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International Energy Outlook 2013

Release Date: July 25, 2013   |  Next Release Date: September 2014   |  correction |  Report Number: DOE/EIA-0484(2013)

Reference Notes & Figure Data Sources

Highlights

Figure 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040: History: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 2. World energy consumption by fuel type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 3. World petroleum and other liquids production, 2010-2040: History: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. Projections EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 4. World increase in natural gas production by country grouping, 2010-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 5. World coal consumption by country grouping, 2010-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 6. World net electricity generation by energy source, 2010-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 7. World operating nuclear power generation capacity by country grouping, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 8. World industrial sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 9. World transportation sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 10. World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2012).

Figure 11. OECD and non-OECD carbon, 1990-2035: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of March 2011), website www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2011).

Chapter 1. World energy demand and economic outlook reference notes

1. N. Behravesh and S. Johnson, "The global economy—Bright spots, mixed with worries," IHS Global Insight Global Executive Summary (March 2013), p. 2.

2. IHS Global Insight, detailed global, http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site).

3. "Nuclear power will 'never return' to Germany," The Local: Germany's news in English (January 4, 2013), http://www.thelocal.de/national/20130104-47135.html; and K. Burchett, "New Swiss energy strategy sees more gas and RES, higher costs," IHS Inc., Same Day Analysis (October 1, 2012), http://www.ihsenergy.com (subscription site)..

4. S. McDowall, "China to resume nuclear plant approvals," IHS Inc., Same Day Analysis (October 25, 2012), http://www.ihsenergy.com (subscription site).

5. IHS Global Insight, "Turkey-Russia: Turkey reiterates plans for first NPP; Russia wants tighter international nuclear safety rules" (March 25, 2011), http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site); and K. Burchett, "PGE chief urges suspension of Polish nuclear programme," IHS Inc., Same Day Analysis (March 26, 2013), http://www.ihsenergy.com (subscription site).

6. U.S. Department of Energy, Loan Guarantee Program, "Key Documents: Title XVII. Incentives for Innovative Technologies" (August 8, 2005), http://www.lgprogram.energy.gov.

7. International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook (Washington, DC: October 2012), pp. 61-99, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/02.

8. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD Economic Outlook, Vol. 2012, No. 1 (May 2012), pp. 191-219, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-economic-outlook-volume-2012-issue-1_eco_outlook-v2012-1-en.

9. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD Economic Outlook, Vol. 2012, No. 1 (May 2012), pp. 191-219, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-economic-outlook-volume-2012-issue-1_eco_outlook-v2012-1-en.

10. "M. Patrikainen, “New Bank of Japan governor assumes leadership, pledges to support PM's policy goal," IHS Global Insight, Country Analysis (March 21, 2013), http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site); and IHS Global Insight, Country Reports: Economic Growth—Outlook—Japan (January 25, 2013), http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site).

11. IHS Global Insight, Country Reports: Economic Growth—Outlook—Japan (January 25, 2013), http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site).

12. IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Fourth-quarter 2012), p. 127.

13. D. Ryan, IHS Global Insight, Quarterly Review and Outlook: Asia-Pacific (First-quarter 2013), pp. 147-148.

14. International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook (Washington, DC: October 2012), pp. 61-99, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/02.

15. Oxford Economics, "World growth to pick up in 2013 but dependent on emerging markets," World Economic Prospects (December 2012), http://web.oxfordeconomics.com/OE_FA_Display_Frm.asp?Pg=WEPM&Txt=Global+Economics (subscription site).

16. IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Fourth-quarter 2012), http://www.ihs.com (subscription site).

17. IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Fourth-quarter 2012), p. 73, http://www.ihs.com (subscription site).

18. C. Movit, IHS Global Insight, Quarterly Review and Outlook: Non-Eurozone Europe (First-quarter 2013), p. 119.

19. The World Bank, Data: Russian Federation (undated), http://data.worldbank.org/country/russian-federation.

20. International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report: The Quest for Lasting Stability (Washington, DC: April 2012), pp. 45-47, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/2012/01/pdf/text.pdf.

21. Oxford Economics, "World growth to pick up in 2013 but dependent on emerging markets," World Economic Prospects (December 2012), http://web.oxfordeconomics.com/OE_FA_Display_Frm.asp?Pg=WEPM&Txt=Global+Economics (subscription site).

22. IHS Global Insight, World Overview (First-quarter 2010).

Chapter 1 figure sources

Figure 12. World energy consumption, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of Noember 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 13. Energy consumption in the United States, China, and India, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of Noember 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 14. World energy consumption, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of Noember 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 15. Non-OECD energy consumption by country grouping, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of Noember 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 16. World energy consumption by fuel type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 17. World natural gas consumption by end-use sector, 2010-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 18.World net electricity generation by energy source, 2010-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 19. World electricity generation from renewable energy sources, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2035: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 20. World nuclear electricity generation capacity, 2010, 2010, and 2040: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 21. World residential sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 22. World commercial sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 23. World industrial sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 24. World transportation sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 25. World total gross domestic product, 1990-2040: History:Derived from IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Lexington, MA: various issues) and Oxford Economic Model (October 2012), www.oxfordeconomics.com (subscription site); Projections: Derived from Oxford Economic Model (October 2012), www.oxfordecnomics.com (subscription site) and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), AEO2013 National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 26. OECD real gross domestic product growth rates, 2010-2040: Derived from Oxford Economic Model (October 2012), wwwloxfordeconomic.com (subscription site); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), AEO2013 National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 27. Non-OECD real gross domestic product growth rates, 2010-2040: Derived from Oxford Economic Model (October 2012), www.oxfordeconomics.com (subscription site).

Figure 28. World energy consumption in three economic growth cases, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Chapter 2. World petroleum and other liquid fuels reference notes

23. T.W. Hertel, W.E. Tyner, and D.K. Birur, "The global impacts of biofuel mandates," Energy Journal, Vol. 31, No. 1 (2010), pp. 75-100, http://www.iaee.org/en/publications/journal.aspx (subscription site).

24. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2013 (July 9, 2013), http://www.eia.gov/steo/archives/jul13.pdf.

25. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2010, DOE/EIA-0383(2010) (Washington, DC: April 2010), http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/index.cfm.

26. T. Munroe, "India's diesel move to test stomach for reforms," Reuters (September 14, 2012), http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/09/14/uk-india-economy-idUKBRE88D04M20120914.

27. "Asian development outlook 2013: Asia's energy challenge," Asian Development Bank (April 2013), http://www.adb.org/publications/series/asian-development-outlook.

28. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of OECD Countries (2011), http://data.iea.org (subscription site).

29. S. Pfeifer and G. Chazan, "Energy: More buck, less bang," Financial Times (April 11, 2013), http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/022fa468-a1c3-11e2-ad0c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2Uu0RnX8x.

30. S. Fielden, "Fifty shades of Eh?—the Canadian market for condensate," RBN Energy LLC (March 6, 2013), http://www.rbnenergy.com/fifty-shades-of-eh-the-canadian-market-for-condensate.

31. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Monthly (January 2013), http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_sum_snd_d_nus_mbblpd_a_cur-1.htm.

32. W. Hart et al., "Special report: Worldwide gas processing: Global LPG markets begin recovery from recession," Oil & Gas Journal (June 7, 2010), http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

33. Purvin & Gertz (IHS), World LPG Market Outlook 2012 (2012), http://www.purvingertz.com/products.cfm?productid=130 (subscription site).

34. W.R. True, "Global LPG supply growth responding to high oil prices," Oil & Gas Journal (March 19, 2013), http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

35. Purvin & Gertz (IHS), World LPG Market Outlook 2012 (2012), http://www.purvingertz.com/products.cfm?productid=130 (subscription site).

36. J. Payne and E. Farge. "Analysis—Once prized Africa oil struggles to find new markets," Reuters Edition UK (February 26, 2012), http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/02/26/oil-africa-exports-idUKL5N0B7I6H20130226.

37. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Brief: Iraq (April 2, 2013), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=IZ.

38. "Historical data: Oil production," BP Statistical Review of World Energy (June 2013), http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013.html.

39. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Brief: Kuwait (July 2011), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=KU.

40. "Oil production begins at BP's PSVM project in offshore Angola," Offshore Technology (February 4, 2013), http://www.offshoretechnology.com/news/newsoil-production-bp-psvm-project-offshore-angola/.

41. PFC Energy, "Sonangol (Angola)—strategy & performance profile" (December 21, 2011), http://www.pfcenergy.com (subscription site).

42. "Historical data: Oil production and consumption," BP Statistical Review of World Energy (London, UK: June 2013), http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013.html.

43. "Sapinhoa Oil field, Santos Basin," Offshore Technology (undated), http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/guaraoilfield/.

44. "Papa Terra field, Campos Basin," Offshore Technology (undated), http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/papaterra-field/.

45. J. White and H. Longley, "Qualifications for Brazil's 11th oil and gas licensing round," BakerBottsLLP (April 25, 2013), http://www.bakerbotts.com/file_upload/Update201304GP-QualificationforBrazils11thOilandGasLicensingRound.htm.

46. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Brief: Canada (December 10, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=CA.

47. R. Demytrie, "Development challenge of Kazakhstan's giant oilfield," BBC News Asia (December 7, 2012), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-20251682.

48. "Kashagan offshore oilfield project, Kazakhstan," Offshore Technology (undated), http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/kashagan/.

49. "NCOC consortium slashing operating budget at Kashagan field," OilVoice (January 18, 2010), http://www.oilvoice.com/n/ NCOC_Consortium_Slashing_Operating_Budget_at_Kashagan_Field/deb3c27f7.aspx.

50. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Other than the United States (Washington, DC: June 2013).

51. G. Chazan, "Shell set for tie-up with Gazprom unit," Financial Times (April 5, 2013), http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/a4fea4d0-9de2-11e2-9ccc-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2Uu0RnX8x.

52. RAC Foundation and Deloitte, UK Fuel Market Review (January 2013), http://www.racfoundation.org/assets/rac_foundation/content/downloadables/racf_deloitte-crude_oil-jan13.pdf.

53. "CNOOC turns on taps at Pearl River mouth basin fields," Rigzone (December 28, 2012), http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_ gas/a/123111/CNOOC_Turns_On_Taps_at_Pearl_River_Mouth_Basin_Fields.

54. "Worldwide look at reserves and production," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 110.12 (December 3, 2012), pp. 28-31, http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

55. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012 (Paris, France: November 2012), http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/weo-2012/.

56. "Worldwide look at reserves and production," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 110.12 (December 3, 2012), pp. 28-31, http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

Chapter 2 figure sources

Figure 29. Change in world liquids consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 30. World liquid fuels production by region and type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. Projections: EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 31. Non-OPEC liquids production by region and country, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. 2040: EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 32. World nonpetroleum liquids production by type, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. 2040: EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 33. World oil prices in three cases, 1990-2040: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC, April 2013), www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 34. World liquids consumption in three oil price cases, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 35. World liquid fuels production by region and type in three oil price cases, 2010 and 2040: 2010: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. 2040: EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 36. OECD and non-OECD liquids consumption by region, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 37. Change in world liquids production and consumption by region, 2010-2040: Consumption: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013). Production: 2010: EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. 2040: EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 38. OECD and non-OECD Americas net imports and exports of liquid fuels, 2010-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies and EIA, Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013) and EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Figure 39. OPEC Middle East liquids production by country grouping in the IEO2013 Reference case, 2010-2040: Derived from Reference case projections from EIA, Generate World Oil Balance application (2013).

Chapter 3. Natural Gas

57. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Mexico Week: Record Mexican natural gas imports include higher flows from U.S.," Today in Energy (May 16, 2013), http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=11291.

58. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Mexico" (Washington, DC: October 17, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=MX.

59. "Enagas Completes GNL Quintero Stake Acquisition, Chile," LNG World News (September 14, 2012), http://www.lngworldnews.com/enagas-completes-gnl-quintero-stake-acquisition-chile/.

60. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Overview (Washington, DC: December 5, 2012), p. 1, http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2013).pdf.

61. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Overview (Washington, DC: December 5, 2012), p. 1, http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2013).pdf.

62. European Commission, "What is the EU doing about climate change?" (updated January 7, 2013), http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htm.

63. M. Lanthemann, "A change in natural gas pricing for Europe," Natural Gas Europe (November 28, 2012), http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/a-change-in-natural-gas-pricing-for-europe.

64. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Japan" (Washington, DC: June 4, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=JA.

65. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Russia" (Washington, DC: September 18, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=RS.

66. C. Weiss, "Russia starts construction of the South Stream Pipeline," World Socialist Web Site (December 14, 2012), http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2012/12/14/pipe-d14.html.

67. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: China" (Washington, DC: September 4, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=CH.

68. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: India" (Washington, DC: March 18, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=IN.

69. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Qatar" (Washington, DC: January 30, 2013), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=QA.

70. Ernst & Young, Natural Gas in Africa: The Frontiers of the Golden Age (2012), p. 6, http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/
Natural_gas_in_Africa_frontier_of_the_Golden_Age/$FILE/Natural_Gas%20in_Africa.pdf.

71. Ernst & Young, Natural Gas in Africa: The Frontiers of the Golden Age (2012), p. 9, http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ Natural_gas_in_Africa_frontier_of_the_Golden_Age/$FILE/Natural_Gas%20in_Africa.pdf.

72. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Nigeria" (Washington, DC: October 16, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=NI.

73. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Algeria" (Washington, DC: March 8, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=AG.

74. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Brazil" (Washington, DC: February 28, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=BR.

75. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Argentina" (Washington, DC: July 24, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=AR.

76. BN Americas, Gasoducto del Noreste Argentino (GNEA) (undated), http://www.bnamericas.com/project-profile/en/Gasoducto_del_Noreste_Argentino_,GNEA,-GNEA (subscription site).

77. National Energy Board, Canada, Short-term Canadian Natural Gas Deliverability, 2012-2014, Appendix C.1, "Canadian gas deliverability by area/resource—MID-PRICE SCENARIO" (April 2012), p. 65, http://www.neb.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/nrgyrprt/ntrlgs/ntrlgsdlvrblty20122014/ntrlgsdlvrblty20122014-eng.html.

78. Energy Resources Conservation Board, ST98-2012: Alberta's Energy Reserves 2011 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2012-2021 (June 2012), p. 5-4, http://www.aer.ca/documents/sts/ST98/ST98-2012.pdf.

79. Australian Bureau of Resource and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2012 (Canberra, Australia: February 2012), Table 20, p. 69, "Australian gas production by state," http://www.bree.gov.au/documents/publications/energy-in-aust/energy-inaustralia-2012.pdf. Note: For both the 2009-2010 Australian fiscal year (1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010) and the 2010-2011 fiscal year, Western Australia accounted for 69 percent of total Australian production (63 percent of regional Australia/New Zealand production).

80. Australian Bureau of Resource and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2012 (Canberra, Australia: February 2012), Table 20, p. 69, "Australian gas production by state," http://www.bree.gov.au/documents/publications/energy-in-aust/energyin-australia-2012.pdf. Note: For the 2009-2010 Australian fiscal year (1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010), coalbed methane accounted for 10.1 percent of total production. For the 2010-2011 fiscal year, coalbed methane accounted for 11.4 percent of total production.

81. Government of Western Australia, Department of Mines and Petroleum, WA Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation—Well List, http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/well_list.pdf.

82. F. Fesharaki and S. Adibi, "Iran's oil and gas industry: short and long term drivers impacting the future of petroleum production and export revenues," FACTS Global Energy (August 2009), pp. 9-10.

83. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Saudi Arabia" (Washington, DC: February 2013), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=SA.

84. IHS Global Insight, European Natural Gas Supply and Demand Report (Lexington, MA: January 2009), p. 35.

85. N. Rodova, "Gazprom wins giant Kovykta," Platts International Gas Report, No. 669 (March 14, 2011), pp. 1-2.

86. "Bovanenkovo," Gazprom, http://www.gazprom.com/about/production/projects/deposits/bm/.

87. "Competition comes to Gazprom at Yamal," Platts International Gas Report, No. 669 (March 14, 2011), p. 3.

88. "Shtokman," Gazprom, http://www.gazprom.com/about/production/projects/deposits/shp/.

89. T. Macalister, "Plug pulled on Russia's flagship Shtokman energy project," The Guardian (August 29, 2012), http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/29/shtokman-russia-arctic-gas-shale.

90. J. Moran, "East Africa: Energy outlook: East Africa faces energy infrastructure issue," Platts.com News Feature (October 4, 2012), http://www.platts.com/newsfeature/2012/oil/eastafrica/index.

91. Cedigaz, "China: Regulation," U-Gas News Report, No. 74 (December 2012), p. 2.

92. Cedigaz, "China: Planned Project—Tender," U-Gas News Report, No. 75 (February 5, 2013), p. 5.

93. Cedigaz, "China: Regulation," U-Gas News Report, No. 73 (November 2012), p. 4.

94. J. Nakano et al., Prospects for Shale Gas Development in Asia: Examining Potentials and Challenges in China and India, Center for Strategic and International Studies (August 2012), p. 12.

95. Cedigaz, "India: Reserves estimates," U-Gas News Report, No. 71 (September 2012), p. 3.

96. J. Nakano et al., "Prospects for shale gas development in Asia: examining potentials and challenges in China and India," Center for Strategic and International Studies (August 2012), p. 12.

97. S. Ling and A. Nugraha, "Indonesia sets coalbed targets," Platts LNG Daily, Vol. 9, No. 198 (October 12, 2012), pp. 7-8.

98. S. Ling and A. Nugraha, "Indonesia sets coalbed targets," Platts LNG Daily, Vol. 9, No. 198 (October 12, 2012), pp. 7-8.

99. "Sangatta West," Dart Energy, http://www.dartenergy.com.au/page/Worldwide/Indonesia/Sangatta_West_PSC/.

100. S. Ling and A. Nugraha, "Indonesia sets coalbed targets," Platts LNG Daily, Vol. 9, No. 198 (October 12, 2012), pp. 7-8.

101. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Brazil" (Washington, DC: February 28, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=BR.

102. A. Ahad, "Argentina says wellhead natural gas prices to rise," Business Recorder (November 29, 2012) http://www.brecorder.com/markets/energy/america/92725-argentina-says-wellhead-natural-gas-prices-to-rise-.html.

103. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Argentina" (Washington, DC: July 24, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=AR.

104. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela" (Washington, DC: October 3, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=VE.

105. "Chile, Argentina eye LNG drought relief," World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 8 (February 23, 2011), p. 5.

106. PFC Energy, "Gazprom's pricing strategy paid off in 2010," Memo (February 18, 2011).

107. Based on Trade Statistics of Japan, Ministry of Finance, http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/OtherListE.do?bid=000001008801&cycode=1.

108. "China Energy Series: China's pipeline gas imports: current situation and outlook to 2025," Facts Global Energy, No. 42 (December 2010), p. 2.

109. M. Gostelow and S. Ling, "China's December LNG, pipeline gas imports surge," Platts LNG Daily, Vol. 10, No. 14 (January 22, 2013), pp. 7-8.

110. "Special Report: Global LNG capacities rising to meet increasing demand," Oil and Gas Journal (March 7, 2011), p. 4.

111. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Qatar" (Washington, DC: January 2011), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=QA.

112. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: United Arab Emirates" (Washington, DC: January 2011), http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=TC.

113. "China Energy Series: China's pipeline gas imports: current situation and outlook to 2025," Facts Global Energy, No. 42 (December 2010), p. 8.

114. "India," Facts Global Energy, No. 52 (February 16, 2011), p. 10.

115. Cedigaz, "India: planned projects—delay," Cedigaz News Report, Vol. 52, No. 1 (January 22, 2013), p. 4.

116. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Brazil" (Washington, DC: February 28, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=BR.

117. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Argentina" (Washington, DC: July 24, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=AR.

118. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Peru" (Washington, DC: May 1, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=PE.

119. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela" (Washington, DC: October 3, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=VE.

120. "Worldwide look at reserves and production," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 110, No. 12 (December 3, 2012), pp. 28-31.

121. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012 (London, UK, June, 2012), p. 20, http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview.

Chapter 3 figure sources

Figure 40. World natural gas consumption, 2010-2040:2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 41. Change in world natural gas production by region, 2010 to 2040: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 42. Natural gas production in China, Canada, and the United States, 2010 and 2040: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 43. OECD Americas natural gas consumption by country, 2010-2040:2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 44. OECD Americas change in natural gas consumption by country and sector, 2010-2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 45. OECD Europe natural gas consumption by end-use sector, 2010-2040:2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 46. OECD Asia natural gas consumption by country and end-use sector, 2010-2040:2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 47. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia natural gas consumption by region, 2010-2040:2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 48. Non-OECD Asia natural gas consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 49. Middle East natural gas consumption by end-use sector, 2010-2040:2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 50. Africa natural gas consumption by end-use sector, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 51. Central and South America natural gas consumption by country and end-use sector, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 52. OECD natural gas production by country, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 53. OECD Europe natural gas production, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 54. Middle East natural gas production by country, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 55. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia natural gas production, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 56. Africa natural gas production, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 57. Non-OECD Asia natural gas production, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 58. China natural gas production, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 59. Non-OECD Central and South America natural gas production, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 60. OECD Americas net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 61. United States and Canada net natural gas trade, 2010-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 62. OECD Asia net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 63. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History:EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projection: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 64. Middle East net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 65. Africa net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 66. Non-OECD Asia net natural gas trade, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 67. Non-OECD Central and South America net natural gas trade, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, International Natural Gas Model (2013).

Figure 68. World proved natural gas reserves by region, 1980-2013: 1980-1993: "Worldwide Oil and Gas at a Glance," International Petroleum Encyclopedia (Tulsa, OK: PennWell Publishing, various issues). 1994-2013: Oil & Gas Journal (various issues), http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

Figure 69. World proved natural gas reserves by geographic region as of January 1, 2013: "Worldwide look at reserves and production," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 110.12 (December 3, 2012), pp. 28-31, http://www.ogj.com (subscription site).

Chapter 4. Coal

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185. "Indonesian coal-fired IPP enters operation," Platts Power in Asia, No. 615 (November 8, 2012), pp. 4-5, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and T. Teodoro, "Indonesia reduces domestic coal sales obligation due to lower consumption," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 215 (November 6, 2012), p. 11, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

186. "Jakarta Outlines Fast-Track Plans," Platts Power in Asia, No. 611 (September 13, 2012), p. 16, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

187. R. Somwanshi, "Indonesia drops plan to ban low-quality coal exports," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 15 (January 24, 2013), p. 10, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and B. Reilly, "Fitch: Unreliable regulations could hurt Indonesian coal industry," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 47 (March 9, 2012), pp. 8-9, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

188. "RBCT Phase V expansion completed," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 10, No. 84 (May 4, 2010), p. 4, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); B. Baxter, "In need of direction," World Coal, Vol. 21, No. 7 (July 2012), pp. 12-19, http://www.palladianpublications.com/content/index.aspx?id=29 (subscription site); and T. Sikorski , M. Mahesh, and S. Cheng, "South Africa," Barclays Coal and Freight Quarterly (December 21, 2012), pp, 10-11.

189. K. Teodoro, "Richards Bay terminal looking to raise annual coal capacity by 21%," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 21 (February 1, 2013), p. 9, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

190. "Grindrod eyes Mozambique coal export terminal expansion," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 8, No. 48 (December 3, 2012), p. 29, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

191. T. Sikorski, M. Mahesh, and S. Cheng, "New exporter: Mozambique," Barclays Coal and Freight Quarterly (December 21, 2012), pp, 11-12; and R. Somwanshi, "Anglo American to acquire controlling interest in Mozambique met coal project," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 142 (July 25, 2012), p. 11, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

192. R. Somwanshi, "Report: Vale to boost coal production at Mozambique mine," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 19 (January 30, 2013), p. 14, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

193. "Mozambique seeks international bids to develop coal infrastructure," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 8, No. 47 (November 26, 2012), p. 31, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

194. "Vale and Mozambican railway company sign coal rail agreement," Platts International Coal Report, No. 1112 (February 18, 2013), p. 14, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and "Vale to rail 4.5 million mt of coal for export in 2013," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 13, No. 5 (January 8, 2013), p. 4, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

195. "S Africa's CoA004C ships first coal destined for export into Asia," Platts International Coal Report, No. 1071 (April 30, 2012), p. 12, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and "Coal of Africa commits $75M to acquire South African coal assets," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 4, No. 229 (November 30, 2010), p. 10, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

196. "Report: Russian Kuzbass District's coal output up by 8 million tonnes," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 248 (December 27, 2012), p. 12, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and "Report: New mines to boost output at Russia's main coal basin," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 172 (September 6, 2012), p. 12, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

197. "Mechel to buy 55% stake in Russian far eastern port for $504 million," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 12, No. 242 (December 13, 2012), p. 8, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and Mechel, "Production sites: Neryungri, Sakha Republic (Yakutia)," http://www.mechel.com/about/production_capacity/info.wbp?id=3ec50be3-bdde-4f71-ac1e-82357f20777d (accessed February 25, 2013).

198. IEA Clean Coal Center, Prospects for Coal and Clean Coal Technologies in Russia, CCC/138 (London, United Kingdom, October 2008), pp. 35-42, http://www.iea-coal.org.uk (subscription site); and Xizhou Zhou and Xiaomin Liu, Coal Rush: The Future of China's Coal Market (IHS CERA, January 2013), pp. V-16 and V-17, http://myresearch.ihscera.com/servlet/cats?documentID=2463809&pageContent=dossier&serviceID=48986&serviceID=48986&group=dossier;56251 (subscription site).

199. "Colombia eyes coal production of 115 million mt by 2014: Minister," Platts International Coal Report, No. 1079 (June 25, 2012), p. 11, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

200. "Colombian 2012 coal production totals 89.2 million mt, up 4% on-year," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 13, No. 34 (February 18, 2013), p. 7, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and "Glencore unit close to completing new coal port in Colombia," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 9, No. 4 (January 28, 2013), p. 30, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

201. "Drummond to produce 26-27 million mt of coal in 2012: Vice-President," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 12, No. 242 (December 13, 2012), p. 8, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

202. "Batista offers to turn CCX Colombia private amid low coal prices," Platts International Coal Report, No. 1109 (January 28, 2013), p. 18, http://www.platts.com (subscription site); and "MPX confirms 672 million mt of PCI in Colombia," Platts Coal Trader International, Vol. 12, No. 94 (May 16, 2012), p. 8, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

203. D. Epps, "Gulf Coast terminals ready to expand to meet growing coal exports," SNL Energy Exclusive (February 5, 2013), http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

204. D. Epps, "After 2012 delays, US unlikely to see west coast coal terminal in 2013," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January 7, 2013), pp. 10-11, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); "Northwest rail lines provide routes for coal shipments to Asia," The Columbian (June 24, 2012), http://www.columbian.com/news/2012/jun/24/06-24-coal-routes/; D. Epps, "Kinder Morgan abandons plans for coal export terminal in Oregon," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 88 (May 9, 2013), pp. 1 and 10, http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

205. Westshore Terminals, "Canada's premier mover of coal," http://www.westshore.com.

206. D. Epps, "Cloud Peak beats Street View for Q4'12, expects 'challenging' 2013," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 30 (February 14, 2013), p. 2, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and "Cloud Peak Energy expects to trump Indonesian coal in Asia," Platts International Coal Report, No. 1037 (August 29, 2011), p. 8, http://www.platts.com (subscription site).

207. Xizhou Zhou and Xiaomin Liu, Coal Rush: The Future of China's Coal Market (IHS CERA, January 2013), p. V-18, http:// myresearch.ihscera.com/servlet/cats?documentID=2463809&pageContent=dossier&serviceID=48986&serviceID=4898 6&group=dossier;56251 (subscription site); "Expanded Panama Canal means savings to Asia," Argus Coal Transportation, Vol. 30, No. 12 (March 22, 2011), p. 6, http://www.argusmedia.com (subscription site); and "US exports focus transit on Panama Canal," Argus Coal Transportation, Vol. 29, No. 17 (April 27, 2010), p. 6, http://www.argusmedia.com (subscription site).

208. "Panama Canal expansion may aid Colombia coal to Asia," Reuters (September 21, 2009), http://in.reuters.com/article/2009/09/21/coal-panama-colombia-dINLL69896820090921.

209. Sea Distances—Voyage Calculator (nautical miles), http://sea-distances.com (accessed March 4, 2013).

210. Panama Canal Authority, "Transit statistics: Principal commodities shipped through the Panama Canal," http://www.pancanal.com/eng/op/transit-stats/index.html; and Panama Canal Authority, Annual Report 2011 (March 2012), http://www.pancanal.com/eng/general/reporte-anual/index.html.

211. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Congress, "Monthly Report EM 545"; and SSY Consultancy and Research, Ltd., SSY's Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 20, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, August 2012).

212. D. Epps, "Westshore set to replace 3 stacker-reclaimers in C$210M capital program," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 7, No. 32 (February 18, 2013), p. 8, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and D. Epps, "Accident at Westshore Terminals could impact seaborne coal market," SNL Financial (December 11, 2012), http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

213. D. Epps, "Neptune Terminals receives port approval to expand coal facility," SNL Financial (January 23, 2013), http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and D. Epps, "Canadian company seeks quick development of new export capacity for PRB coal," SNL Financial (November 28, 2012), http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

214. D. Lowrey, "Teck resources profit drops on significantly lower met coal prices," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 9, No. 6 (February 11, 2013), p. 11, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); D. Lowrey, "Teck resources coal revenues fall; met coal weakness seen into H1'13," SNL Daily Coal Report, Vol. 6, No. 207 (October 25, 2012), http://www.snl.com (subscription site); W. Fitzgerald, "Coalspur Mines announces supply chain partnership with Canadian national railway," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 8, No. 51 (December 24, 2012), p. 12, http://www.snl.com (subscription site); and "Coalspur Mines acquires coal properties in Canada," SNL Coal Report, Vol. 8, No. 19 (May 7, 2012), http://www.snl.com (subscription site).

215. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 1991, DOE/EIA-0219(91) (Washington, DC, December 1992), Table 33; and Annual Energy Review 2009, DOE/EIA-0384 (2009) (Washington, DC, August 2010), Table 11.13, http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/index.cfm.

216. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics database, http://www.eia.gov/countries/data.cfm.

217. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-5, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Coke Plants."

218. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2012 (Paris, France, August 2012), "2010 country specific average net calorific values," pp. I.16 and I.35. Note: The International Energy Agency's "net calorific" conversion factors were increased by 5 percent to better match conversion factors published by EIA, which are reported on an "as received" basis.

Chapter 4 figure sources

Figure 70. World coal consumption by region, 1980-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 71. World coal consumption by leading consuming countries, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 72. Coal share of world energy consumption by sector, 2010, 2020, and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 73. World coal production, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013) and IEO2013 National Energy Modeling System run, IEO2013.D031113A.

Figure 74. OECD coal consumption by region, 1980, 2010, 2020, and 2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 75. Non-OECD coal consumption by region, 1980, 2010, 2020, and 2040: History:EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 76. China coal consumption by sector and total compared with U.S. total coal consumption, 2010, 2020, and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 77. Coal share of China's energy consumption, 2010, 2020, and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 78. World coal imports by major importing region, 1995-2040: History: SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY's Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 20, No. 4 (London, UK: August 2012), and previous issues; International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2012 (Paris, France: August 2012), and previous issues; and EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2011, DOE/EIA-0121(2011/Q4) (Washington, DC: April 2012), and previous issues. Projections: EIA, IEO2013 National Energy Modeling System, run IEO2013.D031113A.

Figure 79. Coal imports to Asia by region, 2011 and 2040: 2011: SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY's Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 20, No. 4 (London, UK: August 2012). Projections: EIA, IEO2013 National Energy Modeling System, run IEO2013.D031113A.

Chapter 5 Electricity

219. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012 (Paris, France: November 2012), p. 532.

220. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of OECD Countries (2013 preliminary edition), and Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries (October 2012), http://wds.iea.org/WDS/Common/Login/login.aspx (subscription site).

221. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review (Washington, DC: April 2013), Table 7.2a, http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/.

222. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Nuclear Regulatory Commission approves construction of first nuclear units in 30 years," Today in Energy (March 5, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=5250.

223. Statistics Canada, "Key Canadian electricity statistics" (March 21, 2012), http://www.electricity.ca/media/Industry%20 Data%20and%20Electricity%20101%20May%202012/KeyCanadianElectricityStatistics_2012.pdf.

224. Government of Canada, http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/china-chine/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/Energy.aspx?view=d.

225. "First license for Canadian new build," World Nuclear News (August 20, 2012), http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NNFirst_licence_for_Canadian_new_build-2008127.html.

226. Office of the Environment Canada, "Harper Government moves forward on tough rules for coal-fired electricity sector" (September 5, 2012), http://www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=714D9AAE-1&news=4D34AE9B-1768-415D-A546-8CCF09010A23.

227. "Nuclear and wind to partner for Mexico," World Nuclear News (March 2, 2012), http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP_ Nuclear_and_wind_to_partner_for_Mexico_0203121.html.

228. "Chile thinking again of nuclear power use," United Press International (October 30, 2012), http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/10/30/Chile-thinking-again-of-nuclear-power-use/UPI-77881351632087/.

229. International Energy Agency, "Oil and gas security, 2012," p. 4, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Chile_2012.pdf.

230. International Energy Agency, "Oil and gas security, 2012," p. 24, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Chile_2012.pdf.

231. International Energy Agency, "Oil and gas security, 2012," p. 4, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Chile_2012.pdf.

232. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Brief: Mexico (July 2011), http://www.eia.gov/cabs/Mexico/pdf.

233. Energy Data Institute, "Mexico," Interactive World Gas Map (undated), http://www.energydelta.org/mainmenu/energyknowledge/interactive-world-gas-map/north_america/mexico.

234. International Energy Agency, "Statistics and balances" (2013), http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp.

235. KPMG International, "Taxes and incentives for renewable energy" (June 2012), p. 29, http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/taxes-incentives-renewable-energy-2012.pdf.

236. J. Montgomery, "Germany's official 2011 solar PV stats: Where growth is happening" (March 28, 2012), RealWorldEnergy.com, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/03/germanys-official-2011-solar-pv-stats-where-growthis-happening.

237. European Wind Energy Association, "The European offshore wind industry key trends and statistics 2012" (January 2013), pp. 3-4, http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/European_offshore_statistics_2012.pdf.

238. E. Platt, "The London Array, the world's largest offshore wind farm," The Telegraph (July 28, 2012), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/windpower/9427156/The-London-Array-the-worlds-largest-offshore-wind-farm.html.

239. European Commission, "Energy: What do we want to achieve?" (undated), http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/index_en.htm.

240. Global Wind Energy Council, Global Wind Statistics 2012 (Brussels, Belgium, February 11, 2013), http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/GWEC-PRstats-2012_english.pdf; and KPMG, Offshore Wind in Europe: 2010 Market Report (Germany, 2010), http://www.kpmg.no/arch/_img/9686536.pdf.

241. S. Nicola, "Germany added record solar panels in 2012 even as subsidies cut," Bloomberg (January 7, 2013), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-01-07/germany-added-record-solar-panels-in-2012-even-as-subsidies-cut.html.

242. F. Harvey, "Solar companies to sue UK government for 140 million pounds over feed-in tariff cuts," The Guardian (January 23, 2013), http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/jan/23/solar-companies-feed-in-tariff-cuts.

243. L. Baratti, "Spanish coal decree caused extra 8 mil mt CO2 emissions in 2011," Platts News and Analysis: RSS Information and Widget (January 12, 2012), http://www.platts.com/RSSFeedDetailedNews/RSSFeed/Coal/8790219.

244. "Spanish coal kicks in," World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 22, No. 9 (March 2, 2011), p. 2.

245. UK Parliament, "Energy bill: Memoranda submitted by Energy UK (EN11)," Session 2012-2013 (January 2013), http:// www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmpublic/energy/memo/en11.htm, and "Energy Bill 1012/2013 emissions performance standards," https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48367/5315-aide-memoire-on-emissions-performance-standard.pdf.

246. R. Cellan-Jones, "New nuclear plant, Hinkley Point C, design unveiled," BBC News Business (December 13, 2012), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20701474.

247. "Polish nuclear site contract awarded," World Nuclear News (January 10, 2013), http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/CPolish_nuclear_site_contract_awarded-1001137.html.

248. "MHI, Areva offer Atmea 1 reactor to Turkey," Nuclear Street (January 1, 2013), http://nuclearstreet.com/nuclear_power_ industry_news/b/nuclear_power_news/archive/2013/01/01/mhi_2c00_-areva-offer-atmea-1-reactor-to-turkey-010102.aspx.

249. NRA, Japan, "Nuclear regulations for people and the environment," http://www.nsr.go.jp/english/.

250. The Yomiuri Shimbun, "NRA chief: 'No plant restarts before summer'," The Daily Yomiuri (Tokyo, Japan: September 26, 2012), http://www.rebuildingtohoku.com/index.php?p=article_full&id=1576&type=nuclear.

251. T. Murakami, "Developments and issues in restarting nuclear power stations," IEEJ e-Newsletter, No. 9 (Tokyo, Japan: December 18, 2012), http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/en/jeb/1212.pdf.

252. I. Torres, "Nuclear regulator releases new safety standards draft," The Japan Daily Press (Nagoya, Japan: January 23, 2013),
http://japandailypress.com/nuclear-regulator-releases-new-safety-standards-draft-2121913.

253. "Push for New Zealand energy efficiency by 2025," New Zealand Herald (July 24, 2010), http://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=10660835.

254. "New milestone for floating nuclear plant," World Nuclear News (January 29, 2013), http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NNNew_milestone_for_floating_nuclear_plant-2901137.html.

255. Energoatom, "Strategic nuclear energy planning of Ukraine in the framework of INPRO" (September 17-21, 2012), http://www. iaea.org/INPRO/activities/INPRO_SE/3_UKRAINE-Strategic_INPRO_SC_IAEA.pdf.

256. "China to restrict demand output to 3.9 billion tons," Bloomberg (March 22, 2012), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-22/china-to-restrict-coal-demand-output-to-3-9-billion-tons.html.

257. World Nuclear Association, "Nuclear power in China" (January 2013), http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-A-F/China--Nuclear-Power/.

258. U.S. Energy Information Administration, World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment, "XI. China" (February 17, 2011), http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/pdf/fullreport.pdf.

259. L. Hook, "China to restart nuclear power programme," Financial Times (June 1, 2012), http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b328f9aa-abb9-11e1-a8a0-00144feabdc0.html.

260. L. Hook, "China to restart nuclear power programme," Financial Times (June 1, 2012), http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b328f9aa-abb9-11e1-a8a0-00144feabdc0.html.

261. Li Junfeng, Global Wind Energy Council, China Wind Energy Outlook 2012 (2012), http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/China-Outlook-2012-EN.pdf.

262. Global Wind Energy Council, "Global offshore: Current status and future prospects," http://www.gwec.net/global-offshorecurrent-status-future-prospects/#.

263. Global Wind Energy Council, "China wind energy developments update 2012," http://www.gwec.net/china-wind-marketupdate/.

264. A. Sharma, S. Chaturvedi, and S. Choudhury, "India's power network breaks down," The Wall Street Journal (July 31, 2012), http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390444405804577560413178678898.html.

265. "Nuclear power in India," World Nuclear Association (March 2013), http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf53.html.

266. Global Wind Energy Council, "India wind energy outlook, 2012" (November 2012), p. 7, http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/India-Wind-Energy-Outlook-2012.pdf.

267. A. Phadke, R. Bharvirkar, and I. Khangura, "Reassessing wind potential estimates for India: Economic and policy implications," Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (March 2012), p. 1, http://ies.lbl.gov/drupal.files/ies.lbl.gov.sandbox/IndiaWindPotentialAssessmentRevisedFinal03202012%5B1%5D.pdf.

268. "China hydropower dams in Mekong River give shocks to 60 million," Bloomberg News Service (October 26, 2010), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-10-26/china-hydropower-dams-in-mekong-river-give-shocks-to-60-million.html.

269. "Emirates, Saudis drive for nuclear power," United Press International (September 21, 2012), http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/09/21/emirates-saudis-drive-for-nuclear-power/upi-30481348241422/.

270. "ENEC begins construction of UAE's first nuclear energy plant," Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (July 19, 2012), http://www.enec.gov.ae/media-centre/news/content/enec-begins-construction-of-uaes-first-nuclear-energy-plant.

271. South African Department of Energy, "Electricity Regulation Act No. 4 of 2006, electricity regulations on the integrated resources plan 2010-2030" (May 6, 2011), p. 9, http://www.energy.gov.za/irp/2010/irp_2010.pdf.

272. Eskom, COP-17 Fact Sheet, Kusile and Medupi coal fired power stations under construction, pp. 2 and 3, http://www.eskom.co.za/content/kusile%20and%20medupi.pdf.

273. South African Department of Energy, "Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity 2010-2030: Revision 2" (March 2011), http:// www.energy.gov.za/IRP/irp%20files/IRP2010_2030_Final_Report_20110325.pdf.

274. T. Creamer, "Nuclear, shale gas should be part of SA's future power mix—Peters," Engineering News (February 19, 2013), http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/nuclear-shale-gas-should-be-part-of-sas-future-power-mix-peters-2013-02-19.

275. "Egypt: Electricity Minister—Egypt carries on with nuclear program," allAfrica (November 20, 2012), http://allafrica.com/stories/201211210353.html.

276. A. Al-Youm, "Dabaa nuclear project awaits Parliament," Egypt Independent (January 13, 2013), www.egyptindependent.com/news/dabaa-nuclear-project-awaits-parliament.

277. M. McGrath, "Ghana solar energy plant set to be Africa's largest," BBC News (December 4, 2012), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-20583663.

278. A. El Yaakoubi, "Saudi led consortium wins Morocco solar energy bid," Bloomberg Business Week News (September 24, 2012), http://www.businessweek.com/ap/2012-09-24/saudi-led-consortium-wins-morocco-solar-energy-bid.

279. IHS Global Insight, "Brazil: Utilities: Electricity" (December 1, 2010), http://www.ihsglobalinsight.com (subscription site).

280. B. Tavener, "Angra nuclear plans restarted in Brazil," The Rio Times (February 12, 2013), http://riotimesonline.com/brazilnews/rio-business/brazil-nuclear-plans-restarted-in-angra/#.

281. A. Anishchuk, "Russian PM in Brazil seeking arms, nuclear technology deals," Reuters (February 20, 2013), http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/20/us-brazil-russia-idUSBRE91J0TC20130220.

282. "Argentine reactor moves into commissioning," World Nuclear News (January 8, 2013), http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Argentine_reactor_moves_towards_commissioning-0801134.html.

283. Venezuela Power Report, Q1 2013, Market Research, http://www.marketresearch.com/Business-Monitor-International-v304/Venezuela-Power-Q1-7343266/.

284. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela, http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=VE.

285. "China State Signs Contract with Venezuela," The Wall Street Journal (July 4, 2012), http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304299704577505762795686118.html.

Chapter 5 figure sources

Figure 80. Growth in world total electricity generation and total delivered energy consumption, 1990-2040: History: Generation: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Delivered energy consumption: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 81. OECD and non-OECD net electricity generation, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 82. Non-OECD net electricity generation by region, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 83. World net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 84. World net electricity generation from nuclear power by region, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 85. OECD Americas net electricity generation by country, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 86. OECD Americas net electricity generation by fuel, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 87. OECD Europe net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 88. OECD Asia net electricity generation by country, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 89. Gross electricity generation by Japan's ten general electric utilities, April-December 2010, 2011, and 2012: EIA, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Analysis, based on Bloomberg L.P.

Figure 90. Total net electricity generation in Japan by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 91. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia net electricity generation by region, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 92. Non-OECD Asia net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 93. Middle East net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 94. Africa net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 95. Brazil and Other Central and South America net electricity generation, 2010-2040: 2010: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 96. Brazil net electricity generation by fuel, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Chapter 6 Buildings sector energy consumption

286. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012 (Paris, France: November 2012), p. 51.

287. ExxonMobil, "The outlook for energy: A view to 2040" (2013), http://www.exxonmobil.com/corporate/files/news_pub_eo.pdf.

288. National Resources Defense Council, "Better viewing, lower energy bills, and less pollution: Improving the efficiency of television set-top boxes" (2012), http://www.nrdc.org/energy/files/settopboxes.pdf.

289. N. Zhou, M. McNeil, and M. Levine, "Energy for 500 million homes: Drivers and outlook for residential energy consumption in China" (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 2009).

290. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, "Residential and transportation energy use in India: Past trend and future outlook" (January 2009), p. 5, http://ies.lbl.gov/drupal.files/ies.lbl.gov.sandbox/LBNL-1753E.pdf.

291. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/.

292. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Building Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre, A Comparison of Energy-Related Characteristics of Residential Dwellings and Technologies across Canada and the US (May 2011), p. 1, http://www.cbeedac.com/publications/documents/CBEEDACSHEU-RECSCanada-USComparisonFinalReport.pdf.

293. B. Shui and M. Evans, Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2009), p. 2, http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-18115.pdf.

294. International Energy Agency, "Gadgets and gigawatts: Policies for energy efficient electronics" (Paris, France: 2009), p. 78, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/gigawatts2009.pdf .

295. Natural Resources Canada, "Energy efficiency products" (November 7, 2011), http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/equipment/17614.

296. National Energy Board (Canada), "Energy futures backgrounder: Addendum to Canada's energy future: Energy supply and demand projections to 2035," http://www.neb-one.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/nrgyrprt/nrgyftr/2012/nrgftrddndm2012-eng.html.

297. European Commission, "The EU climate and energy package" (September 10, 2012), http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/package/index_en.htm.

298. European Commission, "Energy efficiency: Energy directive" (undated), http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/eed/eed_en.htm.

299. D. Mann and E. Gabel, "European energy efficiency: Moving from voluntary to binding," IHS CERA Insight (Cambridge, MA: July 10, 2012), p. 1, http://www.ihscera.com/ (subscription site).

300. R. Komiyama, and C. Marnay, "Japan's residential energy demand outlook to 2030: Considering energy efficiency standards top-runner approach," in Conference Proceedings, ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (August 2008), http://aceee.org/proceedings-paper/ss08/panel08/paper14.

301. ENERDATA, "Decrease of Japanese power consumption to adapt to the fading nuclear activity" (March 2012), http://www.leonardo-energy.org/decrease-japanese-power-consumption-adapt-fading-nuclear-activity.

302. YOHAPNEWS AGENCY, "South Korea's household energy consumption below OECD average" (February 2013), http:// english.yonhapnews.co.kr/business/2011/02/13/47/0501000000AEN20110213001900320F.HTML.

303. Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Art, "Energy use in the Australian OEL" (2008), pp. 21-22.

304. R. Vasudevan et al., "Energy efficiency in India: History and overview" (Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, December 2011), pp. 16-17.

305. United Nations, Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "World prospects: The 2011 revision" (January 16, 2012), http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Country-Profiles/country-profiles_1.htm.

306. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2011 (Washington, DC: 2011).

307. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, "Building energy efficiency policies in China" (June 2012), p. 74.

308. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, "Residential and transportation energy use in India: Past trend and future outlook" (January 2009), p. 2.

309. United Nations, Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "World prospects: The 2011 revision" (January 16, 2012).

310. International Energy Agency, "Understanding energy challenges in India: Policies, players, and issues" (Paris, France, 2012).

311. R. Vasudevan et al., "Energy efficiency in India: History and overview" (Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, December 2011), pp. 16-17.

312. S. de la Rue du Can et al., "Residential and transportation energy use in India: Past trend and future outlook" (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, January 2009).

313. Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APEC), Energy Demand and Supply Outlook 2006 (2006), p. 79.

314. N. Trudeau and I. Murray, "Development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia" (International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 2011), p. 18.

315. K. Bruk, "Energy efficiency laws in Russia—Starting the journey," The Moscow Times (April 10, 2012), http://www.themoscowtimes.com/.

316. International Finance Corporation and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Financing Capital Repairs and Energy Efficiency Improvements in Russian Multi-family Apartment Buildings (Moscow, 2012), pp. 4 and 7.

317. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2005 (Paris, France: 2005).

318. ABB, Inc., "Saudi Arabia: Energy efficiency report," in Trends in Global Energy Efficiency 2011 (April 2012) http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot266.nsf/veritydisplay/7795755e7e232f38c12579e60039434d/$file/Saudi%20Arabia%20 Energy%20efficiency%20Report.pdf.

319. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, EIA/DOE-0383 (Washington, DC: April 2013), pp. 78-79.

320. C. Rodriguez, "US shale glut means gas shortage for Mexican industry: Energy," Bloomberg News (September 4, 2012), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-09-03/u-s-shale-glut-means-gas-shortage-for-mexican-industry-energy.html.

321. European Commission, "Energy efficiency: Energy directive" (undated), http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/eed/eed_en.htm.

322. N. Betlem et al., "Implementation of the EPBD in The Netherlands" (Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, November 2010), http://www.epbd-ca.org/Medias/Pdf/country_reports_14-04-2011/The_Netherlands.pdf.

323. R. Komiyama and C. Marnay, "Japan's residential energy demand outlook to 2030, considering energy efficiency standards 'Top-Runner Approach'," in Conference Proceedings, ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (August 2008),
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324. World Energy Council, "Energy efficiency policies around the world: Review and evaluation: 2.3 Overall energy efficiency performance" (2013), http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/energy_efficiency_policies_around_the_world_review_and_evaluation/2_energy_efficiency_trends/1181.asp.

325. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2011 (Paris, France: 2011), p. 473.

326. E. van Rijwijck, "Green buildings now the law in South Africa," Media Club South Africa (October 26, 2011), http://www. mediaclubsouthafrica.com/index.php?option%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D2629:green-building%26catid%3D45:economynews%26Itemid%3D114.

327. C. Naves, D. Amorim, et al., "Energy efficiency code in Brazil: Experiences in the first public building labeled in Brasilia," in Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference of IBPSA-USA (New York, NY: August 11-13, 2010), pp. 352-357.

Chapter 6 Figure Sources

Figure 97. World buildings sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010:Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 98. World residential sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010-2040: 2010:Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 99. Average annual change in OECD residential sector energy consumption, 2010-2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 100. OECD Americas residential sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010 and 2040: 2010:Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 101. OECD Europe residential sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 102. OECD Asia residential sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 103. Non-OECD residential sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 104. Average annual change in non-OECD residential sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).
Figure 105. Non-OECD Asia residential sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 106. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia residential sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 107. Central and South America residential sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 109. OECD Americas commercial sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 110. OECD Europe commercial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 111. OECD Asia commercial sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 112. Non-OECD Asia commercial sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 113. Russia commercial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 114. Middle East commercial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 115. Central and South America commercial sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Chapter 7 Industrial sector energy consumption

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339. World Steel Association, Steel Statistical Yearbook 2012 (Brussels, Belgium: 2012), pp. 17-18, http://www.worldsteel.org/dms/internetDocumentList/bookshop/Steel-Statistical-Yearbook-2012/document/Steel%20Statistical%20Yearbook%202012.pdf.

340. Midrex, 2011 World Direct Reduction Statistics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 2012), p. 7, https://www.midrex.com/uploads/documents/MidrexStats2011-6.7.12.pdf.

341. United States Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (Cement) (Washington, DC: January 2013), http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/mcs-2013-cemen.pdf.

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343. International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Transitions for Industry (Paris, France: September 2009), pp. 137-138, http:// www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/industry2009.pdf.

344. IHS Global Insight, "IHS Global Insight Report: Paper (U.S.) (World Industry)" (December 30, 2010), http://www.globalinsight.com (subscription site).

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346. IHS Global Insight, "IHS Global Insight Report: Nonferrous Metals (World Industry)" (December 3, 2010), http://www.globalinsight.com (subscription site).

347. A. Simon, "Aluminum east of Suez: The search for cheap electricity supplies," Power in Asia, No. 516 (November 20, 2010), pp. 4-8, http://www.platts.com/products/powerinasia (subscription site).

348. The Aluminum Association, "Industry overview" (2010), http://www.aluminum.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Overview &Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=27135.

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350. U.S. Department of Energy, "Industrial sector technologies program fact sheet," http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/about/pdfs/itp_program_fact_sheet.pdf.

351. 110th Congress, "Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007," Public Law 110-140, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/ getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ140.110.

352. International Emissions Trading Association, "Summary of final rules for California's cap-and-trade program" (Washington, DC: 2012), http://www.ieta.org/assets/US-WG/ieta_summary_of_california_ct_regulations.pdf.

353. U.S. Energy Information Administration, AEO2013 Early Release Overview (Washington, DC: December 5, 2012), http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er(2013).pdf.

354. National Energy Board of Canada, "Energy briefing note: Codes, standards, and regulations influencing energy demand" (Calgary, Alberta: November 2010), p. 13, http://www.neb.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/nrgyrprt/nrgdmnd/cdstndrdrgltn2008/cdstndrdrgltn-eng.html.

355. Government of Canada, Turning the Corner: Regulatory Framework for Industrial sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Ottawa, Ontario: March 2010), pp. 97-98, http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/default.asp?lang=En&xml=C16DAFD9-E250-46DC-8B26-53F0DF2E7A75.

356. International Energy Agency, Chile: Energy Policy Review 2009, pp. 90 and 95-98, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/chile2009.pdf.

357. Comisión Intersecreterial de Cambio Climático, Programa Especial de Cambio Climático 2009-2012 (Mexico, December 2009), http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/programas/Documents/PECC_DOF.pdf.

358. European Commission, "Climate change: Commission welcomes final adoption of Europe's climate and energy package" (Press Release, December 17, 2010), http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/1998&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en.

359. International Federation of Industrial Energy Consumers, "IFIEC Europe's initial response to the EU Climate Package: Challenging climate change targets require cost efficient solutions" (Press Release, January 29, 2008), http://www.ifieceurope.org/docs/climate%20package%20resp%20press%20rel%2029%2001%2008.pdf.

360. "Keeping it clean," The Economist (December 12, 2010), http://www.economist.com/node/12771308 (subscription site).

361. K. Kanekiyo, "Japanese experience toward energy efficient economy," presentation at The China International Energy Forum (Beijing: November 1-2, 2007), http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/en/data/pdf/408.pdf.

362. Y. Yamashita, "Key points of outlook 2009: Developments involving energy conservation" (March 2009), http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/en/data/pdf/476.pdf.

363. The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, "Short-term energy supply/demand outlook" (July 28, 2011), http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/4076.pdf.

364. World Steel Association, Steel Statistical Yearbook 2012 (Brussels, Belgium: 2012), pp. 17-18, http://www.worldsteel.org/dms/internetDocumentList/bookshop/Steel-Statistical-Yearbook-2012/document/Steel%20Statistical%20Yearbook%202012.pdf.

365. P. Cleary, "Gas boom won't keep the Australian home fires burning," The Australian (January 9, 2013), http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/gas-boom-wont-keep-the-home-fires-burning/story-fn59niix-1226557024061.

366. W.M. Morrison, CRS Report for Congress: China's Economic Conditions (Washington, DC, Congressional Research Service: December 11, 2009), p. 1, http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL33534_20091211.pdf.

367. "China's parliament adopts 12th five-year plan," News of the Communist Party of China (March 14, 2011), http://english.cpc.people.com.cn/66102/7318556.html.

368. K. Bradsher, "In crackdown on energy use, China to shut 2,000 factories," New York Times (August 9, 2010), http://
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369. J.A. Sathaye, "India: Energy demand and supply and climate opportunities," presentation at the Workshop on Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate Opportunities in China and India (Washington, DC: March 22, 2006), http://ies.lbl.gov/ppt/indiasupplydemand.pdf.

370. "Melting Asia" The Economist (June 5, 2010), http://www.economist.com (subscription site).

371. World Steel Association, World Steel in Figures 2010 (Brussels, Belgium, 2010), p. 10, http://cdn.steelonthenet.com/kb/files/World_Steel_in_Figures_2010.pdf.

372. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2011, DOE/EIA-0484(2011) (Washington, DC: September 2011), http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/index.cfm.

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374. Government of India, Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change, National Action Plan on Climate Change (June 2010), pp. 22-24, http://www.pmindia.nic.in/Pg01-52.pdf.

375. World Steel Association, World Steel in Figures 2010 (Brussels, Belgium, 2010), p. 10, http://cdn.steelonthenet.com/kb/files/World_Steel_in_Figures_2010.pdf.

376. V.S. Vlasyluk, "Global market and Ukranian steel industry development" (Paris: May 2011), http://www.oecd.org/industry/ind/47895059.pdf.

377. Government of Brazil, Interministerial Committee on Climate Change, Executive Summary: National Plan on Climate Change (Brasilia: December 2008), http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/208/_arquivos/national_plan_208.pdf.

378. International Energy Agency, IEA Energy Balances of OECD Countries and IEA Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2012 Editions, http://data.iea.org (subscription site).

379. M. Hariharan, "Middle East petrochemical producers will face new challenges this decade," ICIS Chemical Business (June 11, 2010), http://www.icis.com/Articles/2010/06/11/9366984/middle+east+petrochemical+producers+will+face+new+challenges+this.html.

380. J. Baker, "GPCA: Ethylene continues expansion in 2012," ICIS Chemical Business (November 22, 2012), http://www.icis.com/ Articles/2012/11/22/9617145/gpca+ethylene+continues+expansion+in+2012.html.

Chapter 7 Figure Sources

Figure 116. World industrial sector and all other delivered end-use energy consumption, 2005-2040: History: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 117. OECD and non-OECD industrial sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 118. World industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 119. OECD industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 120. Non-OECD industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 121. Shares of total world industrial sector delivered energy consumption by major energy-intensive industries, 2010: International Energy Agency Data Services, World Energy Balances (2012), www.iea.org (subscription site).

Figure 122. OECD and non-OECD steel production by major producing countries, 2011: World Steel Assocation, "Steel Statistical Yearbook 2012" (October 2012), www.worldsteel.org.

Figure 123. U.S. industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 124. Mexico and Chile industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 125. China industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 126. India industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 127. Brazil industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 128. Middle East industrial sector delivered energy consumption by energy source, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and International Energy Agency, "OECD and Non-OECD Energy Balances" (2012), data.iea.org (subscription site). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Chapter 8 Transportation sector energy consumption

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483. J. Gregoire, "Transport infrastructure in Brazil and the consequences of development failure," Nexus Infrastructure (Washington, DC: February 2011), http://www.nexusinfrastructure.com/files/NexusWP_Brazil.pdf.

484. M. Carvalho et al., "Brazil infrastructure—paving the way," Morgan Stanley Blue Paper (May 5, 2010), http://www.morganstanley.com/views/perspectives/pavingtheway.pdf.

485. I. Loudiyi, The World Bank, "Brazil announces phase two of the growth acceleration program," Growth and Crisis Blog (March 30, 2010), http://blogs.worldbank.org/growth/brazil-announces-phase-two-growth-acceleration-program.

486. M. Carvalho et al, "Brazil infrastructure—paving the way," Morgan Stanley Blue Paper (May 5, 2010), http://www.morganstanley.com/views/perspectives/pavingtheway.pdf.

487. E. Schlaikjer, "Sustainable transport moves center stage as Brazil's 2014 World Cup looms," The CityFix Brasil (January 19, 2011), http://thecityfix.com/blog/sustainable-transport-moves-center-stage-as-brazil%e2%80%99s-2014-world-cup-looms/.

Chapter 8 Figure Sources

Figure 129. World liquids consumption by end-use sector, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 130. Transportation sector energy consumption per person in selected regions, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies; and IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Lexington, MA: fourth quarter 2012). 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Lexington, MA: fourth quarter 2012); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013) National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 131. World transportation sector liquids consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 132. OECD transportation sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010:Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 133. OECD Americas transportation sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, DOE/EIA-0383(2013) (Washington, DC: April 2013), National Energy Modeling System, run REF2013.D102312A, www.eia.gov/aeo.

Figure 134. OECD Asia transportation sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 135. Non-OECD transportation sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010 and 2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 136. Non-OECD Asia transportation sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 137. Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia transportation sector delivered energy consumption by country, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 138. Non-OECD Middle East and Africa transportation sector delivered energy consumption by region, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 139. Non-OECD Central and South America transportation sector delivered energy consumption, 2010-2040: 2010: Derived from EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Chapter 9 Figure Sources

Figure 140. World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 141. World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 142. OECD and non-OECD energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type, 1990-2040: History: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. Projections: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 143. Japan projected energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type, 2015-2035, in the IEO2011 and IEO2013 Reference cases: EIA, International Energy Outlook 2011. DOE/EIA-0484(September 2011); and EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 144. Average annual increases in OECD energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region, 2010-2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 145. Average annual increases in non-OECD energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region, 2010-2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 146. Increases in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type for non-OECD regions with the largest increases, 1990-2040: Calculated using: 1990: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013).

Figure 147. OECD and non-OECD energy intensity and carbon intensity, 1990-2040: Calculated using: 1990: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012); and IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Lexington, MA: fourth quarter 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and derived from Oxford Economics Model (October 2012).

Figure 148. OECD and non-OECD carbon intensities, 1990-2040: Calculated using: 1990: EIA, International Energy Statistics database (as of November 2012); and IHS Global Insight, World Overview (Lexington, MA: fourth quarter 2012), www.eia.gov/ies. 2040: EIA, World Energy Projection System Plus (2013); and derived from Oxford Economics Model(October 2012).