U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
Country Analysis Note
- Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was the second largest dry natural gas producer in Eurasia, behind Russia, in 2011. The hydrocarbon-rich country lacks sufficient pipeline infrastructure to export greater volumes of hydrocarbons.
- In late 2006, the Turkmen government began emphasizing the need to seek higher export prices and new markets for hydrocarbon exports, reducing reliance on Russian markets. Government initiatives have since attempted to create a more business-friendly environment with greater legal transparency for foreign investors in the energy sector.
- According to BP's 2013 Statistical Review, total primary energy consumption in Uzbekistan was about 1.02 quadrillion Btu in 2012. Natural gas consumption accounted for approximately 81 percent and consumption of petroleum products represented the remaining 19 percent.
- Turkmenistan has 600 million barrels of proven crude oil reserves as of January 2013. In 2012, total oil production was around 244,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 11 percent was from national gas plant liquids. Recent production growth has come from Dragon Oil's offshore Cheleken block and Eni's onshore Nebit Dag field.
- Turkmenistan has two oil refineries, the Seidi and Turkmenbashi, with a total crude oil distillation capacity of almost 237,000 bbl/d. According to IHS Cera, the refineries typically operate at around 50 percent of capacity, with foreign oil companies exporting their share of crude oil.
- Turkmenistan has a small domestic crude oil pipeline network linking onshore oil fields with the Turkmenbashi refinery and the Caspian port. Turkmenistan has virtually no international oil pipeline infrastructure except a pipeline between the Seidi refinery in northeastern Turkmenistan and the Shymkent refinery in Kazakhstan via Uzbekistan.
- Foreign companies are allowed to participate in production sharing agreements or joint ventures with the state-owned Turkmenneft, the largest oil producer in the country, and Turkmengaz, the state-run natural gas company. The main foreign companies participating in Turkmenistan's hydrocarbon sector are the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Dragon Oil (Dubai), Eni (Italy), and Petronas (Malaysia). The Turkmen government typically restricts foreign investors from developing onshore projects, with the exception of a few CNPC projects, according to IHS Cera.
- Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was among the top 15 dry natural gas producers in 2011. Turkmenistan has proven natural gas reserves of approximately 265 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), a significant increase from 94 Tcf estimated in 2009.
- Turkmenistan produced more than 2.3 Tcf of dry natural gas in 2011. The country has several of the world's largest natural gas fields, including 10 with over 3.5 Tcf of reserves located primarily in the Amu Darya basin in the southeast, the Murgab Basin, and the South Caspian basin in the west. Recent major discoveries at South Yolotan in the prolific eastern part of the country are expected to offset most declines in other large, mature gas fields and will likely add to the current proven reserve amounts.
- Among the Caspian and Central Asian countries, Turkmenistan has become a leading natural gas exporter. According to BP's 2013 Statistical Review, Turkmenistan exported a total of roughly 1.5 Tcf via pipeline in 2012, most of which went to China (52 percent), Russia (24 percent), Iran (22 percent), and other Former Soviet Union countries (2 percent).
- Controlled by the Turkmenistan Ministry of Energy and Industry, the electricity sector is fueled almost entirely by natural gas. Five key gas-fired power plants have a total installed generation capacity of 3.5 gigawatts, according to IHS Cera. In addition, the country is linked to the Central Asian grid and exports electricity to Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey among other Central Asian countries.
Analysis Last Updated: September 2013
Overview data for Turkmenistan+ EXPAND ALL
-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.
Data last updated: May 30, 2013
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