Turkey - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Turkey  

Country Analysis Brief Overview

  • Turkey's importance in world energy markets is growing, both as a regional energy transit hub and as a growing consumer. Turkey's energy demand has increased rapidly over the past few years and likely will continue to grow in the future.
  • Over the past decade, Turkey's economy expanded, and its petroleum and other liquids consumption has increased. With limited domestic reserves, Turkey imports nearly all of its oil supplies.
  • Although there are a number of international firms operating in Turkey, the state-owned firm TPAO has preferential rights in petroleum exploration and production.
  • Turkey plays an increasingly important role in the transit of oil. It is strategically located at the crossroads between oil-rich Former Soviet Union and Middle East countries, and the European demand centers. In addition, it is home to one of the world's busiest chokepoints, the Turkish Straits, through which 3.0 million barrels per day flowed in 2013.
  • Turkey holds a strategic role in natural gas transit through its position between the world's second-largest natural gas market, continental Europe, and the substantial natural gas reserves of the Caspian Basin and the Middle East.
  • Turkey is increasingly dependent on natural gas imports as its domestic consumption rises each year. Natural gas is used domestically mainly in the electric power sector.
  • Coal-fired power plants are important to Turkey's electricity generation mix. The country imported 23% of its total coal supply in 2012. Volumes of imported coal may rise in the future as coal's importance for electricity generation increases.
  • Following the restructuring of the electricity sector in the 1990s, both consumption and generation of electricity have expanded. Most of the electricity is generated with fossil fuel sources, although the government plans to displace at least some of this generation with nuclear power.

Read full Turkey Analysis Brief »

Analysis Last Updated: April 17, 2014


Overview data for Turkey

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
OECD
World
Rank
Turkey
Total Oil Production 40.9730 , 43.7442 , 45.6920 , 40.5910 , 39.6190 , 39.6047 , 44.6152 , 48.4569 , 46.1589 , 53.3848 , 70.2765 , 85.2887 , 80.9655 , 74.1459 , 71.5694 , 66.1317 , 66.1475 , 67.2338 , 66.1264 , 58.3809 , 51.4192 , 46.8281 , 47.0884 , 45.8158 , 42.9282 , 45.9648 , 45.0500 , 45.8431 , 47.7335 , 54.5964 , 57.7502 , 57.6334 , 56.6533 , 58.1403
(1980-2013)
56.65 3,974 22,538 89,750 60 58.14
Crude Oil Production 46.0000 , 46.0000 , 50.0000 , 44.0000 , 41.0000 , 41.0000 , 46.0000 , 51.0000 , 50.0000 , 56.0000 , 73.0000 , 88.3420 , 83.5340 , 76.2400 , 72.4010 , 67.4690 , 67.1776 , 67.6000 , 65.2548 , 59.0000 , 52.6760 , 48.0000 , 46.6740 , 45.1699 , 42.4208 , 43.6712 , 42.1589 , 41.0027 , 41.5847 , 46.2055 , 48.3370 , 45.7370 , 44.7568 , 46.2438
(1980-2013)
44.76 3,111 15,667 75,951 56 46.24
Consumption 314.0000 , 280.0000 , 327.0000 , 342.0000 , 343.0000 , 359.0000 , 388.0000 , 441.0000 , 436.0000 , 448.0000 , 477.0000 , 466.0000 , 492.0000 , 565.0000 , 542.0000 , 608.0000 , 634.0000 , 631.0000 , 629.0000 , 627.0000 , 662.7811 , 613.5516 , 651.4592 , 637.2269 , 651.8002 , 647.5017 , 662.9616 , 671.7112 , 655.3473 , 678.1493 , 649.8315 , 655.3756 , 688.5344 , 728.4082
(1980-2013)
688.53 14,447 45,868 89,721 27 728.41
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports -273.0270 , -236.2558 , -281.3080 , -301.4090 , -303.3810 , -319.3953 , -343.3848 , -392.5431 , -389.8411 , -394.6152 , -406.7235 , -380.7113 , -411.0345 , -490.8541 , -470.4306 , -541.8683 , -567.8525 , -563.7662 , -562.8736 , -568.6191 , -611.3619 , -566.7235 , -604.3708 , -591.4111 , -608.8720 , -601.5369 , -617.9116 , -625.8681 , -607.6138 , -623.5529 , -592.0813 , -597.7422 , -631.8811 , -670.2679
(1980-2013)
-631.88 -10,472 -23,330 -- 202 -670.27
Refinery Capacity 356.0000 , 356.0000 , 367.0000 , 467.0000 , 472.0000 , 460.0000 , 460.0000 , 460.0000 , 676.0000 , 725.0000 , 725.0000 , 729.0000 , 703.5800 , 713.5800 , 713.0000 , 713.2750 , 713.2550 , 683.0950 , 708.2550 , 688.0950 , 690.9150 , 694.1150 , 719.2750 , 719.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750 , 714.2750
(1980-2012)
714 16,787 45,873 88,097 28 714
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 0.1250 , 0.1100 , 0.2800 , 0.2800 , 0.3700 , 0.2940 , 0.3000 , 0.4000 , 0.3800 , 0.3810 , 0.5209 , 0.6500 , 0.5405 , 0.4748 , 0.4877 , 0.4877 , 0.4877 , 0.2600 , 0.3310 , 0.3172 , 0.2987 , 0.2958 , 0.2958 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.2622 , 0.2704 , 0.2704 , 0.2704 , 0.2948
(1980-2014)
0.27 12 227 1,646 49 0.29
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
World
Rank
 
Turkey
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 1.0000 , 2.5074 , 1.4126 , 2.0000 , 16.0000 , 10.0000 , 3.0000 , 6.0000 , 7.4868 , 7.1689 , 6.9924 , 7.0630 , 7.0277 , 6.4273 , 7.2749 , 8.9347 , 19.9530 , 25.8153 , 22.5663 , 11.0183 , 13.3491 , 19.7764 , 24.2967 , 31.6776 , 31.9601 , 31.5363 , 35.9154 , 24.1555 , 24.0848 , 26.8747 , 22.3191 , 18.9642
(1980-2013)
22.32 10,183 118,866 68   18.96
Consumption 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 1.0000 , 2.5074 , 1.4126 , 2.0000 , 16.0000 , 26.0000 , 43.0000 , 114.0000 , 122.4724 , 149.6297 , 163.6497 , 181.8723 , 192.3255 , 248.2291 , 290.0774 , 346.0870 , 365.5456 , 442.4263 , 523.8980 , 563.0624 , 621.1202 , 748.0070 , 792.5745 , 966.7481 , 1101.2276 , 1292.4937 , 1294.1182 , 1240.0862 , 1346.4550 , 1578.0861 , 1598.1450 , 1611.7766
(1980-2013)
1,598.15 18,684 119,556 21   1,611.78
Net Export/Imports(-) -115.0210 , -142.4960 , -156.6927 , -174.9505 , -187.6286 , -243.0025 , -283.8973 , -338.4590 , -349.4066 , -425.0513 , -507.8297 , -556.3525 , -604.2397 , -729.2548 , -767.4656 , -938.4255 , -1067.1840 , -1264.3123 , -1296.6962 , -1241.2516 , -1320.3572 , -1524.3720 , -1600.0167 , -1575.6140
(1990-2013)
-1,600.02 -8,275 -- 7   -1,575.61
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
0.5000 , 0.4900 , 0.5500 , 0.5450 , 1.0100 , 0.6000 , 0.4900 , 0.4600 , 1.0300 , 1.0370 , 0.7050 , 1.1500 , 0.7050 , 0.6080 , 0.3710 , 0.3710 , 0.4000 , 0.3120 , 0.3090 , 0.3310 , 0.3140 , 0.3100 , 0.3100 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.3000 , 0.2150 , 0.2180 , 0.2180 , 0.2180 , 0.2410
(1980-2014)
0.22 146 6,846 80   0.24
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
World
Rank
 
Turkey
Production 20.7764 , 23.5410 , 25.4336 , 28.2809 , 33.5158 , 44.5444 , 51.6653 , 52.3073 , 43.8874 , 58.0235 , 52.2804 , 50.8254 , 56.6919 , 53.5282 , 59.9338 , 60.7076 , 62.1296 , 66.0604 , 74.2881 , 73.8967 , 69.7410 , 68.4502 , 59.5072 , 53.5315 , 51.1219 , 64.3088 , 70.8290 , 83.0746 , 87.5257 , 87.6327 , 80.9086 , 83.9035 , 76.6217
(1980-2012)
83.904 779 8,444 12   76.622
Consumption 22.5996 , 23.8221 , 26.4907 , 29.9696 , 35.2387 , 46.1902 , 55.2192 , 53.9652 , 46.0127 , 60.6481 , 59.9900 , 63.5460 , 65.9601 , 60.4761 , 65.5699 , 67.3391 , 73.2806 , 80.0950 , 86.2834 , 83.6908 , 88.8452 , 80.2913 , 73.2387 , 71.0605 , 71.4199 , 85.2329 , 92.4498 , 108.9172 , 108.8367 , 108.9139 , 105.7326 , 111.8978 , 108.3969
(1980-2012)
111.898 1,023 8,285 11   108.397
Net Export/Imports(-) -654.7729 , -714.2978 , -1215.8494 , -1840.8600 , -2184.7811 , -2933.2505 , -3273.8647 , -4317.7536 , -4963.7081 , -3994.7764 , -6142.0789 , -6941.2546 , -6085.8610 , -6316.2441 , -6114.5211 , -6760.4756 , -9581.2903 , -11740.7183 , -12107.7880 , -10271.3372 , -15127.0188 , -9437.9899 , -13654.3308 , -18364.5072 , -18537.5701 , -19592.4821 , -22893.9046 , -25779.7558 , -21721.0453 , -22749.5018 , -23706.3081 , -26441.1426 , -31775.2272
(1980-2012)
-26.441 -239 -- 8   -31.775
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
World
Rank
 
Turkey
Net Generation 23.3220 , 23.8030 , 26.4400 , 27.3560 , 30.7210 , 34.3690 , 36.3980 , 39.9650 , 46.3000 , 45.8790 , 55.2530 , 57.7720 , 64.6370 , 71.0850 , 75.1590 , 82.8680 , 91.2090 , 99.1118 , 106.4797 , 111.1350 , 118.9902 , 116.5850 , 123.3396 , 133.9289 , 143.9755 , 154.2328 , 167.9561 , 181.9001 , 188.2498 , 185.0580 , 201.3677 , 218.5900 , 228.0799
(1980-2012)
218.59 3,558 21,081 20   228.08
Net Consumption 21.8390 , 22.4880 , 24.8960 , 26.1540 , 29.6340 , 32.5660 , 31.7280 , 35.0190 , 40.3730 , 40.1900 , 47.8400 , 50.4650 , 55.5170 , 60.4570 , 62.8000 , 68.4030 , 75.2800 , 82.7508 , 88.6867 , 91.6350 , 98.5882 , 97.4020 , 102.5606 , 110.4469 , 120.0515 , 129.0268 , 141.4831 , 153.6951 , 160.4358 , 155.3330 , 170.3717 , 187.1320
(1980-2011)
170.37 3,351 18,501 20   187.13
Installed Capacity (GWe) 5.1070 , 5.5260 , 6.6390 , 6.9350 , 8.4630 , 9.1220 , 10.1160 , 12.4950 , 14.5210 , 15.8090 , 16.3180 , 17.2100 , 18.7170 , 20.3380 , 20.8600 , 20.9550 , 21.2500 , 21.8920 , 23.3540 , 26.1200 , 27.2640 , 28.3320 , 31.8460 , 35.5870 , 36.8240 , 38.8430 , 40.5650 , 40.8350 , 41.8180 , 44.7590 , 49.5240 , 53.8582
(1980-2011)
49.52 986 5,086 18   53.86
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
World
Rank
 
Turkey
Production 0.4291 , 0.4693 , 0.5130 , 0.4912 , 0.5424 , 0.6188 , 0.7001 , 0.7791 , 0.8059 , 0.8174 , 0.8538 , 0.8705 , 0.9482 , 0.9897 , 0.9492 , 0.9853 , 1.0451 , 1.0985 , 1.1647 , 1.0577 , 1.0039 , 0.8967 , 0.9431 , 0.9192 , 1.0011 , 1.0646 , 1.1544 , 1.1734 , 1.1935 , 1.2319 , 1.3508 , 1.3913 , 1.3788
(1980-2012)
1.391 44 518 45   1.379
Consumption 1.0409 , 0.9765 , 1.1244 , 1.1625 , 1.2258 , 1.3340 , 1.4978 , 1.6555 , 1.7041 , 1.8029 , 1.9731 , 2.0644 , 2.1273 , 2.3276 , 2.2297 , 2.4899 , 2.7479 , 2.9262 , 2.9944 , 2.9057 , 3.1541 , 2.8831 , 3.1327 , 3.3010 , 3.4917 , 3.7093 , 4.0399 , 4.3542 , 4.2429 , 4.2436 , 4.4885 , 4.8705 , 5.0579
(1980-2012)
4.870 82 520 21   5.058
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
4296.0513 , 3843.6091 , 4273.8616 , 4209.2122 , 4159.4106 , 4342.4854 , 4555.9771 , 4599.4564 , 4636.0527 , 4892.7143 , 4900.9016 , 5080.5143 , 4939.8364 , 5002.5774 , 5068.7254 , 5280.4398 , 5446.0772 , 5393.3397 , 5353.6089 , 5375.8233 , 5465.2285 , 5297.5214 , 5421.9463 , 5427.3590 , 5249.4454 , 5144.3971 , 5241.5696 , 5397.3602 , 5225.0093 , 5490.8873 , 5327.8744 , 5381.3004
(1980-2011)
5,328 5,497 7,401 101   5,381
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Turkey
Europe
World
Rank
 
Turkey
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
68.5941 , 63.1198 , 73.2671 , 78.4902 , 82.0041 , 93.1076 , 105.6983 , 109.7040 , 103.4605 , 119.9593 , 129.4758 , 137.2919 , 138.0565 , 144.5763 , 139.9489 , 153.1896 , 169.1104 , 182.2820 , 184.1338 , 181.6074 , 201.9261 , 184.1800 , 194.5341 , 206.0263 , 210.4717 , 230.8975 , 250.9575 , 280.1906 , 272.9004 , 269.0631 , 269.3655 , 294.9091 , 296.9319
(1980-2012)
294.91 4,348 32,155 23   296.93

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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