Consumption & Efficiency

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Today in Energy - Commercial Consumption & Efficiency

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent commercial consumption and efficiency issues and trends.

Today in Energy - Energy Efficiency

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent energy efficiency issues and trends.

Today in Energy - Transportation Consumption & Efficiency

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent transportation consumption issues and trends.

Today in Energy - Manufacturing Consumption & Efficiency

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent manufacturing consumption and efficiency issues and trends.

Today in Energy - Residential Consumption & Efficiency

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent residential consumption and efficiency issues and trends.

Short-Term Energy Outlook

Released: July 8, 2014

Short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2015 for the United States and international oil forecasts.

Monthly/Annual Energy Review - Consumption Section

Released: June 25, 2014

Monthly and latest annual statistics on energy consumption.

Monthly Energy Review

Released: June 25, 2014

The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

2012 CBECS Preliminary Results

Released: June 19, 2014

The preliminary results from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) show that there were 5.6 million commercial buildings in the United States in 2012, comprising 87.4 billion square feet of floorspace.

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: June 11, 2014

This report presents the major assumptions of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook, including general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are the most significant in formulating the model results.

Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 7, 2014

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2014 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies.

Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS

Released: January 6, 2014

Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) comprise a growing portion of delivered energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings. Recently, the growth of MELs has offset some of the efficiency gains made through technology improvements and standards in major end uses such as space conditioning, lighting, and water heating. Miscellaneous end uses, including televisions, personal computers, security systems, data center servers, and many other devices, have continued to penetrate into building-related market segments. Part of this proliferation of devices and equipment can be attributed to increased service demand for entertainment, computing, and convenience appliances.

Cost of Natural Gas Used in Manufacturing Sector Has Fallen

Released: September 6, 2013

Natural gas has been an important exception to the trend of rising prices for energy sources used by manufacturers. Production of natural gas in the United States increased rapidly beginning in 2007 as a result of resources found in shale formations. That increase in supply has in turn lowered the price of natural gas to manufacturers

Modeling Distributed Generation in the Buildings Sectors

Released: August 29, 2013

This report focuses on how the Energy Information Administrationmodels residential and commercial sector distributed generation, including combined heat and power, for the Annual Energy Outlook.

State Fact Sheets on Household Energy Use

Released: August 13, 2013

The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) gathers information through personal interviews with a nationwide sample of homes and energy suppliers. The 2009 survey was the largest RECS to date and the larger sample size allowed for the release of data for 16 individual states, in addition to national, regional, and division-level estimates.

Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency

Released: August 7, 2013

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook projections of buildings energy demand.

Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

Released: August 7, 2013

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 1, 2013

The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data

Released: April 8, 2013

Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Data Show Large Reductions in Both Manufacturing Energy Use and the Energy Intensity of Manufacturing Activity between 2002 and 2010

Released: March 19, 2013

Total energy consumption in the manufacturing sector decreased by 17% from 2002 to 2010, according to data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS).

Water Data Collection in the 2007 CBECS

Released: August 28, 2012

The 2007 round of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) was the first time in the 30 year CBECS history that questions about water consumption were asked of respondents. The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), added these questions to the CBECS because water and energy consumption are connected in many ways.

Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007

Released: August 17, 2012

Hospitals consume large amounts of energy because of how they are run and the many people that use them. They are open 24 hours a day; thousands of employees, patients, and visitors occupy the buildings daily; and sophisticated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems control the temperatures and air flow. In addition, many energy intensive activities occur in these buildings: laundry, medical and lab equipment use, sterilization, computer and server use, food service, and refrigeration.

Where Does RECS Square Footage Data Come From?

Released: July 11, 2012

The size of a home is a fixed characteristic strongly associated with the amount of energy consumed within it, particularly for space heating, air conditioning, lighting, and other appliances. As a part of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), trained interviewers measure the square footage of each housing unit. RECS square footage data allow comparison of homes with varying characteristics. In-person measurements are vital because many alternate data sources, including property tax records, real estate listings, and, respondent estimates use varying definitions and under-estimate square footage as defined for the purposes of evaluating residential energy consumption.

RECS Data Show Decreased Energy Consumption per Household

Released: June 6, 2012

Total United States energy consumption in homes has remained relatively stable for many years as increased energy efficiency has offset the increase in the number and average size of housing units, according to the newly released data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The average household consumed 90 million British thermal units (Btu) in 2009 based on RECS. This continues the downward trend in average residential energy consumption of the last 30 years. Despite increases in the number and the average size of homes plus increased use of electronics, improvements in efficiency for space heating, air conditioning, and major appliances have all led to decreased consumption per household. Newer homes also tend to feature better insulation and other characteristics, such as double-pane windows, that improve the building envelope.

Impact of Increasing Home Size on Energy Demand, The

Released: April 19, 2012

Homes built since 1990 are on average 27% larger than homes built in earlier decades, a significant trend because most energy end-uses are correlated with the size of the home. As square footage increases, the burden on heating and cooling equipment rises, lighting requirements increase, and the likelihood that the household uses more than one refrigerator increases. Square footage typically stays fixed over the life of a home and it is a characteristic that is expensive, even impractical to alter to reduce energy consumption.

Early-release Estimates From the 2010 MECS Show That Energy Consumption In the Manufacturing Sector Decreased Between 2006 and 2010

Released: March 28, 2012

Energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector fell from 21,098 trillion Btu (tBtu) in 2006 to 19,062 tBtu in 2010, a decline of almost 10% , based on preliminary estimates released from the 2010 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This decline continues the downward trend in manufacturing energy use since the 1998 MECS report.

What Are the Major Sources and Users of Energy in the United States?

Released: October 25, 2011

Energy in Brief article on energy sources in the United States.

Air Conditioning in Nearly 100 Million U.S. Homes

Released: August 19, 2011

Except in the temperate climate regions along the West Coast, air conditioners (AC) are now standard equipment in most U.S. homes. As recently as 1993, only 68% of all occupied housing units had AC. The latest results from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) show that 87% of U.S. households are now equipped with AC. This growth occurred among all housing types and in every Census region. Wider use has coincided with much improved energy efficiency standards for AC equipment, a population shift to hotter and more humid regions, and a housing boom during which average housing sizes increased.

EIA Household Energy Use Data Now Includes Detail on 16 States

Released: March 28, 2011

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is releasing new benchmark estimates for home energy use for the year 2009 that include detailed data for 16 states, 12 more than in past EIA residential energy surveys.

How Does EIA Estimate Energy Consumption and End Uses in U.S. Homes?

Released: March 28, 2011

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) administers the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) to a nationally representative sample of housing units. Specially trained interviewers collect energy characteristics on the housing unit, usage patterns, and household demographics. This information is combined with data from energy suppliers to these homes to estimate energy costs and usage for heating, cooling, appliances and other end uses  information critical to meeting future energy demand and improving efficiency and building design.

Share of Energy Used by Appliances and Consumer Electronics Increases in U.S. Homes

Released: March 28, 2011

Over the past three decades, the share of residential electricity used by appliances and electronics in U.S. homes has nearly doubled from 17% to 3% , growing from 1.77 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 3.25 quads. This rise has occurred while federal energy efficiency standards were enacted on every major appliance, overall household energy consumption actually decreased from 10.58 quads to 10.55 quads, and energy use per household fell 31%.

What's New In Our Home Energy Use?

Released: March 28, 2011

The 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) collected home energy characteristics data from over 12,000 U.S. households. This report highlights findings from the survey, with details presented in the Household Energy Characteristics tables.

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

Released: September 29, 2010

Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

Trends in U.S. Residential Natural Gas Consumption

Released: June 23, 2010

This report presents an analysis of residential natural gas consumption trends in the United States through 2009 and analyzes consumption trends for the United States as a whole (1990 through 2009) and for each Census division (1998 through 2009).

Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Summary of Provisions (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), signed into law in mid-February 2009, provides significant new federal funding, loan guarantees, and tax credits to stimulate investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The provisions of ARRA were incorporated initially as part of a revision to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference case that was released in April 2009, and they also are included in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

Comparing Efficiency Projections (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Realized improvements in energy efficiency generally rely on a combination of technology and economics. The figure below illustrates the role of technology assumptions in the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 projections for energy efficiency in the residential and commercial buildings sector. Projected energy consumption in the Reference case is compared with projections in the Best Available Technology, High Technology, and 2009 Technology cases and an estimate based on an assumption of no change in efficiency for building shells and equipment.

Lighting in Commercial Buildings

Released: April 15, 2009

Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings. (archived versions)

Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008: Summary of Provisions (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-343), which was signed into law on October 3, 2008, incorporates EIEA2008 in Division B. Provisions in EIEA2008 that require funding appropriations to be implemented, whose impact is highly uncertain or that require further specification by federal agencies or Congress, are not included in Annual Energy Outlook 2009.

Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

Released: December 23, 2008

The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey 2003 - Detailed Tables

Released: September 1, 2008

The tables contain information about energy consumption and expenditures in U.S. commercial buildings and information about energy-related characteristics of these buildings.

Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)

Released: March 11, 2007

For the industrial sector, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8% of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9% of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50% of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

Sustained high world oil prices and the passage of the Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) have encouraged the use of agriculture-based ethanol and biodiesel in the transportation sector; however, both the continued growth of the biofuels industry and the long-term market potential for biofuels depend on the resolution of critical issues that influence the supply of and demand for biofuels. For each of the major biofuelscorn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and biodieselresolution of technical, economic, and regulatory issues remains critical to further development of biofuels in the United States.

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

Released: November 1, 2006

Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

Energy Use in Manufacturing

Released: August 14, 2006

This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

Energy Technologies on the Horizon (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

A key issue in mid-term forecasting is the representation of changing and developing technologies. How existing technologies will evolve, and what new technologies might emerge, cannot be known with certainty. The issue is of particular importance in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), the first AEO with projections out to 2030.

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption

Released: November 30, 2005

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005. (archived versions)

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

Householder's Perceptions of Insulation Adequacy and Drafts in the Home in 2001

Released: August 1, 2004

In order to improve the estimation of end-use heating consumption, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA), 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), for the first time, asked respondents to judge how drafty they perceived their homes to be as a measure of insulation quality.

Supplemental Data for the 2001 NHTS

Released: January 21, 2004

Residential Transportation (RTECS) was conducted in 1983, 1985, 1988, 1991, and 1994 then discontinued.

Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

Released: January 1, 2004

Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

Supplemental Energy-related Data for the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Released: January 1, 2004

Appendix K. - Documentation on estimation methodologies for fuel economy and fuel cost.

Cooking Trends in the United States : Are We Really Becoming a Fast Food Country?

Released: November 25, 2002

This report will refer to cooking patterns data collected in the 1993 and 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys.

Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

Computers and Photocopiers in Commercial Buildings

Released: August 12, 2002

Use of computers and photocopiers in commercial buildings, based on 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey data.

Look at Building Activities in the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, A

Released: July 24, 2002

Profiles of commercial building types, including office buildings, shopping malls, hospitals, churches, and fire stations. Data from the 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.

Measuring Changes in Energy Efficiency for the Annual Energy Outlook 2002

Released: July 1, 2002

This paper describes the methodology used to develop the National Energy Modeling System estimate of projected aggregate energy efficiency and to describe the results of applying it to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 (AEO2002) reference case.

Delivered Energy Consumption Projections by Industry in the Annual Energy Outlook 2002

Released: June 1, 2002

This paper presents delivered energy consumption and intensity projections for the industries included in the industrial sector of the National Energy Modeling System.

Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

Released: December 12, 2000

This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

Released: September 14, 2000

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

Odometer Versus Self-Reported Estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled

Released: August 1, 2000

The findings described here compare odometer readings with self-reported estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) to investigate to what extent self-reported VMT is a reliable surrogate for odometer-based VMT.

Energy Efficiency Measurement Discussion

Released: June 19, 2000

Energy efficiency measurement, energy efficiency measures, policy issues, and energy intensity provides information on indices as a measure of relative changes and other approaches and measurement Issues.

Energy Efficiency Definition

Released: June 19, 2000

Discusses some commonly accepted definitions of energy efficiency.

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

Released: May 31, 2000

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

Released: May 15, 2000

This web page focal point is the large majority of oil products purchased by manufacturers to produce heat and power are distillate and residual fuel oils.

How Changing Energy Markets Affect Manufacturing

Released: March 1, 2000

The market for natural gas has been changing for quite some time. As part of natural gas restructuring, gas pipelines were opened to multiple users. Manufacturers or their representatives could go directly to the wellhead to purchase their natural gas, arrange the transportation, and have the natural gas delivered either by the local distribution company or directly through a connecting pipeline. (archived versions)

Trends in the Commercial Buildings Sector

Released: January 12, 2000

Trends in number of buildings, amount of floorspace, and energy consumption from 1979 to 1999.

Comparison of Measures by Consumption and Supply Surveys, A

Released: June 15, 1988

This report was prepared in response to a request from the Office of Policy Integration in the U.S. Department of Energy for an analysis of how Energy Information Administration data from its consumption surveys compares with data from its supply surveys.


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