Environment

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Today in Energy - Environment

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent environmental issues and trends.

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011

Released: August 21, 2014

This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix— especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

 
Short-Term Energy Outlook

Released: August 12, 2014

Short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2015 for the United States and international oil forecasts.

 
Monthly Energy Review

Released: July 28, 2014

The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

 
Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: June 11, 2014

This report presents the major assumptions of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook, including general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are the most significant in formulating the model results.

 
Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 7, 2014

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2014 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies.

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Released: October 21, 2013

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994. (archived versions)

International Energy Outlook

Released: July 25, 2013

This report presents international energy projections through 2040, prepared by the Energy Information Administration, including outlooks for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. (archived versions)

 
Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Released: July 18, 2013

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

 
Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 1, 2013

The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

Annual Energy Review - Environment Section

Released: September 27, 2012

Annual statistics on environmental emissions by sector back to 1949.

 
Analysis of the Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012

Released: May 2, 2012

Analyzes the impacts of proposed legislation to enact a Clean Energy Standard (CES), as proposed by Senator Bingaman. This policy would require covered electricity retailers to supply a specified share of their electricity sales from qualifying clean energy resources, including renewable energy and nuclear. Fossil fuels with low carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of generation) may also partially qualify as clean energy resources.

 
What Is a Cap-and-Trade Program and How Does It Work?

Released: March 13, 2012

Energy in Brief article on cap-and-trade programs for greenhouse gas emissions.

Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman

Released: November 30, 2011

This report addresses an August 2011 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES).

 
Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Hall

Released: October 25, 2011

This report responds to a request from Chairman Ralph M. Hall for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES). The request, as outlined in the letter included in Appendix A, sets out specific assumptions and scenarios for the study.

 
What Are Greenhouse Gases and How Much Are Emitted by the United States?

Released: May 6, 2011

Energy in Brief article on greenhouse gases.

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States

Released: March 31, 2011

Annual inventory of anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gases in the United States. (archived versions)

 
Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

Released: February 1, 2011

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008

Released: January 3, 2011

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

 
Clean Air Interstate Rule: Changes and Modeling in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

On December 23, 2008, the D.C. Circuit Court remanded but did not vacate the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), overriding its previous decision on February 8, 2008, to remand and vacate CAIR. The December decision, which is reflected in Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO) , allows CAIR to remain in effect, providing time for the Environmental Protection Agency to modify the rule in order to address objections raised by the Court in its earlier decision. A similar rule, referred to as the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), which was to set up a cap-and-trade system for reducing mercury emissions by approximately 70%, is not represented in the AEO2010 projections, because it was vacated by the D.C. Circuit Court in February 2008.

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

CAFE Standards (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Pursuant to the Presidents announcement of a National Fuel Efficiency Policy, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EPA have promulgated nationally coordinated standards for tailpipe Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles (LDVs), which includes both passenger cars and light-duty trucks. In the joint rulemaking, the Environmental Protection Agency is enacting CO2-equivalent emissions standards under the Clean Air Act (CAA), and NHTSA is enacting companion Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

Understanding the Decline in Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2009 (Released in the STEO October 2009)

Released: October 6, 2009

The Energy Information Administration forecasts 5.9% decline in U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2009.

 
Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

Released: August 11, 2009

Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

Released: August 4, 2009

This report responds to a request from Chairman Henry Waxman and Chairman Edward Markey for an analysis of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACESA). ACESA, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009, is a complex bill that regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

 
Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

Released: April 27, 2009

This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

 
Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Regional greenhouse gas initiative and western climate initiative descriptions.

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

Clean Air Mercury Rule (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

On February 8, 2008, a three-judge panel on the D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a decision to vacate the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). In its ruling, the panel cited the history of hazardous air pollutant regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Section 112, as written by Congress, listed emitted mercury as a hazardous air pollutant that must be subject to regulation unless it can be proved harmless to public welfare and the environment. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that mercury was indeed hazardous and must be regulated under Section 112 and, therefore, subjected to the best available control technology for mitigation.

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 13, 2009

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

Released: September 12, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

 
Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

Released: June 26, 2008

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)

Released: June 26, 2008

States are moving forward with implementation plans for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). The program, promulgated by the EPA in March 2005, is a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx. States originally had until March 2007 to submit implementation plans, but the deadline has been extended by another year. CAIR covers 28 eastern states and the District of Columbia. States have the option to participate in the cap-and trade plan or devise their own plans, which can be more stringent than the federal requirements. To date, no state has indicated an intent to form NOx and SO2 programs with emissions limits stricter than those in CAIR, and it is expected that all states will participate in the Environmental Protection Agency administered cap-and-trade program. CAIR remains on schedule for implementation, and Annual Energy Outlook 2008 includes CAIR by assuming that all required states will meet only the federal requirement and will trade credits.

Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007

Released: April 30, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senators Lieberman and Warner for an analysis of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007. S.2191 is a complex bill regulating emissions of greenhouse gases through market- based mechanisms, energy efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.1766, the Low Carbon Economy Act of 2007

Released: January 10, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senators Bingaman and Specter for an analysis of a bill designed to cap greenhouse gas emissions at approximately 2006 levels in 2020, 1990 levels in 2030, and at least 60% below 1990 levels by 2050.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the ClimateStewardship and Innovation Act of 2007, Supplement to

Released: November 1, 2007

This paper responds to a September 18, 2007, letter from Senators Barrasso, Inhofe, and Voinovich, seeking further energy and economic analysis to supplement information presented in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) recent analysis of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007.

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007

Released: August 6, 2007

This report responds to a request from Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain for an estimate of the economic impacts of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007. S. 280 would establish a series of caps on greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2012 followed by increasingly stringent caps beginning in 2020, 2030 and 2050. The report provides estimates of the effects of S. 280 on energy markets and the economy through 2030.

 
State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2006 (Update) (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

In May 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency published two final rules aimed at reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) requires 28 states and the District of Columbia to reduce emissions of SO2 and/or NOx. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) requires the states to reduce emissions of mercury from new and existing coal-fired plants.

Regulation of Emissions from Stationary Diesel Engines (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

On July 11, 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations covering emissions from stationary diesel engines  New Source Performance Standards that limit emissions of NOx, particulate matter, SO2, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons to the same levels required for nonroad diesel engines. The regulation affects new, modified, and reconstructed diesel engines. Beginning with model year 2007, engine manufacturers must specify that new engines less than 3,000 horsepower meet the same emissions standard as nonroad diesel engines. For engines greater than 3,000 horsepower, the standard will be fully effective in 2011. Stationary diesel engine fuel will also be subject to the same standard as nonroad diesel engine fuel, which reduces the sulfur content of the fuel to 500 parts per million by mid-2007 and 15 parts per million by mid-2010.

Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio - Follow-up

Released: February 1, 2007

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy portfolio standard (CEPS).

 
Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

Released: January 11, 2007

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

 
Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

Released: November 1, 2006

Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

 
Energy and Economic Impacts of H.R.5049, the Keep America Competitive Global Warming Policy

Released: September 5, 2006

This report responds to a May 2, 2006 request from Congressmen Tom Udall and Tom Petri asking the Energy Information Administration to analyze the impacts of their legislation implementing a market-based allowance program to cap greenhouse gas emissions at 2009 levels.

 
Energy Market Impacts of a Clean Energy Portfolio Standard

Released: June 30, 2006

This analysis responds to a request from Senator Norm Coleman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a proposed clean energy resources policy.

 
Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

Released: March 20, 2006

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

Released: March 8, 2006

This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

 
Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

Released: February 22, 2006

A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

 
State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

Federal Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

In 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized two regulations, the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR, that would reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants in the United States. Both CAIR and CAMR are included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case. The EPA has received 11 petitions for reconsideration of CAIR and has provided an opportunity for public comment on reconsidering certain aspects of CAIR. Public comments were accepted until January 13, 2006. The EPA has also received 14 petitions for reconsideration of CAMR and is willing to reconsider certain aspects of the rule. Public comments were accepted for 45 days after publication of the reconsideration notice in the Federal Register. Several states and organizations have filed lawsuits against CAMR. The ultimate decision of the courts will have a significant impact on the implementation of CAMR.

Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

Released: July 1, 2005

This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

 
Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

On June 29, 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency issued a comprehensive final rule regulating emissions from nonroad diesel engines and sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuel. The nonroad fuel market makes up more than 18% of the total distillate pool. The rule applies to new equipment covering a broad range of engine sizes, power ratings, and equipment types. There are currently about 6 million pieces of nonroad equipment operating in the United States, and more than 650,000 new units are sold each year.

Multi-Pollutant Legislation and Regulations (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

The 108th Congress proposed and debated a variety of bills addressing pollution control at electric power plants but did not pass any of them into law. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently is preparing two regulations-a proposed Clean Air Interstate Rule (pCAIR) and a Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR)-to address emissions from coal-fired power plants. Several states also have taken legislative actions to limit pollutants from power plants in their jurisdictions. This section discusses three Congressional air pollution bills and the EPA's pCAIR and CAMR regulations.

Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

Climate Stewardship Act of 2004 (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

The Climate Stewardship Act of 2004 would establish a system of tradable allowances to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The bill includes requirements for mandatory emissions reporting by covered entities and for voluntary reporting of emissions reduction activities by noncovered entities; a national greenhouse gas database and registry of reductions; and a research program on climate change and related activities.

Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

Released: January 1, 2005

This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

 
Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

Released: June 1, 2004

Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

 
Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

Released: May 1, 2004

In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

 
Analysis of S. 1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

 
World Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: 1980-2001

Released: May 1, 2004

This report examines a variety of energy-related national and regional level indicators between 1980 and 2001.

 
Analysis of Senate Amendment 2028, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

On May 11, 2004, Senator Landrieu asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to evaluate SA 2028. This paper responds to that request, relying on the modeling methodology, data sources, and assumptions used to analyze the original bill, as extensively documented in EIA's June 2003 report.

 
Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

Released: October 1, 2003

In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

 
Analysis of S. 485, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, and S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003

Released: September 1, 2003

On July 30, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested the Energy Information Administration to undertake analyses of S.843, The Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper, and S.485, Clear Skies Act of 2003. Senator Inhofe also asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze S. 485 without the mercury provisions and S. 843 without the mercury and carbon dioxide provisions. This service report responds to both requests.

 
Analysis of S.139, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: June 1, 2003

On January 9, 2003, Senators John McCain and Joseph I. Lieberman introduced Senate Bill 139 (S.139), the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003, in the U.S. Senate. S.139 would require the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions. On January 28, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) perform a comprehensive analysis of S.139. On April 2, 2003, Senators McCain and Lieberman, cosponsors of S.139, made a further request for analyses of their bill. This Service Report responds to both requests.

 
Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

Released: May 1, 2003

This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

 
Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

Released: April 1, 2003

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

Released: March 1, 2003

This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

 
Analysis of Selected Transportation Fuel Issues Associated with Proposed Energy Legislation -Summary

Released: September 1, 2002

Summary of a series of 8 papers discussing the market impacts the Senate-passed fuels provisions of H.R.4, the Energy Policy Act of 2002.

 
Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

 
Timing of Startups of the Low-Sulfur and RFS Programs

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on whether supply problems could be reduced during the startup stage phases of these programs through timing changes.

 
Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

 
Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

 
Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

 
Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound RVP Waiver

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper provides background on the 1-pound waiver and how It can affect gasoline volumes.

 
Gasoline Type Proliferation and Price Volatility

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the potential effect/role of implementation of a national menu of fuels to address the proliferation of boutique fuels.

 
State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated 2002

Released: April 1, 2002

This report documents the preparation of updated state-level electricity coefficients for carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), and nitrous oxide (NO), which represent a three-year weighted average for 1998-2000.

 
Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Released: November 1, 2001

The electric power industry and the greenhouse gas issue.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

 
Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

Released: October 1, 2001

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

Released: July 1, 2001

At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

 
Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

Released: July 1, 2001

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

 
Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

Released: May 1, 2001

In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

 
Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

Released: May 1, 2001

This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

 
State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

Released: March 1, 2001

To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

 
Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

Released: September 14, 2000

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

Released: May 31, 2000

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

Analysis of the Climate Change Technology Initiative: Fiscal Year 2001

Released: April 1, 2000

Analysis of the potential impacts of Climate Change Technology Initiative, relative to the baseline energy projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000).

 
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

Released: October 15, 1999

The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

 
Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

Released: July 1, 1999

Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

Released: July 1, 1999

This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

 
Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO June 1999)

Released: June 1, 1999

Section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990 (the Act), required states to identify all areas that do not meet the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, and directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to designate these areas as ozone nonattainment areas. Section 181 of the Act required EPA to classify each area as a marginal, moderate, serious, severe or extreme ozone nonattainment area. EPA classified all areas that were designated as in nonattainment for ozone at the time of the enactment of the 1990 Amendments, except for certain "nonclassifiable" areas (56 FR 56694, November 6, 1991).

Analysis of the Climate Change Technology Initiative

Released: April 1, 1999

Analysis of the impact of specific policies on the reduction of carbon emissions and their impact on U.S. energy use and prices in the 2008-2012 time frame. Also, analyzes the impact of the President's Climate Change Technology Initiative, as defined for the 2000 budget, on reducing carbon emissions from the levels forecast in the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 reference case.

 
What Does the Kyoto Protocol Mean to U.S. Energy Markets and the U.S. Economy?

Released: October 1, 1998

A briefing paper on the Energy Information Administration's analysis and report prepared for the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives.

 
Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on Energy Markets and Economic Activity

Released: October 1, 1998

Analyzes the impacts on the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy markets and the economy in the 2008-2012 time frame.

 
Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

Released: June 1, 1998

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

Released: May 1, 1998

The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

 
Relicensing and Environmental Issues Affecting Hydropower

Released: April 1, 1998

This article presents an overview of the hydropower industry and summarizes two recent events that have greatly influenced relicensing and environmental issues.

 
Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

Released: October 1, 1997

Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

 
Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

Released: October 1, 1997

Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

 
Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

Released: March 1, 1997

Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

 
Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

Released: December 1, 1995

This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

 
Electricity Generation and Environmental Externalities: Case Studies

Released: September 1, 1995

Provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the federal and state regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three states.

 
Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

Released: December 1, 1994

Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

 
Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

Released: August 1, 1994

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons

Released: April 1, 1994

Presents energy use and carbon emissions patterns in a world context. The report contrasts trends in economically developed and developing areas of the world since 1970, presents a disaggregated view of the "Group of Seven" (G7) key industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and examines sectoral energy use patterns within each of the G7 countries.

 
Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Released: March 1, 1994

The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

 
General Guidelines and Supporting Documents Establishing the Voluntary Reporting, Vol 2

Released: January 1, 1992

Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

 
General Guidelines and Supporting Documents Establishing the Voluntary Reporting, Vol 1

Released: January 1, 1992

Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

 

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