U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Syria  

Country Analysis Brief Overview

  • Syria's energy sector is in turmoil because of the ongoing hostilities between government and opposition forces. Syria's oil and natural gas production has declined dramatically since March 2011 because of the conflict and because of the subsequent imposition of sanctions by the United States and European Union in particular. Syria's energy sector is unlikely to recover in the near term.
  • Syria's oil sector has been in a state of disarray since 2011. Production and exports of crude oil have fallen to nearly zero, and the country is facing supply shortages for some refined products.
  • Syria's oil production, which averaged over 400,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2008 and 2010, was less than 25,000 bbl/d in January 2014.
  • Syria's crude oil exports have declined significantly since 2011, and the country is having difficulties importing refined petroleum products.
  • As of January 2014, Syria's refineries are running at less than full capacity. According to government sources, the combined capacity of Syria's two refineries has fallen to roughly half their pre-conflict output.
  • Syria's natural gas sector has not been impacted quite as severely by the ongoing conflict as its oil sector, although dry production is down by at least 30% compared to pre-conflict totals.
  • Syria's dry natural gas production fell to less than 200 billion cubic feet (Bcf) in 2013 according to estimates from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
  • According to press reports, Syria is not currently importing natural gas from Egypt via the Arab Gas Pipeline.
  • Syria's electricity infrastructure, including power plants, substations, and transmission lines, was an increasingly common target of sabotage in 2013.

Read full Syria Analysis Brief »

Analysis Last Updated: February 18, 2014


Overview data for Syria

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
    
Syria
Total Oil Production 164.0000 , 166.0000 , 160.0000 , 167.0000 , 170.0000 , 178.0000 , 190.1442 , 225.7268 , 259.8397 , 337.1338 , 385.0579 , 490.5582 , 478.4560 , 557.5205 , 563.4856 , 583.6588 , 600.8314 , 579.4964 , 572.1273 , 557.9357 , 546.7847 , 513.3754 , 519.7802 , 510.1629 , 488.0633 , 463.7940 , 438.8272 , 411.8702 , 400.3500 , 400.1077 , 420.5710 , 373.6724 , 170.5266 , 75.1190
(1980-2013)
170.53 27,600 89,692 40   75.12
Crude Oil Production 164.0000 , 166.0000 , 160.0000 , 167.0000 , 170.0000 , 178.0000 , 194.0000 , 230.0000 , 265.0000 , 340.0000 , 388.0000 , 492.0000 , 480.9480 , 554.0000 , 560.0002 , 575.0000 , 582.3040 , 561.2329 , 553.3699 , 538.0000 , 522.8251 , 483.9400 , 472.2270 , 463.9808 , 446.0561 , 432.0375 , 406.3767 , 380.0000 , 369.2986 , 368.0038 , 383.2740 , 339.6356 , 145.2295 , 58.0438
(1980-2013)
145.23 24,466 75,889 40   58.04
Consumption 110.0000 , 120.0000 , 121.4000 , 139.4000 , 154.0000 , 164.0000 , 163.4582 , 180.1590 , 191.6307 , 198.2965 , 205.2689 , 177.8300 , 184.5439 , 208.8669 , 224.2526 , 225.9976 , 229.3446 , 239.9421 , 248.1825 , 255.7793 , 255.5239 , 253.7295 , 256.0847 , 257.1033 , 257.6186 , 258.6536 , 261.1181 , 264.3065 , 309.5660 , 314.5474 , 317.7969 , 320.0000 , 257.6470 , 257.4400
(1980-2013)
257.65 7,818 89,160 47   257.44
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports 54.0000 , 46.0000 , 38.6000 , 27.6000 , 16.0000 , 14.0000 , 26.6860 , 45.5679 , 68.2090 , 138.8372 , 179.7890 , 312.7282 , 293.9120 , 348.6536 , 339.2330 , 357.6612 , 371.4868 , 339.5543 , 323.9448 , 302.1564 , 291.2608 , 259.6459 , 263.6955 , 253.0596 , 230.4447 , 205.1403 , 177.7091 , 147.5637 , 90.7840 , 85.5603 , 102.7742 , 53.6724 , -87.1204 , -182.3210
(1980-2013)
-87.12 19,782 -- 182   -182.32
Refinery Capacity 223.0000 , 223.0000 , 233.0000 , 229.0000 , 229.0000 , 229.0000 , 229.0000 , 229.0000 , 229.0000 , 244.0000 , 244.0000 , 237.0000 , 237.3940 , 237.3940 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 245.8900 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 242.1400 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650 , 239.8650
(1980-2012)
240 7,245 88,097 56   240
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 2.0000 , 1.9400 , 1.8900 , 1.5210 , 1.4900 , 1.4500 , 1.4400 , 1.4000 , 1.7500 , 1.7300 , 1.7300 , 1.7000 , 1.7000 , 1.7000 , 1.7000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000 , 2.5000
(1980-2014)
2.50 802 1,646 32   2.50
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
 
Syria
Production 17.0000 , 8.8300 , 9.0000 , 8.8000 , 9.0000 , 5.0000 , 9.0000 , 21.9000 , 18.0100 , 35.3200 , 103.0000 , 124.0000 , 127.1340 , 130.6655 , 134.1900 , 103.8300 , 141.9663 , 161.0364 , 203.0613 , 213.3026 , 215.4215 , 197.4109 , 240.1420 , 241.9078 , 250.7365 , 215.4215 , 220.7188 , 211.8900 , 208.3585 , 229.9007 , 315.7161 , 277.9291 , 227.5011
(1980-2012)
277.93 18,332 116,255 43   227.50
Consumption 17.0000 , 8.8300 , 9.0000 , 8.8000 , 9.0000 , 5.0000 , 9.0000 , 21.8950 , 18.0100 , 35.3200 , 103.0000 , 124.0000 , 127.1340 , 130.6655 , 134.1900 , 103.8300 , 141.9663 , 161.0364 , 203.0613 , 213.3026 , 215.4215 , 197.4109 , 240.1420 , 241.9078 , 250.7365 , 215.4215 , 220.7188 , 211.8900 , 213.3026 , 262.0373 , 340.0835 , 286.7578 , 227.5011
(1980-2012)
286.76 14,089 116,395 50   227.50
Net Export/Imports(-) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -4.9441 , -32.1367 , -24.3674 , -8.8288 , 0.0000
(1990-2012)
-8.83 4,243 -- 60   0.00
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
1.5000 , 1.5000 , 3.2000 , 1.2600 , 1.2900 , 1.2800 , 1.2400 , 4.2000 , 1.5000 , 13.1300 , 4.0000 , 5.5000 , 6.4000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 7.0000 , 8.3000 , 8.3000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000 , 8.5000
(1980-2014)
8.50 2,823 6,846 43   8.50
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
 
Syria
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2012)
0.000 1 8,444 68   0.000
Consumption 0.0044 , 0.0099 , 0.0110 , 0.0088 , 0.0055 , 0.0022 , 0.0011 , 0.0011 , 0.0011 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0022 , 0.0055 , 0.0044 , 0.0055 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0033 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044 , 0.0044
(1980-2012)
0.004 19 8,285 112   0.004
Net Export/Imports(-) -4.4092 , -9.9208 , -11.0231 , -8.8185 , -5.5116 , -2.2046 , -1.1023 , -1.1023 , -1.1023 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -2.2046 , -5.5116 , -4.4092 , -5.5116 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -3.3069 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092 , -4.4092
(1980-2012)
-0.004 -17 -- 83   -0.004
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
 
Syria
Net Generation 3.7290 , 4.4150 , 5.7070 , 7.4250 , 8.3510 , 8.9330 , 8.7610 , 8.4180 , 7.6080 , 8.0290 , 8.3060 , 8.2310 , 7.4790 , 8.1430 , 10.4050 , 14.5080 , 16.3690 , 17.1950 , 20.0240 , 21.5830 , 23.8660 , 25.2800 , 26.4540 , 27.8990 , 30.3610 , 33.0550 , 35.2440 , 36.4972 , 38.7048 , 40.8025 , 43.7577 , 38.7780
(1980-2011)
43.76 830 20,254 54   38.78
Net Consumption 2.9530 , 3.5430 , 4.6590 , 6.3170 , 7.2440 , 7.6850 , 7.5610 , 7.2470 , 5.3540 , 5.7530 , 5.2680 , 5.1100 , 4.2590 , 4.9180 , 5.7910 , 9.8290 , 11.2060 , 11.5560 , 13.8140 , 14.3370 , 16.1250 , 17.7520 , 19.5160 , 20.9050 , 23.1990 , 25.6230 , 27.2720 , 28.4742 , 29.8968 , 29.6275 , 36.3017 , 35.3740
(1980-2011)
36.30 718 18,501 54   35.37
Installed Capacity (GWe) 1.1040 , 1.8080 , 1.9670 , 2.8340 , 2.9180 , 2.9180 , 3.0240 , 3.2300 , 3.2300 , 3.2580 , 3.5450 , 3.5920 , 3.6180 , 3.7350 , 4.2010 , 4.3300 , 4.5300 , 4.5800 , 4.7100 , 5.9900 , 7.4590 , 8.2620 , 7.8020 , 7.6710 , 7.6710 , 7.5700 , 7.7963 , 8.5233 , 7.8864 , 8.3226 , 8.3226 , 8.3226
(1980-2011)
8.32 207 5,086 63   8.32
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
 
Syria
Production 0.4109 , 0.4091 , 0.3989 , 0.4130 , 0.4262 , 0.4395 , 0.4759 , 0.5691 , 0.6449 , 0.8300 , 1.0024 , 1.2560 , 1.2365 , 1.4100 , 1.4264 , 1.4383 , 1.5113 , 1.4788 , 1.5025 , 1.4797 , 1.4623 , 1.3659 , 1.4207 , 1.4026 , 1.3801 , 1.2868 , 1.2304 , 1.1575 , 1.1263 , 1.1328 , 1.2641 , 1.1292
(1980-2011)
1.264 72 505 48   1.129
Consumption 0.2740 , 0.2891 , 0.2952 , 0.3340 , 0.3683 , 0.3849 , 0.3839 , 0.4347 , 0.4527 , 0.4825 , 0.5628 , 0.5210 , 0.5378 , 0.5452 , 0.6336 , 0.6091 , 0.6522 , 0.6950 , 0.7525 , 0.7736 , 0.7821 , 0.7622 , 0.8197 , 0.8273 , 0.8456 , 0.8052 , 0.8077 , 0.8118 , 0.9005 , 0.9497 , 1.0346 , 0.9770
(1980-2011)
1.035 29 507 56   0.977
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
9751.7300 , 9433.4870 , 9366.2793 , 10446.6146 , 12008.9967 , 11827.3866 , 12408.9418 , 13787.6045 , 12678.9625 , 14843.4134 , 16552.3404 , 14201.7394 , 12918.7372 , 12451.9864 , 13441.4616 , 12219.9754 , 12189.1715 , 12673.5361 , 12753.3462 , 13023.8264 , 13086.9358 , 12133.5300 , 12320.0331 , 12360.7843 , 11744.9461 , 10529.5707 , 10055.2657 , 9563.5810 , 10153.8672 , 10101.7077 , 10663.3304 , 10443.4885
(1980-2011)
10,663 10,989 7,401 29   10,443
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Syria
Middle East
World
Rank
 
Syria
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
16.4302 , 17.5315 , 17.7009 , 20.3374 , 22.3381 , 23.4996 , 24.0170 , 27.6758 , 28.5118 , 30.8693 , 36.9253 , 33.1502 , 35.3774 , 38.6051 , 41.3978 , 39.8827 , 42.2553 , 44.4327 , 47.7441 , 50.8795 , 50.9942 , 49.3421 , 52.4336 , 52.8474 , 52.7944 , 50.6456 , 51.6733 , 52.6749 , 54.4104 , 61.6284 , 65.5212 , 63.1421
(1980-2011)
65.52 1,798 31,502 51   63.14

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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