U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Indonesia  

Country Analysis Brief Overview

  • Indonesia is reorienting energy production from serving primarily export markets to serve its growing domestic consumption. Indonesia's energy industry has faced challenges in recent years from regulatory uncertainty and inadequate investment.
  • Indonesia's declining oil production and rising domestic demand resulted in the country's exit from OPEC in 2009 and higher levels of petroleum imports to meet demand.
  • International oil companies, particularly Chevron and Total, dominate Indonesia's upstream oil sector. State-owned energy company Pertamina must balance its needs as a corporation against its mandate as a national oil company to meet domestic demand.
  • Oil production continued to decline in 2013 as recent discoveries have yet to reach full capacity. Aging infrastructure and fields suggest the country will struggle to meet production targets in the short term.
  • Indonesia's refinery output primarily serves the growing domestic market, although current refining capacity is insufficient to meet demand growth.
  • A strong economy, population growth, and state subsidies for fuels have worked together to push domestic oil demand beyond supply. Fuel subsidies have cost the government at least 7% of its annual budget since 2005, pressuring the government to reduce fuel subsidy spending.
  • Indonesia's rising domestic demand and waning oil production in the past few years have led to increased import levels of both crude oil and petroleum products.
  • Natural gas production has increased by almost 25% between 2002 and 2012. While Indonesia still exports about half of its natural gas, domestic consumption is increasing in tandem with production.
  • Indonesia was the fourth-largest LNG exporter in 2013, following Qatar, Malaysia, and Australia. Expected growth in natural gas demand led the government to pursue policies that secure domestic natural gas supplies for the local market.
  • Indonesia remains the world's largest exporter of coal by weight and exports about 75% of its production.
  • Indonesia's coal production, mostly bituminous and sub bituminous, has climbed sharply over the past decade.
  • Indonesia's government encourages the use of coal in the power sector because of the relatively abundant domestic supply. Coal use also reduces the use of expensive diesel and fuel oil.
  • Generation capacity growth in Indonesia has been lower than growth in electricity demand, leading to power shortages and a low electrification ratio. Indonesia is the world's third-largest geothermal generator, although much of this resource potential is still undeveloped.

Read full Indonesia Analysis Brief »

Analysis Last Updated: March 5, 2014


Overview data for Indonesia

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
    
Indonesia
Total Oil Production 1659.0000 , 1712.0000 , 1431.0000 , 1448.0000 , 1498.0000 , 1380.0000 , 1425.5376 , 1369.6227 , 1368.8301 , 1480.5945 , 1537.0210 , 1665.9638 , 1576.9075 , 1588.0909 , 1589.0021 , 1581.5804 , 1638.8318 , 1607.5484 , 1616.0392 , 1568.8293 , 1530.2784 , 1433.5808 , 1340.0315 , 1245.3182 , 1183.3785 , 1149.5259 , 1102.2120 , 1041.5349 , 1065.4156 , 1053.1514 , 1041.9802 , 1022.3805 , 989.2550 , 942.2928
(1980-2013)
989.26 9,077 89,755 22   942.29
Crude Oil Production 1577.0000 , 1605.0000 , 1339.0000 , 1343.0000 , 1412.0000 , 1325.0000 , 1390.0000 , 1343.0000 , 1342.0000 , 1409.0000 , 1462.0000 , 1592.0000 , 1504.0000 , 1511.3770 , 1510.1999 , 1502.6849 , 1547.4863 , 1520.0000 , 1518.3562 , 1472.0000 , 1428.3800 , 1340.0000 , 1249.0274 , 1155.3699 , 1095.6393 , 1066.7466 , 1019.2186 , 963.2110 , 986.0464 , 969.0795 , 953.1479 , 917.9178 , 874.7923 , 827.8301
(1980-2013)
874.79 7,731 75,956 24   827.83
Consumption 408.0000 , 455.0000 , 479.0000 , 470.0000 , 470.0000 , 465.0000 , 469.9462 , 493.3528 , 523.8530 , 583.0000 , 651.0576 , 694.6174 , 706.9233 , 764.8970 , 777.5163 , 807.3070 , 858.5001 , 942.2718 , 905.6036 , 963.7306 , 1036.7041 , 1077.0046 , 1125.6500 , 1142.6729 , 1232.5725 , 1279.1498 , 1311.4916 , 1334.8795 , 1360.8902 , 1405.8893 , 1465.5000 , 1571.2964 , 1610.0000 , 1660.0000
(1980-2013)
1,610.00 28,976 89,128 14   1,660.00
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports 1251.0000 , 1257.0000 , 952.0000 , 978.0000 , 1028.0000 , 915.0000 , 955.5914 , 876.2700 , 844.9771 , 897.5945 , 885.9633 , 971.3464 , 869.9843 , 823.1938 , 811.4857 , 774.2734 , 780.3317 , 665.2766 , 710.4356 , 605.0987 , 493.5743 , 356.5762 , 214.3816 , 102.6452 , -49.1940 , -129.6239 , -209.2796 , -293.3446 , -295.4745 , -352.7379 , -423.5198 , -548.9159 , -620.7450 , -717.7072
(1980-2013)
-620.74 -19,898 -- 203   -717.71
Refinery Capacity 528.0000 , 445.0000 , 498.0000 , 341.0000 , 387.0000 , 631.0000 , 636.0000 , 636.0000 , 714.0000 , 714.0000 , 714.0000 , 814.0000 , 860.2000 , 860.2000 , 860.2000 , 804.7450 , 804.7450 , 804.7450 , 929.7450 , 929.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 992.7450 , 1011.8250 , 1011.8250 , 1011.8250
(1980-2012)
1,012 24,875 88,097 21   1,012
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 9.6000 , 9.5000 , 9.8000 , 9.5500 , 9.1000 , 8.6500 , 8.5000 , 8.3000 , 8.4000 , 8.2500 , 8.2000 , 11.0500 , 6.5813 , 5.7790 , 5.7790 , 5.7790 , 5.1669 , 4.9797 , 4.9797 , 4.9797 , 4.9797 , 4.9797 , 5.0000 , 5.0000 , 4.7000 , 4.7000 , 4.3010 , 4.3000 , 4.3700 , 3.9900 , 3.9900 , 3.9900 , 3.8853 , 4.0300 , 3.5906
(1980-2014)
4.03 45 1,646 27   3.59
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Indonesia
Production 653.6807 , 662.8626 , 673.8102 , 768.8076 , 1036.4953 , 1140.6745 , 1186.9372 , 1268.1617 , 1385.0543 , 1457.0969 , 1602.0000 , 1814.1316 , 1913.7199 , 1972.6980 , 2206.4700 , 2237.5600 , 2382.7031 , 2371.4023 , 2268.9888 , 2505.9524 , 2236.8521 , 1887.9399 , 2063.1023 , 2189.5300 , 2028.4936 , 2000.5948 , 2199.0651 , 2422.2559 , 2472.0500 , 2556.8060 , 2841.4449 , 2692.7688 , 2559.3664
(1980-2012)
2,692.77 17,008 116,255 11   2,559.37
Consumption 248.2645 , 247.9113 , 235.5511 , 316.0693 , 369.0418 , 436.4934 , 470.7490 , 486.9939 , 517.0116 , 578.8129 , 630.0000 , 764.9229 , 796.7064 , 849.6810 , 965.1500 , 1061.2200 , 1136.7899 , 1125.4891 , 982.8165 , 1124.4296 , 957.7428 , 725.7233 , 797.0596 , 805.1820 , 675.2228 , 638.4952 , 897.3542 , 1126.5485 , 1194.7065 , 1344.4421 , 1397.0614 , 1320.0747 , 1328.9922
(1980-2012)
1,320.07 22,220 116,395 25   1,328.99
Net Export/Imports(-) 972.0000 , 1049.2087 , 1117.0135 , 1123.0170 , 1241.3200 , 1176.3400 , 1245.9132 , 1245.9132 , 1286.1723 , 1381.5228 , 1279.1093 , 1162.2167 , 1266.0428 , 1384.3480 , 1353.2708 , 1362.0996 , 1301.7109 , 1295.7074 , 1277.3436 , 1212.3640 , 1444.3835 , 1372.6941 , 1230.3741
(1990-2012)
1,372.69 -4,825 -- 84   1,230.37
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
24.0000 , 23.5000 , 27.4000 , 29.6000 , 30.2000 , 40.0000 , 35.6000 , 49.4400 , 73.0000 , 83.5900 , 87.0150 , 91.4500 , 64.8370 , 64.3880 , 64.3880 , 64.3880 , 68.9160 , 72.2680 , 72.2680 , 72.2680 , 72.2680 , 72.2680 , 92.5000 , 92.5000 , 90.3000 , 90.3000 , 97.7860 , 97.7800 , 93.9000 , 106.0000 , 106.0000 , 106.0000 , 141.0600 , 108.4000 , 104.3700
(1980-2014)
108.40 521 6,846 13   104.37
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Indonesia
Production 0.6271 , 0.7636 , 0.6590 , 0.7370 , 1.6866 , 2.3244 , 3.0702 , 3.5504 , 4.6435 , 9.7136 , 11.6283 , 15.2042 , 24.7623 , 32.4013 , 35.6472 , 45.4487 , 55.3582 , 60.5877 , 68.4524 , 81.4057 , 84.4690 , 103.2259 , 112.6298 , 129.0895 , 158.4176 , 187.9893 , 257.1869 , 274.2903 , 274.2176 , 321.0449 , 358.2512 , 397.2025 , 488.1123
(1980-2012)
397.202 5,529 8,444 5   488.112
Consumption 0.6456 , 0.7921 , 0.6435 , 0.7042 , 1.2225 , 1.7570 , 3.9579 , 4.2602 , 4.8765 , 6.5715 , 7.1990 , 6.4896 , 7.5113 , 11.5776 , 13.8018 , 11.5903 , 16.1499 , 14.8659 , 17.7124 , 21.5733 , 23.0901 , 30.1273 , 32.2040 , 32.2514 , 42.1667 , 45.4362 , 54.5534 , 60.1719 , 55.2060 , 63.8073 , 63.7731 , 65.8256 , 66.4032
(1980-2012)
65.826 5,482 8,285 16   66.403
Net Export/Imports(-) 25.6398 , 54.1676 , 45.2830 , 258.7786 , 574.3704 , 384.3649 , -568.7706 , -447.6376 , -233.0286 , 937.4717 , 4208.8452 , 8824.7741 , 17581.7560 , 20537.1629 , 24050.0308 , 33722.7722 , 39663.5878 , 45571.9083 , 51518.3027 , 60759.4021 , 62525.3049 , 73098.6755 , 80425.7391 , 96838.0529 , 115769.1482 , 141658.0328 , 201807.8568 , 214748.9921 , 220280.3905 , 257237.5835 , 294478.0705 , 331376.8409 , 421709.0522
(1980-2012)
331.377 -39 -- 108   421.709
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Indonesia
Net Generation 12.7860 , 15.3620 , 17.6610 , 18.2810 , 20.0880 , 26.3960 , 30.2700 , 32.0340 , 36.5550 , 36.9740 , 43.0710 , 45.9680 , 48.7670 , 52.0290 , 57.7810 , 56.9560 , 64.0490 , 73.0110 , 74.8280 , 80.7280 , 88.5190 , 96.1244 , 102.5959 , 108.4315 , 113.8362 , 120.6619 , 126.0043 , 134.6885 , 141.5492 , 147.4261 , 159.9772 , 172.6970
(1980-2011)
159.98 7,682 20,254 22   172.70
Net Consumption 11.2990 , 13.3630 , 15.4720 , 15.5530 , 17.1320 , 23.1260 , 26.9520 , 28.8690 , 32.2820 , 32.5630 , 38.4970 , 40.5440 , 43.8030 , 47.5480 , 51.3100 , 50.0820 , 56.8520 , 64.2160 , 66.0450 , 71.0080 , 77.6700 , 82.9794 , 85.0239 , 88.8625 , 99.5942 , 106.4249 , 111.2683 , 119.4495 , 126.4552 , 132.3781 , 144.0232 , 156.0250
(1980-2011)
144.02 7,060 18,501 22   156.02
Installed Capacity (GWe) 5.2110 , 5.8910 , 6.4600 , 7.0920 , 7.8500 , 8.6340 , 9.8440 , 10.8900 , 12.0910 , 12.7330 , 12.9190 , 13.0190 , 14.0610 , 15.9150 , 15.9580 , 16.1320 , 17.1180 , 20.1480 , 22.6420 , 21.9530 , 22.3030 , 22.7411 , 22.7451 , 26.2331 , 26.4651 , 27.9451 , 31.0821 , 31.6567 , 31.0649 , 33.3201 , 35.3321 , 41.0051
(1980-2011)
35.33 1,903 5,086 24   41.01
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Indonesia
Production 4.2271 , 4.3349 , 3.7102 , 3.8497 , 4.2947 , 4.1965 , 4.3975 , 4.3944 , 4.5694 , 4.9806 , 5.3025 , 5.8978 , 6.0823 , 6.3153 , 6.6518 , 6.9495 , 7.4312 , 7.3860 , 7.5064 , 7.9661 , 7.6864 , 7.5663 , 7.7648 , 8.0797 , 8.4666 , 9.0592 , 10.7728 , 11.3112 , 11.4306 , 12.5776 , 13.7789 , 14.4006
(1980-2011)
13.779 148 505 8   14.401
Consumption 1.1658 , 1.2721 , 1.3057 , 1.3850 , 1.4610 , 1.5352 , 1.6533 , 1.7228 , 1.8474 , 2.0926 , 2.3091 , 2.5347 , 2.6383 , 2.7751 , 3.1046 , 3.2423 , 3.5315 , 3.6266 , 3.5055 , 3.8635 , 3.8882 , 3.9077 , 4.1194 , 4.1534 , 4.4175 , 4.5591 , 5.1082 , 5.5561 , 5.5831 , 6.0455 , 6.2843 , 6.4037
(1980-2011)
6.284 190 507 16   6.404
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
5574.3788 , 5661.3269 , 5816.7683 , 5670.7968 , 5318.1590 , 5445.5531 , 5539.1065 , 5500.9384 , 5943.1095 , 6170.9734 , 6247.1250 , 6295.6218 , 6111.6598 , 5993.8645 , 6235.0876 , 6017.0277 , 6079.0430 , 5964.9918 , 6640.3319 , 7259.6548 , 6936.9346 , 6726.6686 , 6786.2636 , 6538.4326 , 6621.0618 , 6465.1923 , 6866.2070 , 7022.6932 , 6656.4759 , 6892.4496 , 6752.4984 , 6466.1816
(1980-2011)
6,752 7,821 7,401 69   6,466
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Indonesia
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Indonesia
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
85.7983 , 91.9272 , 92.4425 , 94.2175 , 98.0448 , 101.3549 , 110.1926 , 117.1687 , 125.3904 , 140.1579 , 155.9983 , 169.9976 , 180.4273 , 200.0213 , 210.0505 , 214.8243 , 238.5015 , 246.5441 , 240.4385 , 264.9230 , 267.6030 , 272.8135 , 288.6579 , 291.0058 , 312.7675 , 326.1384 , 350.0236 , 371.9621 , 370.1906 , 405.7013 , 414.5489 , 450.0767 , 456.2102
(1980-2012)
450.08 14,310 32,155 14   456.21

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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