U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Turkmenistan  

Country Analysis Note

  • Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was the second largest dry natural gas producer in Eurasia, behind Russia, in 2011. The hydrocarbon-rich country lacks sufficient pipeline infrastructure to export greater volumes of hydrocarbons.
  • In late 2006, the Turkmen government began emphasizing the need to seek higher export prices and new markets for hydrocarbon exports, reducing reliance on Russian markets. Government initiatives have since attempted to create a more business-friendly environment with greater legal transparency for foreign investors in the energy sector.
  • According to BP's 2013 Statistical Review, total primary energy consumption in Uzbekistan was about 1.02 quadrillion Btu in 2012. Natural gas consumption accounted for approximately 81 percent and consumption of petroleum products represented the remaining 19 percent.
  • Turkmenistan has 600 million barrels of proven crude oil reserves as of January 2013. In 2012, total oil production was around 244,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 11 percent was from national gas plant liquids. Recent production growth has come from Dragon Oil's offshore Cheleken block and Eni's onshore Nebit Dag field.
  • Turkmenistan has two oil refineries, the Seidi and Turkmenbashi, with a total crude oil distillation capacity of almost 237,000 bbl/d. According to IHS Cera, the refineries typically operate at around 50 percent of capacity, with foreign oil companies exporting their share of crude oil.
  • Turkmenistan has a small domestic crude oil pipeline network linking onshore oil fields with the Turkmenbashi refinery and the Caspian port. Turkmenistan has virtually no international oil pipeline infrastructure except a pipeline between the Seidi refinery in northeastern Turkmenistan and the Shymkent refinery in Kazakhstan via Uzbekistan.
  • Foreign companies are allowed to participate in production sharing agreements or joint ventures with the state-owned Turkmenneft, the largest oil producer in the country, and Turkmengaz, the state-run natural gas company. The main foreign companies participating in Turkmenistan's hydrocarbon sector are the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Dragon Oil (Dubai), Eni (Italy), and Petronas (Malaysia). The Turkmen government typically restricts foreign investors from developing onshore projects, with the exception of a few CNPC projects, according to IHS Cera.
  • Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was among the top 15 dry natural gas producers in 2011. Turkmenistan has proven natural gas reserves of approximately 265 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), a significant increase from 94 Tcf estimated in 2009.
  • Turkmenistan produced more than 2.3 Tcf of dry natural gas in 2011. The country has several of the world's largest natural gas fields, including 10 with over 3.5 Tcf of reserves located primarily in the Amu Darya basin in the southeast, the Murgab Basin, and the South Caspian basin in the west. Recent major discoveries at South Yolotan in the prolific eastern part of the country are expected to offset most declines in other large, mature gas fields and will likely add to the current proven reserve amounts.
  • Among the Caspian and Central Asian countries, Turkmenistan has become a leading natural gas exporter. According to BP's 2013 Statistical Review, Turkmenistan exported a total of roughly 1.5 Tcf via pipeline in 2012, most of which went to China (52 percent), Russia (24 percent), Iran (22 percent), and other Former Soviet Union countries (2 percent).
  • Controlled by the Turkmenistan Ministry of Energy and Industry, the electricity sector is fueled almost entirely by natural gas. Five key gas-fired power plants have a total installed generation capacity of 3.5 gigawatts, according to IHS Cera. In addition, the country is linked to the Central Asian grid and exports electricity to Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey among other Central Asian countries.

Analysis Last Updated: September 2013


Overview data for Turkmenistan

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
    
Turkmenistan
Total Oil Production 110.2399 , 90.5531 , 87.2720 , 82.3010 , 89.6581 , 105.9151 , 126.1752 , 154.2593 , 156.6361 , 167.8753 , 192.5679 , 200.0009 , 213.9432 , 196.6501 , 177.2115 , 180.7309 , 189.3635 , 197.6438 , 201.8706 , 222.9191 , 244.0687 , 259.4150
(1992-2013)
244.07 13,415 89,757 35   259.41
Crude Oil Production 98.0000 , 79.0000 , 77.0000 , 70.0000 , 75.7590 , 89.0000 , 110.0000 , 139.4250 , 141.6000 , 155.0000 , 179.5690 , 187.3644 , 201.0792 , 183.2603 , 161.4548 , 163.5904 , 170.2568 , 176.2630 , 178.1877 , 196.7370 , 215.4699 , 228.4795
(1992-2013)
215.47 12,719 75,887 36   228.48
Consumption 75.9638 , 66.4110 , 62.6526 , 63.6041 , 61.9710 , 66.3936 , 58.4487 , 53.8289 , 62.3606 , 74.1463 , 78.4583 , 86.7845 , 94.5529 , 95.5907 , 94.9840 , 99.8216 , 88.4458 , 83.6547 , 102.4692 , 110.0000 , 121.8519
(1992-2012)
110.00 4,366 88,744 70   121.85 E
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports 34.2761 , 24.1422 , 24.6194 , 18.6970 , 27.6871 , 39.5216 , 67.7266 , 100.4304 , 94.2754 , 93.7290 , 114.1096 , 113.2163 , 119.3903 , 101.0594 , 82.2276 , 80.9093 , 100.9177 , 113.9890 , 99.4014 , 112.9191 , 122.2167
(1992-2012)
112.92 8,967 -- 157   122.22
Refinery Capacity 236.0000 , 238.0000 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700 , 236.9700
(1993-2012)
237 8,209 88,097 57   237
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.5460 , 0.6000 , 0.6000 , 0.6000 , 0.6000 , 0.6000 , 0.6000 , 0.6000
(1997-2013)
0.60 99 1,526 43   0.60
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
 
Turkmenistan
Production 2020.0100 , 2288.4100 , 1257.2100 , 1140.6700 , 1306.6600 , 900.5325 , 466.1580 , 787.5245 , 1642.1475 , 1702.1830 , 1889.3525 , 2087.1165 , 2068.3996 , 2224.8450 , 2231.9080 , 2432.4972 , 2489.7075 , 1347.2673 , 1599.7695 , 2337.8530 , 2492.3578
(1992-2012)
2,337.85 28,464 116,255 12   2,492.36
Consumption 141.2500 , 144.7900 , 148.3200 , 169.5100 , 169.5200 , 162.4490 , 162.4490 , 197.7640 , 261.3310 , 339.0240 , 406.1225 , 554.4455 , 585.1696 , 628.6070 , 639.2015 , 687.9362 , 776.9300 , 711.5973 , 720.4260 , 709.8315 , 867.8678
(1992-2012)
709.83 22,062 116,395 35   867.87
Net Export/Imports(-) 1878.7600 , 2143.6200 , 1108.8900 , 971.1600 , 1137.1400 , 738.0835 , 303.7090 , 589.7605 , 1380.8165 , 1363.1590 , 1483.2300 , 1532.6710 , 1483.2300 , 1596.2380 , 1592.7065 , 1744.5610 , 1712.7775 , 635.6700 , 879.3435 , 1628.0215 , 1624.4900
(1992-2012)
1,628.02 6,402 -- 85   1,624.49
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
101.0000 , 101.0000 , 101.0000 , 101.0000 , 101.0000 , 101.0000 , 71.0000 , 71.0000 , 71.0000 , 71.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 94.0000 , 265.0000 , 265.0000 , 265.0000 , 265.0000
(1997-2013)
265.00 2,165 6,845 6   265.00
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
 
Turkmenistan
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1992-2011)
0.000 547 7,934 66   0.000
Consumption 0.5512 , 0.4409 , 0.4409 , 0.2205 , 0.1102 , 0.0606 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1992-2011)
0.000 413 7,751 113   0.000
Net Export/Imports(-) -551.1557 , -440.9245 , -440.9245 , -220.4623 , -110.2311 , -60.6271 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1992-2011)
0.000 147 -- 85   0.000
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
 
Turkmenistan
Net Generation 12.3920 , 11.8790 , 9.8660 , 9.2120 , 9.4950 , 8.9280 , 8.8520 , 8.3290 , 9.2550 , 9.9740 , 10.0580 , 10.1520 , 11.2050 , 12.0510 , 12.8310 , 13.9874 , 14.1378 , 15.0240 , 15.6630 , 16.1900
(1992-2011)
15.66 1,425 20,254 80   16.19
Net Consumption 8.3470 , 7.5530 , 6.2880 , 5.9860 , 6.1640 , 6.2430 , 6.0950 , 6.5730 , 6.8530 , 6.6420 , 7.5070 , 7.5780 , 8.3670 , 9.0160 , 9.6670 , 10.5764 , 10.5858 , 11.3620 , 11.1210 , 11.4500
(1992-2011)
11.12 1,248 18,501 83   11.45
Installed Capacity (GWe) 3.9440 , 3.9440 , 3.9440 , 3.9440 , 3.9440 , 3.9440 , 2.8540 , 2.8540 , 2.8540 , 3.1060 , 3.1060 , 3.1060 , 3.1060 , 3.1062 , 3.1060 , 2.8520 , 2.8520 , 2.8520 , 2.8520 , 2.8520 , 2.8520
(1991-2011)
2.85 356 5,086 89   2.85
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
 
Turkmenistan
Production 2.3441 , 2.5822 , 1.4937 , 1.3612 , 1.5494 , 1.1597 , 0.7500 , 1.1474 , 2.0478 , 2.1331 , 2.3818 , 2.6055 , 2.6166 , 2.6639 , 2.6280 , 2.8370 , 2.9138 , 1.7731 , 2.0363
(1992-2010)
1.773 67 487 41   2.036
Consumption 0.3113 , 0.2704 , 0.2868 , 0.3040 , 0.2979 , 0.3059 , 0.2806 , 0.3178 , 0.4011 , 0.5023 , 0.5845 , 0.7592 , 0.8071 , 0.8324 , 0.8414 , 0.8999 , 0.9319 , 0.8865 , 0.9231
(1992-2010)
0.887 40 488 58   0.923
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
31635.5262 , 27074.8125 , 34728.6522 , 39670.6523 , 36431.4881 , 42214.2851 , 36161.6725 , 35159.1092 , 42069.9439 , 50484.8318 , 58601.3487 , 73707.9334 , 74621.2173 , 68083.8347 , 61776.6365 , 59204.7112 , 55484.6544 , 49745.1253 , 47435.2828
(1992-2010)
49,745 14,363 7,461 2   47,435
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkmenistan
Eurasia
World
Rank
 
Turkmenistan
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
20.4518 , 19.0950 , 18.2430 , 18.5504 , 18.1998 , 19.4233 , 17.5923 , 19.0736 , 23.9437 , 29.7593 , 34.1847 , 44.0138 , 47.0142 , 47.9874 , 48.7723 , 52.0141 , 55.9805 , 50.7270 , 52.0908 , 51.8531
(1992-2011)
52.09 2,429 31,502 62   51.85

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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