U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Ghana  

Country Analysis Note

  • After discovering the Jubilee oil field in 2007, Ghana's energy sector has expanded considerably. The field came online in 2010, and production in Ghana has since jumped from 7,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2009 to 78,000 bbl/d in 2011, and 80,000 bbl/d in 2012. Tullow, the field's operator, experienced technical problems at the field that caused production to fall well below output goals in 2012.
  • Proved crude oil reserves are 660 million barrels, as of January 1, 2013. However, given recent discoveries and further oil exploration, proved reserves are expected to rise.
  • Ghana has about 800 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of proved natural gas reserves, although the country does not currently produce dry natural gas. Ghana plans to build a natural gas pipeline to pipe associated gas at oil fields, which is currently flared and reinjected. Ghana imported 29 Bcf of natural gas in 2011, mostly from Nigeria. Some of those imports came via the West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP), which runs east to west from Nigeria to Ghana.
  • The Ghanaian government passed the Petroleum Revenue Act in 2011, which outlines clear mechanisms for collecting and distributing petroleum revenue and mandates a certain percentage to help fund the national budget. Ghana's state-owned company, the Ghana national Petroleum Company (GNPC), was established in 1983 to oversee exploration, development, production, and disposal of petroleum. GNPC owns a small minority share in the Jubilee oil field.
  • Most Ghanaians rely on biomass sources, particularly wood fuels and charcoal, for household needs. Government statistics place consumption of biomass fuels at slightly more than 60 percent of total energy consumption in Ghana. However, as part of the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda, Ghana would like to reduce reliance on wood fuels and charcoal by expanding access to the national electric grid and developing oil and gas resources.
  • Ghana relies heavily on hydroelectricity, which accounts for 85 percent of electricity generation. But past droughts have disrupted supplies, and the country hopes to increase electricity generation from natural gas.

Analysis Last Updated: August 2013


Overview data for Ghana

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
    
Ghana
Total Oil Production 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 1.0000 , 0.2304 , 0.0943 , 0.0857 , -0.0567 , -0.0415 , 0.2257 , 1.2341 , 1.8107 , 1.4360 , 4.0585 , 6.6383 , 5.1605 , 4.9938 , 5.9959 , 7.1319 , 7.1833 , 7.4332 , 7.4774 , 8.5735 , 7.3994 , 7.0810 , 7.6912 , 7.2273 , 6.8877 , 8.4639 , 77.7872 , 79.6301
(1980-2012)
77.79 9,327 87,573 53   79.63
Crude Oil Production 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 2.0000 , 1.0000 , 0.3000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 1.0870 , 1.6000 , 1.4000 , 4.0000 , 6.0000 , 5.0000 , 5.0000 , 6.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 6.0000 , 6.0000 , 6.0000 , 6.0000 , 6.0000 , 7.1890 , 76.5123 , 78.3552
(1980-2012)
76.51 8,530 74,199 47   78.36
Consumption 16.0000 , 14.0000 , 16.0000 , 14.0000 , 16.0000 , 13.7143 , 15.9003 , 18.1233 , 21.2990 , 23.6610 , 20.0042 , 20.1318 , 22.4411 , 23.4266 , 25.8076 , 26.6595 , 27.1777 , 26.0216 , 26.7867 , 31.3649 , 36.9613 , 36.2696 , 38.6491 , 41.5376 , 45.2979 , 45.9542 , 46.9746 , 47.6639 , 44.3743 , 53.8723 , 64.7296 , 65.0000 , 63.9461
(1980-2012)
65.00 3,297 88,744 83   63.95 E
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports -14.0000 , -12.0000 , -14.0000 , -12.0000 , -14.0000 , -12.7143 , -15.6699 , -18.0290 , -21.2133 , -23.7177 , -20.0457 , -19.9061 , -21.2070 , -21.6160 , -24.3715 , -22.6010 , -20.5394 , -20.8612 , -21.7929 , -25.3690 , -29.8295 , -29.0863 , -31.2160 , -34.0602 , -36.7243 , -38.5548 , -39.8935 , -39.9728 , -37.1470 , -46.9846 , -56.2657 , 12.7872 , 15.6839
(1980-2012)
12.79 6,030 -- 148   15.68
Refinery Capacity 26.0000 , 26.0000 , 27.0000 , 27.0000 , 28.0000 , 28.0000 , 28.0000 , 28.0000 , 28.0000 , 27.0000 , 27.0000 , 27.0000 , 26.6000 , 26.6000 , 26.6000 , 25.3150 , 25.3150 , 26.6000 , 26.6000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000 , 45.0000
(1980-2012)
45 3,220 88,097 86   45
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 0.0070 , 0.0063 , 0.0023 , 0.0054 , 0.0038 , 0.0038 , 0.0038 , 0.0024 , 0.0010 , 0.0010 , 0.0010 , 0.0005 , 0.0005 , 0.0005 , 0.0005 , 0.0005 , 0.0160 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0165 , 0.0150 , 0.0150 , 0.0150 , 0.0150 , 0.6600 , 0.6600 , 0.6600
(1980-2013)
0.66 124 1,526 42   0.66
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
 
Ghana
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2012)
0.00 7,124 116,255 93   0.00
Consumption 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 4.2378 , 29.3115 , 21.7187
(1980-2012)
29.31 3,909 116,395 93   21.72
Net Export/Imports(-) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -4.2378 , -29.3115 , -21.7187
(1990-2012)
-29.31 3,215 -- 52   -21.72
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
0.0040 , 0.0040 , 0.0040 , 0.8480 , 0.8480 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.2190 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8400 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000 , 0.8000
(1984-2013)
0.80 546 6,845 69   0.80
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
 
Ghana
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2011)
0.000 286 7,934 66   0.000
Consumption 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2011)
0.000 223 7,751 113   0.000
Net Export/Imports(-) -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2011)
0.000 64 -- 85   0.000
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
 
Ghana
Net Generation 5.3090 , 5.3820 , 4.9810 , 2.6100 , 1.8990 , 3.0770 , 4.4590 , 4.6820 , 4.8630 , 5.2230 , 5.7070 , 6.1160 , 6.5750 , 6.2490 , 6.0590 , 6.0540 , 6.5850 , 6.8160 , 4.7250 , 5.8280 , 7.1202 , 7.7189 , 7.0935 , 5.7119 , 5.8644 , 6.6625 , 8.2044 , 6.7459 , 8.1333 , 8.7640 , 9.9070 , 10.9060
(1980-2011)
9.91 638 20,254 94   10.91
Net Consumption 4.5930 , 4.6580 , 4.3390 , 2.2740 , 1.5900 , 2.4830 , 3.8440 , 4.1100 , 4.2100 , 4.6290 , 5.3360 , 5.7100 , 6.0770 , 5.8300 , 5.5930 , 5.6250 , 6.1130 , 6.2620 , 5.0970 , 5.6830 , 5.9652 , 6.4559 , 5.9595 , 4.4619 , 4.4764 , 5.4195 , 6.6544 , 5.5649 , 6.2693 , 6.4360 , 6.9960 , 8.2380
(1980-2011)
7.00 562 18,501 99   8.24
Installed Capacity (GWe) 1.0600 , 1.0600 , 1.0650 , 1.0650 , 1.1850 , 1.1850 , 1.1850 , 1.1850 , 1.1860 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1870 , 1.1640 , 1.1640 , 1.1640 , 1.2970 , 1.5720 , 1.7000 , 1.7780 , 1.7480 , 1.7300 , 1.9350 , 1.9810 , 1.9700 , 2.1800 , 2.1800
(1980-2011)
2.18 135 5,086 101   2.18
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
 
Ghana
Production 0.0591 , 0.0601 , 0.0560 , 0.0311 , 0.0231 , 0.0334 , 0.0465 , 0.0482 , 0.0497 , 0.0540 , 0.0589 , 0.0634 , 0.0700 , 0.0677 , 0.0653 , 0.0709 , 0.0809 , 0.0801 , 0.0495 , 0.0653 , 0.0820 , 0.0828 , 0.0659 , 0.0546 , 0.0676 , 0.0687 , 0.0682 , 0.0495 , 0.0735 , 0.0794 , 0.0831
(1980-2010)
.079 36 487 102   0.083
Consumption 0.0861 , 0.0830 , 0.0826 , 0.0554 , 0.0514 , 0.0584 , 0.0779 , 0.0851 , 0.0933 , 0.1030 , 0.1004 , 0.1043 , 0.1133 , 0.1067 , 0.1150 , 0.1170 , 0.1235 , 0.1218 , 0.0953 , 0.1160 , 0.1429 , 0.1419 , 0.1307 , 0.1255 , 0.1450 , 0.1494 , 0.1501 , 0.1333 , 0.1490 , 0.1724 , 0.1947
(1980-2010)
0.172 16 488 108   0.195
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
5557.3656 , 5540.2699 , 5791.1929 , 4066.9357 , 3477.6798 , 3758.3319 , 4762.9202 , 4966.7372 , 5152.7485 , 5413.2321 , 5106.9564 , 5041.9993 , 5272.5496 , 4732.2231 , 4940.8729 , 4833.8146 , 4877.7268 , 4616.9959 , 3449.0835 , 4022.4630 , 4773.8429 , 4551.3779 , 4009.8808 , 3656.8547 , 4001.9383 , 3895.2549 , 3679.0274 , 3089.4340 , 3220.6959 , 3583.3781 , 3755.3124
(1980-2010)
3,583 5,405 7,461 140   3,755
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Ghana
Africa
World
Rank
 
Ghana
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
2.2309 , 1.9491 , 2.2262 , 1.9923 , 2.2737 , 1.9074 , 2.3614 , 2.7238 , 3.1351 , 3.6028 , 3.0294 , 2.9809 , 3.4087 , 3.4962 , 3.8675 , 3.9857 , 4.0975 , 3.8286 , 3.8426 , 4.4710 , 5.3187 , 5.1761 , 5.4568 , 5.9451 , 6.4911 , 6.5339 , 6.6828 , 6.7729 , 7.3891 , 7.4862 , 9.1081 , 9.0054
(1980-2011)
9.11 1,155 31,502 102   9.01

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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