U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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India  

Country Analysis Brief Overview

  • India was the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world after China, the United States, and Russia in 2011, and despite having notable fossil fuel resources, the country has become increasingly dependent on energy imports.
  • India was the fourth-largest consumer of crude oil and petroleum products in the world in 2013, after the United States, China, and Japan. The country depends heavily on imported crude oil, mostly from the Middle East.
  • India’s upstream petroleum liquids industry is still mainly owned by state-owned firms, although the sector is open for competition and attracts some level of private and foreign investment. The government regulates the fuel price for petroleum products, although the mounting costs of fuel subsidies in recent years have encouraged the government to lift retail price caps on some oil products.
  • India held nearly 5.7 billion barrels of proved oil reserves at the beginning of 2014, mostly in the western part of the country. Domestic production has not kept pace with demand in recent years, leading to exploration of deepwater and marginal fields and investment in improving recovery rates of existing fields. In addition, Indian national oil companies are purchasing more upstream stakes in overseas oil fields to increase supply security from imported crude oil.
  • India’s government promotes the country’s refining sector, and India became a net exporter of petroleum products in 2001. India has several world-class refineries, and the private sector has significant investments in the country’s refining industry.
  • India is a significant importer of crude oil, as the country’s demand growth continues to outstrip domestic supply growth. The Middle East was the major source of crude oil imports to India in 2013, although the Western Hemisphere’s share has risen in recent years.
  • Natural gas serves as a substitute for coal in electricity generation and fertilizer production in India. The country began importing liquefied natural gas from Qatar in 2004 and increasingly relies on imports to meet domestic natural gas needs.
  • In 2013, India began natural gas pricing reforms, and the government approved a new pricing scheme to further align domestic prices with international market prices and to raise investment for the sector.
  • India had 47 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves at the beginning of 2014, mostly located offshore. The two largest state-owned oil companies, ONGC and Oil India, dominate the country’s upstream gas sector.
  • Indian companies are investing in new regasification facilities to meet the country’s rising natural gas demand. India was the world’s fourth-largest liquefied natural gas importer in 2013.
  • Coal is India’s primary source of energy. The country has the world’s fifth-largest coal reserves, and ranked third largest in terms of both production and consumption in 2012. The state retains a near-monopoly on the coal sector. The power sector makes up the majority of coal consumption.
  • India ranks as the third-largest coal producer in the world. However, the country continues to experience regulatory, land acquisition, technical, and distribution challenges that limit production growth and create bottlenecks hindering efficient transportation of coal to key demand centers.
  • India had 249 gigawatts of installed electricity generation capacity connected to the national network in early 2014, mostly coal-powered plants. Because of insufficient fuel supply and power generation and transmission capacity, the country suffers from a severe electricity shortage, leading to rolling blackouts.
  • India had 249 gigawatts of installed electricity generation capacity connected to the national network in early 2014, mostly coal-powered plants. Because of insufficient fuel supply and power generation and transmission capacity, the country suffers from a severe electricity shortage, leading to rolling blackouts.

Read full India Analysis Brief »

Analysis Last Updated: June 26, 2014


Overview data for India

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
    
India
Total Oil Production 185.5000 , 329.4000 , 394.5000 , 485.0000 , 525.0000 , 626.0000 , 645.7251 , 626.8734 , 654.5152 , 723.7864 , 681.8128 , 639.2672 , 602.0588 , 577.5663 , 650.6348 , 769.7145 , 750.8634 , 779.6161 , 761.3055 , 764.7845 , 772.9509 , 784.6308 , 815.8652 , 818.3335 , 846.6008 , 824.0614 , 853.3056 , 852.6438 , 874.9688 , 873.5938 , 965.3015 , 995.8053 , 990.1779 , 982.2031
(1980-2013)
990.18 9,024 89,700 21   982.20
Crude Oil Production 182.0000 , 325.0000 , 390.0000 , 480.0000 , 519.0000 , 620.0000 , 630.0000 , 609.0000 , 635.0000 , 700.0000 , 660.0000 , 615.0000 , 561.1510 , 534.0000 , 589.9001 , 703.4521 , 651.0246 , 674.6247 , 661.4219 , 652.6603 , 646.3415 , 642.3973 , 664.7534 , 660.0274 , 683.1092 , 664.6584 , 688.6133 , 697.5310 , 693.7125 , 680.4328 , 751.3000 , 782.3408 , 776.9704 , 772.0756
(1980-2013)
776.97 7,674 75,898 25   772.08
Consumption 643.0000 , 729.0000 , 737.0000 , 773.0000 , 824.0000 , 894.9039 , 947.4376 , 987.8498 , 1083.7827 , 1149.7809 , 1168.3339 , 1190.3186 , 1274.9068 , 1311.0700 , 1413.2745 , 1574.6725 , 1680.9188 , 1765.4913 , 1844.3726 , 2031.2503 , 2127.4385 , 2183.7303 , 2263.4394 , 2346.3282 , 2429.6161 , 2512.4309 , 2690.8981 , 2800.7542 , 2863.9980 , 3112.7361 , 3255.3912 , 3280.9830 , 3450.0000 , 3509.0000
(1980-2013)
3,450.00 29,037 89,160 4   3,509.00
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports -457.5000 , -399.6000 , -342.5000 , -288.0000 , -299.0000 , -268.9039 , -301.7125 , -360.9765 , -429.2676 , -425.9945 , -486.5211 , -551.0514 , -672.8479 , -733.5037 , -762.6397 , -804.9580 , -930.0555 , -985.8752 , -1083.0671 , -1266.4658 , -1354.4875 , -1399.0995 , -1447.5742 , -1527.9947 , -1583.0153 , -1688.3695 , -1837.5925 , -1948.1104 , -1989.0292 , -2239.1423 , -2290.0897 , -2285.1777 , -2459.8221 , -2526.7969
(1980-2013)
-2,459.82 -20,013 -- 213   -2,526.80
Refinery Capacity 557.0000 , 557.0000 , 557.0000 , 753.0000 , 779.0000 , 705.0000 , 867.0000 , 991.0000 , 1059.0000 , 1051.0000 , 1080.0000 , 1122.0000 , 1122.3600 , 1046.8270 , 1086.3710 , 1086.3710 , 1086.3710 , 1086.3710 , 1086.3710 , 1141.5110 , 1857.7420 , 2113.2400 , 2134.6250 , 2134.6250 , 2134.6250 , 2254.6250 , 2254.6250 , 2255.5400 , 2255.5400 , 2255.5400 , 2835.5400 , 4000.4880 , 4042.7610
(1980-2012)
4,000 24,875 88,097 5   4,043
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 2.6000 , 2.5800 , 2.6720 , 3.4164 , 3.4850 , 3.5000 , 3.7360 , 4.2028 , 4.2500 , 6.3542 , 7.5164 , 7.9971 , 6.1267 , 6.0491 , 5.9209 , 5.7760 , 5.8140 , 4.3331 , 4.3397 , 3.9720 , 4.8378 , 4.7279 , 4.8402 , 5.3672 , 5.3712 , 5.4169 , 5.8478 , 5.6246 , 5.6246 , 5.6246 , 5.6246 , 5.6820 , 5.6064 , 5.4761 , 5.6544
(1980-2014)
5.48 45 1,646 23   5.65
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
India
Production 51.0000 , 64.0000 , 89.0000 , 105.6000 , 113.0000 , 135.0000 , 180.0000 , 226.7000 , 310.0000 , 315.1900 , 399.0000 , 449.0000 , 476.7525 , 531.8350 , 593.6400 , 627.5500 , 696.4118 , 716.8945 , 760.6851 , 752.2095 , 794.5875 , 851.0915 , 925.2530 , 964.0995 , 995.8830 , 1055.9185 , 1087.7020 , 1108.1847 , 1137.1430 , 1436.9674 , 1848.3871 , 1681.7003 , 1459.5158 , 1190.1155
(1980-2013)
1,459.52 17,227 118,866 20   1,190.12
Consumption 51.0000 , 64.0000 , 89.0000 , 105.6000 , 113.0000 , 135.0000 , 180.0000 , 226.7000 , 310.0000 , 315.1900 , 399.0000 , 449.0000 , 476.7525 , 531.8350 , 593.6400 , 627.5500 , 696.4118 , 716.8945 , 760.6851 , 752.2095 , 794.5875 , 851.0915 , 925.2530 , 964.0995 , 1087.7020 , 1269.2211 , 1369.8689 , 1460.6284 , 1515.0135 , 1882.6427 , 2277.4644 , 2260.5132 , 2056.3393 , 1815.1910
(1980-2013)
2,056.34 23,625 120,017 13   1,815.19
Net Export/Imports(-) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -91.8190 , -213.3026 , -282.1669 , -352.4437 , -377.8705 , -445.6753 , -429.0773 , -578.8129 , -596.8235
(1990-2012)
-578.81 -4,825 -- 15   -596.82
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
9.3000 , 12.0000 , 12.4300 , 14.5080 , 14.8260 , 15.0000 , 16.8800 , 17.5500 , 17.5500 , 22.8610 , 22.9730 , 25.0490 , 25.7720 , 25.9540 , 25.3540 , 24.9670 , 24.9670 , 24.2000 , 17.3560 , 18.9780 , 22.8840 , 22.8490 , 22.8650 , 26.9430 , 30.1400 , 32.5250 , 38.8800 , 37.9600 , 37.9600 , 37.9600 , 37.9600 , 37.9280 , 40.7450 , 43.8250 , 46.9680
(1980-2014)
43.83 521 6,846 22   46.97
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
India
Production 125.8454 , 142.9477 , 149.3643 , 155.8911 , 183.8677 , 189.9349 , 208.3964 , 210.7289 , 226.4048 , 233.7848 , 247.5692 , 269.9340 , 279.4833 , 288.0924 , 300.8075 , 320.5566 , 314.8532 , 338.0524 , 343.0768 , 356.2648 , 370.0184 , 388.6750 , 395.7143 , 420.6244 , 446.6830 , 473.2664 , 500.1187 , 531.5213 , 570.0096 , 614.9178 , 619.8429 , 633.7739 , 649.6439
(1980-2012)
633.774 5,529 8,444 3   649.644
Consumption 122.9287 , 144.0126 , 150.2946 , 157.9061 , 186.7062 , 194.0652 , 208.8296 , 210.9339 , 221.8920 , 236.3785 , 247.8635 , 269.8139 , 282.1245 , 296.2131 , 315.0461 , 333.3059 , 318.6143 , 342.9765 , 354.6488 , 381.4967 , 396.1972 , 411.8665 , 419.5926 , 432.1204 , 481.3485 , 504.9082 , 539.4117 , 587.2553 , 619.4505 , 687.0321 , 699.1917 , 720.3461 , 744.5187
(1980-2012)
720.346 5,482 8,285 3   744.519
Net Export/Imports(-) -245.8154 , -586.4296 , -1322.7736 , -418.8783 , -540.1326 , -2000.6951 , -2167.1441 , -3009.3100 , -3865.8059 , -4641.8331 , -5459.7482 , -7144.0799 , -7291.7896 , -8163.7179 , -12182.7451 , -14332.2523 , -15348.5834 , -20028.9974 , -19087.6235 , -23097.8322 , -24309.2724 , -23063.6606 , -26438.9380 , -23978.5790 , -33357.0441 , -43055.1794 , -50857.3392 , -57670.7257 , -58971.4531 , -82779.1739 , -87477.2249 , -89095.4179 , -94874.8364
(1980-2012)
-89.095 -39 -- 4   -94.875
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
India
Net Generation 119.2600 , 131.1200 , 139.4100 , 144.9870 , 161.7390 , 174.9300 , 191.8960 , 208.2350 , 229.4320 , 255.1040 , 275.4950 , 300.3110 , 315.9730 , 339.3469 , 366.1180 , 396.0740 , 412.6820 , 441.1690 , 470.7650 , 504.5360 , 529.6502 , 548.9261 , 564.4665 , 599.7471 , 630.3242 , 661.4021 , 712.3026 , 771.7525 , 796.8110 , 838.7530 , 885.7480 , 974.8770
(1980-2011)
885.75 7,682 20,254 5   974.88
Net Consumption 97.8980 , 107.4420 , 113.6950 , 117.2130 , 130.4200 , 140.6450 , 154.7170 , 166.8600 , 185.9240 , 202.6810 , 219.8790 , 240.2030 , 255.6870 , 275.6749 , 297.9800 , 318.3360 , 323.0970 , 344.5040 , 360.5010 , 365.5360 , 375.9222 , 384.0831 , 402.9295 , 427.4021 , 456.4842 , 482.8571 , 532.0006 , 589.1795 , 622.0010 , 651.8430 , 698.9380 , 757.9470
(1980-2011)
698.94 7,060 18,501 5   757.95
Installed Capacity (GWe) 33.6670 , 36.6640 , 40.0070 , 44.2290 , 48.5970 , 52.8113 , 55.8740 , 60.8560 , 66.6610 , 71.5430 , 74.4480 , 77.9140 , 81.9330 , 87.0450 , 91.7810 , 94.9300 , 96.7620 , 99.1330 , 103.0630 , 108.3030 , 111.8080 , 122.5110 , 126.8880 , 131.5070 , 139.0168 , 147.1748 , 155.4238 , 168.9324 , 176.7841 , 189.1620 , 207.7220 , 237.9010
(1980-2011)
207.72 1,903 5,086 5   237.90
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
India
Production 3.1014 , 3.7296 , 3.9755 , 4.3380 , 4.9550 , 5.2662 , 5.6776 , 5.6428 , 6.1651 , 6.4678 , 6.8210 , 7.1625 , 7.3329 , 7.4851 , 8.0012 , 9.4844 , 8.7473 , 9.1668 , 9.3689 , 9.5866 , 9.8334 , 10.2934 , 9.9494 , 10.5109 , 11.0876 , 11.7386 , 12.3892 , 13.0270 , 13.5916 , 14.6018 , 15.4434 , 15.8913
(1980-2011)
15.443 148 505 6   15.891
Consumption 4.0409 , 4.6270 , 4.7388 , 4.9926 , 5.6540 , 5.9141 , 6.3585 , 6.4490 , 7.0469 , 7.4615 , 7.8792 , 8.3739 , 8.8559 , 8.7488 , 10.0293 , 11.5444 , 10.8972 , 11.4855 , 12.0273 , 12.8709 , 13.3334 , 13.8376 , 13.6657 , 14.1148 , 15.3221 , 16.3315 , 17.6310 , 18.8134 , 19.6728 , 21.6459 , 22.7121 , 23.4693
(1980-2011)
22.712 190 507 4   23.469
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
6597.7715 , 7124.6022 , 7043.2347 , 6915.6512 , 7543.3903 , 7498.0240 , 7694.4672 , 7506.9135 , 7481.8598 , 7477.1052 , 7481.9501 , 7868.0393 , 7888.5939 , 7438.5818 , 7995.2933 , 8555.5277 , 7508.4578 , 7605.4854 , 7499.7343 , 7473.6360 , 7442.2458 , 7340.7233 , 6986.4017 , 6658.5654 , 6668.2558 , 6501.6615 , 6423.4306 , 6241.4712 , 6219.8013 , 6272.5338 , 6048.8116 , 5825.2549
(1980-2011)
6,049 7,821 7,401 84   5,825
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
India
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
India
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
291.2253 , 337.7761 , 349.7444 , 367.4014 , 421.9130 , 447.3832 , 473.7386 , 486.5852 , 522.2778 , 553.4770 , 578.6187 , 620.8477 , 659.3701 , 690.7635 , 733.9060 , 870.2336 , 814.4159 , 856.0692 , 893.4308 , 951.1372 , 990.9677 , 1016.2849 , 1007.4948 , 1022.3243 , 1120.8766 , 1181.3976 , 1280.6464 , 1366.2131 , 1471.7692 , 1597.7525 , 1601.2360 , 1725.7618
(1980-2011)
1,601.24 13,840 31,502 4   1,725.76

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013