarios for the study.

 
Direct Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy in Fiscal Year 2010

Released: August 1, 2011

This report responds to a November 2010 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from U.S. Representatives Roscoe G. Bartlett, Marsha Blackburn, and Jason Chaffetz for an update to a 2008 report prepared by EIA that provided a snapshot of direct federal financial interventions and subsidies in energy markets in fiscal year (FY) 2007, focusing on subsidies to electricity production. As requested, this report updates the previous report using FY 2010 data and is limited to subsidies that are provided by the federal government, provide a financial benefit with an identifiable federal budget impact, and are specifically targeted at energy markets. Subsidies to federal electric utilities, in the way of financial support, are also included as requested.

 
Improving the Quality and Scope of EIA Data

Released: July 27, 2011

Section 805(a) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-1401 requires the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to establish a five-year plan to enhance the quality and scope of its data collection necessary to ensure that the scope, accuracy, and timeliness of the information needed for efficient functioning of energy markets and related financial operations. This report is in response to section 805(b) of EISA which calls on EIA to submit to Congress the plan established under subsection (a), including a description of any improvements needed to enhance the ability of the Administrator to collect and process energy information in a manner consistent with the needs of energy markets.

 
World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

Released: April 5, 2011

The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

 
Analysis of Selected Provisions of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010

Released: October 18, 2010

This report responds to a letter dated August 16, 2010, from Janice Mays, Staff Director of the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Ways and Means, requesting that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze several provisions included in the July 26, 2010, discussion draft of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the American Power Act of 2010

Released: July 16, 2010

This report responds to a request from Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman for an analysis of the American Power Act of 2010 (APA). APA, as released by Senators Kerry and Lieberman on May 12, 2010, regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and other economic incentives.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

Released: August 4, 2009

This report responds to a request from Chairman Henry Waxman and Chairman Edward Markey for an analysis of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACESA). ACESA, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009, is a complex bill that regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

 
Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

Released: April 27, 2009

This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

 
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: Market Issues and Potential Energy and Emissions Impacts

Released: February 1, 2009

This report responds to a request from Senator Jeff Sessions for an analysis of the environmental and energy efficiency attributes of light-duty diesel vehicles. Specifically, the inquiry asked for a comparison of the characteristics of diesel-fueled vehicles with those of similar gasoline-fueled, E85-fueled, and hybrid vehicles, as well as a discussion of any technical, economic, regulatory, or other obstacles to increasing the use of diesel-fueled vehicles in the United States.

 
Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

Released: September 12, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

 
Analysis of Crude Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Released: May 22, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Ted Stevens that the Energy Information Administration provide an assessment of federal oil and natural gas leasing in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007

Released: April 30, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senators Lieberman and Warner for an analysis of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007. S.2191 is a complex bill regulating emissions of greenhouse gases through market- based mechanisms, energy efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

 
Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

Released: April 1, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.1766, the Low Carbon Economy Act of 2007

Released: January 10, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senators Bingaman and Specter for an analysis of a bill designed to cap greenhouse gas emissions at approximately 2006 levels in 2020, 1990 levels in 2030, and at least 60% below 1990 levels by 2050.

 
Oil and Natural Gas Market Supply and Renewable Portfolio Standard Impacts of Selected Provisions of H.R. 3221

Released: December 4, 2007

This paper responds to an October 31, 2007, request from Representatives Barton, McCrery, and Young.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the ClimateStewardship and Innovation Act of 2007, Supplement to

Released: November 1, 2007

This paper responds to a September 18, 2007, letter from Senators Barrasso, Inhofe, and Voinovich, seeking further energy and economic analysis to supplement information presented in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) recent analysis of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007.

 
Energy and Economic Impacts of Implementing Both a 25% RPS and a 25% RFS by 2025

Released: September 11, 2007

This report responds to a request by Senator James Inhofe for analysis of a "25-by-25" proposal that combines a requirement that a 25% share of electricity sales be produced from renewable sources by 2025 with a requirement that a 25% share of liquid transportation fuel sales also be derived from renewable sources by 2025.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007

Released: August 6, 2007

This report responds to a request from Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain for an estimate of the economic impacts of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007. S. 280 would establish a series of caps on greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2012 followed by increasingly stringent caps beginning in 2020, 2030 and 2050. The report provides estimates of the effects of S. 280 on energy markets and the economy through 2030.

 
Impacts of a 15% Renewable Portfolio Standard

Released: June 11, 2007

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Jeff Bingaman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring that 15% of U.S. electricity sales be derived from qualifying renewable energy resources.

 
Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generator

Released: May 1, 2007

Requestor: Ms. Janice Mays, Chief Counsel, Committee on Ways & Means, U.S. House of Representatives This is a letter response requesting analysis of alternative extensions of the existing production tax credit (PTC) that would apply to wind generators only.

Refinery Outages: Description and Potential Impact on Petroleum Product Prices

Released: March 27, 2007

This report responds to a July 13, 2006 request from Chairman Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct a study of the impact that refinery shutdowns have had on the price of oil and gasoline.

 
Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio - Follow-up

Released: February 1, 2007

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy portfolio standard (CEPS).

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

Released: January 11, 2007

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

 
Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

Released: September 5, 2006

This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

 
Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio Standard

Released: June 30, 2006

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Norm Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy resources policy.

 
Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, The

Released: June 7, 2006

This is a special analysis report on hurricanes and their effects on oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico region.

 
Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

Released: March 8, 2006

This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

 
Impact of Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 206 Rebates on Consumers and Renewable Energy Consumption, With Projections to 2010

Released: February 1, 2006

The Energy Information Administration (EIA), with the agreement of the Department, interpreted section 206(d) as calling for a listing of the types of renewable fuels available today, and a listing of those that will be available in the future based on the incentives provided in section 206(d). This report provides that information, and also provides information concerning renewable energy equipment and renewable energy consumption.

 
Renewable Fuels Legislation Impact Analysis

Released: July 1, 2005

An analysis based on an extension of the ethanol supply curve in our model to allow for enough ethanol production to meet the requirements of S. 650. This analysis provides an update of the May 23, 2005 analysis, with revised ethanol production and cost assumptions.

 
Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

Released: July 1, 2005

This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

 
Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

Released: June 1, 2005

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

 
Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

Released: April 1, 2005

On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

 
Impacts of Modeled Recommendations of the National Commission on Energy Policy

Released: April 1, 2005

This report provides the Energy Information Administration's analysis of those National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) energy policy recommendations that could be simulated using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).

 
Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

Released: January 1, 2005

This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

 
Analysis of S. 1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

 
Analysis of Senate Amendment 2028, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

On May 11, 2004, Senator Landrieu asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to evaluate SA 2028. This paper responds to that request, relying on the modeling methodology, data sources, and assumptions used to analyze the original bill, as extensively documented in EIA's June 2003 report.

 
Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

Released: May 1, 2004

In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

 
Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

Released: March 1, 2004

The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

 
Analysis of Oil and Gas Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Released: March 1, 2004

This study analyzed the impact on future oil imports and expenditures of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to petroleum development. High, low, and mean ANWR oil resource case projections were compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case. The study also examined whether potential synergies exist in opening ANWR to petroleum development and the construction of an Alaska gas pipeline from the North Slope to the lower 48 states.

 
Summary Impacts of Modeled Provisions of the 2003 Conference Energy Bill

Released: February 1, 2004

This service report was undertaken at the February 2, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003. This report summarizes the CEB provisions that can be analyzed using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and have the potential to affect energy consumption, supply, and prices. The impacts are estimated by comparing the projections with the CEB provisions to the AEO2004 Reference Case.

 
Analysis of Five Selected Tax Provisions of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003

Released: February 1, 2004

This special report was undertaken at the January 29, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of five specific tax provisions of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003.

 
Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

Released: December 1, 2003

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

 
Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike

Released: December 1, 2003

U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct an inquiry into the causes of the price increases of gasoline in July and August of 2003.

 
Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

Released: October 1, 2003

In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

 
Analyses of Selected Provisions of Proposed Energy Legislation: 2003

Released: September 1, 2003

This study responds to a July 31, 2003 request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan. The study is based primarily on analyses the Energy Information Administration has previously done for studies requested by Congress. It includes analysis of the Renewable Portfolio Standard, Renewable Fuels Standard, production in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, the construction of an Alaskan Natural Gas pipeline, and various tax provisions.

 
Analysis of S. 485, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, and S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003

Released: September 1, 2003

On July 30, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested the Energy Information Administration to undertake analyses of S.843, The Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper, and S.485, Clear Skies Act of 2003. Senator Inhofe also asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze S. 485 without the mercury provisions and S. 843 without the mercury and carbon dioxide provisions. This service report responds to both requests.

 
Analysis of a 10% RPS - Response letter summarizing principal conclusions of supplement

Released: June 30, 2003

Transmittal letter for the supplement to the Service Report 'Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard'.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard, Supplement to

Released: June 30, 2003

On June 10, 2003, Senator Pete Domenici, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested additional analysis of a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), expected to be proposed as an amendment to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. This request asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide additional results from two previously released EIA analyses of the proposed legislation, and to conduct further analyses with modified assumptions.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard, Addendum

Released: June 1, 2003

On May 8, 2003, Senator Jeff Bingaman, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested an analysis of a nationwide Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) program proposed to be amended to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. With his request Sen. Bingaman provided specific information on the program to be analyzed. This analysis was prepared in response to his request and projects the impact of the proposed program on energy supply, demand, prices, and emissions. The analysis is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025, as updated in May 2003.

 
Analysis of S.139, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: June 1, 2003

On January 9, 2003, Senators John McCain and Joseph I. Lieberman introduced Senate Bill 139 (S.139), the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003, in the U.S. Senate. S.139 would require the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions. On January 28, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) perform a comprehensive analysis of S.139. On April 2, 2003, Senators McCain and Lieberman, cosponsors of S.139, made a further request for analyses of their bill. This Service Report responds to both requests.

 
Analysis of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard

Released: May 1, 2003

On May 8, 2003, Senator Jeff Bingaman, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested an analysis of a nationwide Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) program proposed to be amended to energy legislation currently pending before the U.S. Senate. With his request Sen. Bingaman provided specific information on the program to be analyzed. This analysis was prepared in response to his request and projects the impact of the proposed program on energy supply, demand, prices, and emissions. The analysis is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025, as updated in May 2003.

 
Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

Released: March 1, 2003

This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

 
Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

Released: October 1, 2002

In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

 
Timing for Startup of the Renewable Fuel Standard

Released: September 15, 2002

This paper responds to whether or not moving the start date of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from its currently proposed January 2004 to October 2004 would improve the chances of a smooth transition.

 
Gasoline Type Proliferation and Price Volatility

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the potential effect/role of implementation of a national menu of fuels to address the proliferation of boutique fuels.

 
Timing of Startups of the Low-Sulfur and RFS Programs

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on whether supply problems could be reduced during the startup stage phases of these programs through timing changes.

 
Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

 
Analysis of Selected Transportation Fuel Issues Associated with Proposed Energy Legislation -Summary

Released: September 1, 2002

Summary of a series of 8 papers discussing the market impacts the Senate-passed fuels provisions of H.R.4, the Energy Policy Act of 2002.

 
Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

 
Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

 
Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

 
Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound RVP Waiver

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper provides background on the 1-pound waiver and how It can affect gasoline volumes.

 
Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

Released: April 1, 2002

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

 
Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766

Released: March 12, 2002

This service report addresses the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766. The 'S. 1766' Case reflects provisions of S. 1766 including a renewable fuels standard (RFS) reaching five billion gallons by 2012, a complete phase-out of MTBE within four years, and the option for states to waive the oxygen requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG).

 
Impacts of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard

Released: March 1, 2002

This service report addresses the renewable portfolio standard provision of S. 1766. At Senator Murkowski's request it also includes an analysis of the impacts of a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) patterned after the one called for in S. 1766, but where the required share is based on a 20% RPS by 2020 rather than the 10% RPS called for in S. 1766.

 
Effects of Alaska Oil and Natural Gas Provisions of H. R. 4 and S. 1766 on U.S. Energy Markets

Released: March 1, 2002

On December 20, 2001, Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002) and House Bill H.R. 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where relevant, import dependence, and emissions. The analysis provided is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 (AEO2002) midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020.

 
Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

Released: March 1, 2002

A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

 
Impacts of Energy Research and Development With Analyses of Price-Andersen Act & Hydro Relicensing

Released: March 1, 2002

This report deals primarily with the Research and Development provisions of S. 1766, organized across four areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy, fossil energy, and nuclear energy. The provisions are assessed using the results from Annual Energy Outlook 2002 and other side cases, rather than a direct quantitative analysis.

 
Effects of Alaska Oil and Natural Gas Provisions of H. R. 4 and S. 1766 on U.S. Energy Markets, Addendum

Released: March 1, 2002

This addendum provides projections on the increase in U.S. oil production from opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the decease in net petroleum imports, and the change in net petroleum expenditures across a range of cases.

 
Analysis of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for Light Trucks and Increased Alternative Fuel Use

Released: March 1, 2002

Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002), House Resolution 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001) and Senate Bill 517 (S. 517, the Energy Policy Act of 2002). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

 
U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

Released: December 1, 2001

This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

 
Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

Released: July 1, 2001

At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

Released: July 1, 2001

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

 
Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

Released: May 1, 2001

In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

 
Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

Released: May 1, 2001

This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

 
U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Recent Trends and Prospects for the Future

Released: May 1, 2001

The purpose of this study is to examine recent trends and prospects for the future of the U.S. natural gas market. Natural gas prices rose dramatically in 2000 and remained high through the first part of 2001, raising concerns about the future of natural gas prices and potential for natural gas to fuel the growth of the U.S. economy.

 
Energy Price Impacts on the U.S. Economy

Released: April 1, 2001

A brief analysis of energy price impacts on the U.S. economy.

 
Impact of Interruptible Natural Gas Service on Northeast Heating Oil Demand

Released: February 1, 2001

Assesses the extent of interruptible natural gas contracts and their effect on heating oil demand in the Northeast.

 
Impacts of Unconventional Gas Technology in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000

Released: November 1, 2000

This paper describes the methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to represent unconventional gas technologies and their impacts on projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000).

 
Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

Released: July 1, 2000

Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

 
Potential Oil Production from Coastal Plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment

Released: May 1, 2000

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) received a letter (dated March 10, 2000) from Senator Frank H. Murkowski as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requesting an EIA Service Report with plausible scenarios for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) supply development consistent with the most recent U.S. Geological Survey resource assessments. This service report is prepared in response to the request of Senator Murkowski. It focuses on the ANWR coastal plain, a region currently restricted from exploration and development, and updates EIA's 1987 ANWR assessment.

 
Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

Released: May 1, 2000

In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

 
Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands

Released: April 1, 2000

Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.

 
Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

Released: April 1, 2000

This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

 
Analysis of the Climate Change Technology Initiative: Fiscal Year 2001

Released: April 1, 2000

Analysis of the potential impacts of Climate Change Technology Initiative, relative to the baseline energy projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000).

 
Impact of Technological Change and Productivity on the Coal Market

Released: January 1, 2000

This paper examines the components of past gains in productivity, including regional shifts, the exit of less productive producers, and technological progress Future prospects for continuing productivity gains at sustained, but lower, rates of improvement are discussed.

 
Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act: A Comparison of Model Results, The

Released: September 1, 1999

This report describes the Energy Information Administration's use of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to evaluate the effects of the Administration's restructuring proposal using the parameter settings and assumptions from the Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS) analysis.

 
Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

Released: July 1, 1999

This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

 
Analysis of the Climate Change Technology Initiative

Released: April 1, 1999

Analysis of the impact of specific policies on the reduction of carbon emissions and their impact on U.S. energy use and prices in the 2008-2012 time frame. Also, analyzes the impact of the President's Climate Change Technology Initiative, as defined for the 2000 budget, on reducing carbon emissions from the levels forecast in the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 reference case.

 
Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on Energy Markets and Economic Activity

Released: October 1, 1998

Analyzes the impacts on the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy markets and the economy in the 2008-2012 time frame.

 
What Does the Kyoto Protocol Mean to U.S. Energy Markets and the U.S. Economy?

Released: October 1, 1998

A briefing paper on the Energy Information Administration's analysis and report prepared for the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives.

 
Impacts on U.S. Energy Markets and the Economy of Reducing Oil Imports

Released: September 1, 1996

This study was undertaken at the request of the General Accounting Office (GAO). Its purpose is to evaluate the impacts on U.S. energy markets and the economy of reducing oil imports. The approach and assumptions underlying this report were specified by GAO and are attached as an Appendix. The study focuses on two approaches: (1) a set of cases with alternative world crude oil price trajectories and (2) two cases which investigate the use of an oil import tariff to achieve a target reduction in the oil imports. The analysis presented uses the National Energy Modeling System, which is maintained by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the DRI/McGraw Hill Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy, a proprietary model maintained by DRI and subscribed to by EIA.

 
Comparison of Measures by Consumption and Supply Surveys, A

Released: June 15, 1988

This report was prepared in response to a request from the Office of Policy Integration in the U.S. Department of Energy for an analysis of how Energy Information Administration data from its consumption surveys compares with data from its supply surveys.

 

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