U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
Country Analysis Note
- Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was the second largest dry natural gas producer in Eurasia, behind Russia, in 2012. The hydrocarbon-rich country lacks sufficient pipeline infrastructure to export greater volumes of hydrocarbons. However, public investment and the start of production at one of the world’s largest natural gas fields (Galkynysh) boosted its economy in 2013.
- According to BP’s 2013 Statistical Review, total primary energy consumption in Turkmenistan was about 1.05 quadrillion Btu in 2013. Natural gas consumption accounted for approximately 76%, and consumption of petroleum products represented the remaining 24%.
- Turkmenistan had 600 million barrels of proven crude oil reserves as of January 2014, according to Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ). In 2013, total oil production was around 260,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 11% was from national gas plant liquids. Recent production growth has come from Dragon Oil’s offshore Cheleken block and Eni’s onshore Nebit Dag field.
- Turkmenistan has two oil refineries, the Seidi and Turkmenbashi, with a total crude oil distillation capacity of almost 237,000 bbl/d. According to IHS Energy, the refineries typically operate at around 50% of capacity, with foreign oil companies exporting their share of crude oil.
- Turkmenistan has a small domestic crude oil pipeline network linking onshore oil fields with the Turkmenbashi refinery and the Caspian port. Turkmenistan has virtually no international oil pipeline infrastructure except a pipeline between the Seidi refinery in northeastern Turkmenistan and the Shymkent refinery in Kazakhstan via Uzbekistan.
- Foreign companies are allowed to participate in production-sharing agreements or joint ventures with the state-owned Turkmenneft, the largest oil producer in the country, and Turkmengaz, the state-run natural gas company. The main foreign companies participating in Turkmenistan’s hydrocarbon sector are the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Dragon Oil (Dubai), Eni (Italy), and Petronas (Malaysia). The government typically restricts foreign investors from developing onshore projects, with the exception of a few CNPC projects, according to IHS Energy.
- Turkmenistan is the sixth largest natural gas reserve holder in the world and was among the top 15 dry natural gas producers in 2012. Turkmenistan has proven natural gas reserves of approximately 265 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), a significant increase from 94 Tcf estimated in 2009, according to OGJ.
- Turkmenistan produced more than 2.5 Tcf of dry natural gas in 2012. The country has several of the world’s largest natural gas fields, including 10 with over 3.5 Tcf of reserves located primarily in the Amu Darya basin in the southeast, the Murgab Basin in the south, and the South Caspian basin in the west. According to IHS Energy, Turkmenistan is developing its gas-based chemical industry, and the government hopes to export products such as ammonia and synthetic gasoline.
- In September 2013, Turkmenistan announced the start of commercial production at Galkynysh, the world’s second largest natural gas field. The Galkynysh field will produce over 1 Tcf when it completes phase 1, with a future second phase adding an additional 1 Tcf.
- Among the Caspian and Central Asian countries, Turkmenistan has become a leading natural gas exporter. Turkmenistan exported 1.6 Tcf via pipeline in 2012. Over half of exports went to China, with Russia and Iran as the other major importers of Turkmenistan gas. Turkmenistan has signed several natural gas contracts with China, most recently in September 2013, and will supply 2.3 Tcf of natural gas to China by 2020 through a network of parallel gas pipelines running through Central Asia.
- Controlled by the Turkmenistan Ministry of Energy and Industry, the electricity sector is fueled almost entirely by natural gas. Five key gas-fired power plants have a total installed generation capacity of 3.5 gigawatts, according to IHS Cera. In addition, the country is linked to the Central Asian electricity grid and exports electricity to Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey among other Central Asian countries.
Analysis Last Updated: July 2014
Overview data for Turkmenistan+ EXPAND ALL
-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.
Data last updated: May 30, 2013
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