Panama - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Panama  

Country Analysis Note

  • Panama is not a large producer or consumer of energy, but merits attention as an energy transit point due to its control over the Panama Canal and Trans-Panama Pipeline.
  • Refined petroleum products, all of which are imported, account for over 80 percent of Panama's energy consumption. The United States is the leading source of Panama's oil imports.
  • Hydroelectric power accounted for almost 60 percent of Panama's electricity generation in 2010, with most of the remainder attributable to oil-fired thermoelectric plants. Panama is involved in two initiatives to integrate regional electricity grids: SIEPAC, which is an ambitious project to connect the transmission networks of six Central American countries, and a separate bilateral effort to build a power line that would link Panama with Colombia.
  • The Panama Canal is an important trade route connecting the Pacific Ocean with the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, but its relevance to the global oil trade has diminished because of changing trade patterns and the fact that many modern tankers are too large to travel through it. According to the Panama Canal Authority, 755,000 bbl/d of crude and petroleum products were transported through the canal in Fiscal Year 2011, of which 637,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) were refined products, and the rest crude oil. In order to make the canal more accessible to larger tankers, the Panama Canal Authority began an expansion program that it expects to complete by the end of 2014.
  • The Trans-Panama Pipeline (TPP) or Transisthmian Pipeline, which is situated near the Costa Rican border, is another oil transit route that reduces transportation times and costs between the Atlantic and Pacific basins. It was originally constructed to facilitate crude oil shipments from Alaska to refineries on the U.S. Gulf Coast, but was recently reversed to carry crude oil from the Caribbean coast to the Pacific. An analysis of tanker data suggests that 100,000-150,000 bbl/d of crude oil, most of which is of Colombian and Angolan origin, currently flows through the pipeline.

Analysis Last Updated: February 2013


Overview data for Panama

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
    
Panama
Total Oil Production 1.0000 , 1.0000 , 1.0000 , 1.0000 , 1.0000 , 0.0000 , -0.4344 , -0.4509 , -0.1541 , -0.1319 , -0.1458 , -0.6294 , -1.2458 , -1.1903 , -0.5800 , 0.0099 , -1.2516 , -0.5799 , -0.8276 , -1.3814 , -1.3046 , -2.1952 , -0.1400 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2013)
0.00 7,801 89,757 127   0.00
Crude Oil Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2013)
0.00 6,639 75,887 94   0.00
Consumption 78.0000 , 77.0000 , 73.5000 , 75.5000 , 74.5000 , 64.8211 , 66.5028 , 69.8068 , 67.6651 , 66.0648 , 70.3398 , 70.2817 , 72.2842 , 70.8976 , 81.3250 , 85.9221 , 72.2811 , 76.5621 , 84.6590 , 78.4003 , 77.3834 , 80.2836 , 76.5944 , 77.5704 , 88.0280 , 84.3049 , 86.3546 , 89.4935 , 52.0108 , 97.6703 , 108.5932 , 106.0000 , 100.0068
(1980-2012)
106.00 6,571 88,744 71   100.01 E
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports -77.0000 , -76.0000 , -72.5000 , -74.5000 , -73.5000 , -64.8211 , -66.9372 , -70.2577 , -67.8192 , -66.1967 , -70.4856 , -70.9110 , -73.5300 , -72.0878 , -81.9050 , -85.9122 , -73.5327 , -77.1420 , -85.4866 , -79.7817 , -78.6879 , -82.4787 , -76.7343 , -77.5704 , -88.0280 , -84.3049 , -86.3546 , -89.4935 , -52.0108 , -97.6703 , -108.5932 , -106.0000 , -100.0068
(1980-2012)
-106.00 1,287 -- 45   -100.01
Refinery Capacity 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 40.0000 , 100.0000 , 100.0000 , 40.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 60.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2012)
0 6,582 88,097 110   0
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2013)
0.00 239 1,526 91   0.00
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
 
Panama
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2012)
0.00 5,498 116,255 93   0.00
Consumption 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2012)
0.00 5,032 116,395 111   0.00
Net Export/Imports(-) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1990-2012)
0.00 471 -- 64   0.00
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2013)
0.00 270 6,845 94   0.00
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
 
Panama
Production 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1980-2011)
0.000 92 7,934 66   0.000
Consumption 0.0022 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0033 , 0.0099 , 0.0386 , 0.0088 , 0.0386 , 0.0287 , 0.0121 , 0.0353 , 0.0497 , 0.0540 , 0.0584 , 0.0595 , 0.0562 , 0.1102 , 0.0628 , 0.0628 , 0.0661 , 0.0661 , 0.0694 , 0.0496 , 0.0000 , 0.0020 , 0.0020 , 0.2522 , 0.2464 , 0.0345 , 0.0690 , 0.1185 , 0.0874 , 0.0864
(1980-2012)
0.087 50 8,124 97   0.086
Net Export/Imports(-) -2.2046 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -3.3069 , -9.9208 , -61.7294 , -39.6832 , -39.6832 , -16.5347 , -18.7393 , -35.2740 , -50.8320 , -46.2971 , -69.4456 , -67.2410 , -62.8317 , -119.0496 , -62.8317 , -62.8317 , -66.1387 , -66.1387 , -69.4456 , -49.6040 , 0.0000 , -1.9621 , -1.9621 , -252.1758 , -246.4107 , -34.5023 , -69.0267 , -118.5426 , -87.4464
(1980-2011)
-0.119 46 -- 66   -0.087
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
 
Panama
Net Generation 1.7910 , 1.9990 , 2.1770 , 2.3100 , 2.3530 , 2.4960 , 2.7240 , 2.7770 , 2.7180 , 2.6730 , 2.7930 , 2.9120 , 2.8490 , 3.1510 , 3.2560 , 3.4830 , 4.1140 , 4.1770 , 3.6420 , 4.3760 , 4.7660 , 4.9430 , 5.1470 , 5.3840 , 5.6060 , 5.6650 , 5.8620 , 6.3276 , 6.3057 , 6.7751 , 7.2360 , 7.6420
(1980-2011)
7.24 1,097 20,254 107   7.64
Net Consumption 1.5070 , 1.6900 , 1.8210 , 1.9670 , 1.9440 , 2.0490 , 2.2260 , 2.3400 , 2.2720 , 2.1040 , 2.2140 , 2.3400 , 2.2950 , 2.5280 , 2.5610 , 2.8800 , 3.3510 , 3.1720 , 2.7700 , 3.4290 , 3.7820 , 3.7540 , 3.9530 , 4.1770 , 4.5790 , 4.6837 , 4.8253 , 5.1755 , 5.4707 , 5.8364 , 6.1880 , 6.6260
(1980-2011)
6.19 928 18,501 106   6.63
Installed Capacity (GWe) 0.5660 , 0.5640 , 0.5850 , 0.8790 , 0.8980 , 0.8940 , 0.8990 , 0.9420 , 0.9420 , 0.9520 , 0.9570 , 0.9570 , 0.9570 , 0.9590 , 0.9570 , 0.9570 , 0.9590 , 0.9840 , 1.0490 , 1.1821 , 1.2481 , 1.2597 , 1.1960 , 1.3240 , 1.5837 , 1.6226 , 1.4680 , 1.5100 , 1.6580 , 1.8190 , 1.9760 , 2.3910
(1980-2011)
1.98 260 5,086 104   2.39
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
 
Panama
Production 0.0103 , 0.0153 , 0.0128 , 0.0105 , 0.0169 , 0.0210 , 0.0228 , 0.0220 , 0.0238 , 0.0232 , 0.0234 , 0.0215 , 0.0198 , 0.0239 , 0.0247 , 0.0248 , 0.0309 , 0.0296 , 0.0218 , 0.0319 , 0.0348 , 0.0258 , 0.0344 , 0.0288 , 0.0377 , 0.0371 , 0.0359 , 0.0366 , 0.0396 , 0.0383 , 0.0412
(1980-2010)
.038 29 487 115   0.041
Consumption 0.1834 , 0.1862 , 0.1759 , 0.1781 , 0.1824 , 0.1658 , 0.1710 , 0.1781 , 0.1752 , 0.1708 , 0.1807 , 0.1791 , 0.1815 , 0.1758 , 0.2040 , 0.2158 , 0.1933 , 0.1988 , 0.2082 , 0.2049 , 0.2064 , 0.2034 , 0.2028 , 0.1968 , 0.2272 , 0.2202 , 0.2299 , 0.2355 , 0.2388 , 0.2503 , 0.2768
(1980-2010)
0.250 25 488 89   0.277
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
15615.6409 , 14515.4762 , 13116.0507 , 13899.9038 , 13864.1239 , 12004.2886 , 11956.4049 , 12684.7096 , 14403.8459 , 13827.5776 , 14127.9744 , 12802.5399 , 11990.9535 , 11012.3640 , 11894.8841 , 12369.0938 , 10776.0641 , 10411.5574 , 10155.0571 , 9618.3905 , 9431.0132 , 9244.1340 , 9015.7112 , 8395.4476 , 9013.5864 , 8149.9819 , 7839.7861 , 7164.0356 , 6596.5468 , 6656.5136 , 6842.2610
(1980-2010)
6,657 5,882 7,461 72   6,842
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Panama
Central & South America
World
Rank
 
Panama
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
5.3949 , 5.2398 , 4.7333 , 5.0163 , 4.8983 , 3.6089 , 11.2711 , 11.7260 , 11.3038 , 11.1456 , 11.7987 , 11.8320 , 12.2349 , 12.0341 , 13.5377 , 14.4487 , 12.4184 , 12.7753 , 13.9789 , 13.0623 , 12.9375 , 13.4555 , 12.6812 , 12.6120 , 14.1528 , 14.8188 , 14.8768 , 15.1649 , 14.9823 , 15.8720 , 17.5035 , 15.8999
(1980-2011)
17.50 1,288 31,502 88   15.90

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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