West Virginia State Energy Profile



West Virginia Quick Facts

  • West Virginia ranked fifth among the states in total energy production in 2018, accounting for 5% of the nation's total.
  • In 2019, West Virginia was the second-largest coal producer in the nation, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. total coal production. More than one-third of the more than 93 million tons of coal mined in West Virginia was exported to foreign markets.
  • Coal-fired electric power plants accounted for 91% of West Virginia's electricity net generation in 2019, renewable energy resources—primarily hydroelectric power and wind energy—contributed almost 6% and natural gas provided more than 3%.
  • In 2019, West Virginia was sixth in the nation in natural gas marketed production with nearly 2.2 trillion cubic feet.
  • Although West Virginia's 2019 crude oil production accounts for less than 0.5% of the nation's total, the state's output is more than six times greater than it was in 2012 because of production from the Marcellus Shale.

Last Updated: October 15, 2020



Data

Last Update: April 15, 2021 | Next Update: May 20, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography West Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Population 1.8 million 0.5% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.8 million 0.5% Feb-21  
Economy West Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 78.2 billion 42 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 7,904 million 39 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 45,109 50 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 19,077 million miles 38 2019  
Land in Farms 3.7 million acres 39 2017  
Climate West Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 53.9 degrees Fahrenheit 22 2020  
Precipitation 53.7 inches 13 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum West Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 41.56 /barrel $ 49.76 /barrel Jan-21  
Natural Gas West Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 2.75 /thousand cu ft $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Residential $ 9.03 /thousand cu ft $ 9.74 /thousand cu ft Jan-21 find more
Coal West Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 72.70 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.90 /million Btu Jan-21  
Electricity West Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.20 cents/kWh 12.69 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Commercial 9.02 cents/kWh 10.31 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Industrial 5.86 cents/kWh 6.35 cents/kWh Jan-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 13 million barrels * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 36,600 billion cu ft 7.9% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2,484 million barrels 11.5% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 1,436 million short tons 10.1% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 45,808 wells 9.3% 2019 find more
Capacity West Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 22,300 barrels/calendar day 0.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 14,870 MW 1.3% Jan-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 4,770 trillion Btu 5.0% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 55 thousand barrels per day 0.5% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 2,155,757 million cu ft 5.9% 2019 find more
Coal 93,279 thousand short tons 13.2% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 6,407 thousand MWh 1.8% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) West Virginia U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.2 % 0.3 % Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 2.4 % 35.7 % Jan-21 find more
Coal-Fired 91.9 % 23.3 % Jan-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 20.5 % Jan-21 find more
Renewables 5.4 % 19.6 % Jan-21  
Stocks West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 43 thousand barrels 0.3% Jan-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 171 thousand barrels 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 388,004 million cu ft 5.5% Jan-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 147 thousand barrels 0.6% Jan-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jan-21 find more
Fueling Stations West Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 937 stations 0.8% 2018  
Propane 9 stations 0.3% 2021  
Electricity 85 stations 0.2% 2021  
E85 34 stations 0.9% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 2 stations 0.2% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary West Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 833 trillion Btu 35 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 462 million Btu 8 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 8,768 million 37 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,860 8 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector West Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 164 trillion Btu 0.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 115 trillion Btu 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 362 trillion Btu 1.1% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 193 trillion Btu 0.7% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,714 million 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,027 million 0.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,059 million 1.0% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 3,968 million 0.7% 2018 find more
by Source West Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 43 million barrels 0.6% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 220 billion cu ft 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 25 million short tons 4.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,103 million 0.7% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 571 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,375 million 5.4% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 27 thousand barrels 1.6% Jan-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,131 million cu ft 0.1% Jan-21 find more
Coal 2,372 thousand short tons 5.2% Jan-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) West Virginia U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 39.9 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 2.7 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 45.0 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 5.3 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 7.1 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 1,087 MW 0.4% Jan-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2020  
Renewable Energy Production West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 150 thousand MWh 0.6% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 197 thousand MWh 0.5% Jan-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation NM NM Jan-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 1 thousand MWh * Jan-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption West Virginia U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.4 % 40 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,969 thousand barrels 39 2019  
Total Emissions West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 91.0 million metric tons 1.8% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions West Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 56,823 thousand metric tons 3.3% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 35 thousand metric tons 2.8% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 34 thousand metric tons 2.5% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 15, 2020

Overview

Coal is West Virginia's most abundant mined product.

West Virginia is the nation's fifth-largest energy producer and has abundant fossil energy and renewable resources.1,2,3,4,5 Located in the center of the Appalachian Mountain region, West Virginia's boundaries follow the region's mountain ridges, valleys, and rivers, giving the state an unusual outline that includes two panhandles. Although it is one of the 10 smallest states in total area, West Virginia stretches from the Ohio River, where the state's northern panhandle is wedged between Pennsylvania and Ohio, to a point almost 240 miles away on the state's southern border with Virginia.6 Most of West Virginia is part of the Appalachian Plateau region, where much of the state's most abundant energy resource, coal, is found.7,8 The state's crude oil and natural gas wells are also located there.9 Rivers that cross the Appalachian Plateau have plentiful hydroelectric power potential, while the narrow, wind-swept mountain ridges that run northeast to southwest in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge region of eastern West Virginia have the state's ample wind resources.10,11 Almost four-fifths of the state is covered by forests, providing West Virginia with abundant biomass potential, as well.12

West Virginia is a net energy supplier to other states and provides about 5% of the nation's total energy, mostly from its coal production.13 Recent increases in natural gas, crude oil, and natural gas liquids production from the Marcellus and Utica shales in northern West Virginia have added to the state's energy economy as well.14 West Virginia is also a significant consumer of energy and ranks among the top 10 states on a per capita basis.15 The industrial sector accounts for the largest share of end-use energy consumption in West Virginia, at more than two-fifths of the state's total.16 Mining—including coal, crude oil, and natural gas extraction—and chemical manufacturing are significant and energy-intensive contributors to the state's economy.17 The transportation sector is the second-largest energy-consuming sector, accounting for almost one-fourth of state energy use, and the residential sector consumes one-fifth. The commercial sector accounts for the rest.18

Coal

Although coal was discovered in West Virginia in the early 1700s, large-scale mining did not begin until the mid-1800s. Since then, coal has been an important part of the state economy.19 In 2019, West Virginia accounted for more than one-eighth of the nation's coal production and had one-tenth of U.S. recoverable coal reserves at producing mines, the third-largest reserve base in the nation, after Wyoming and Illinois.20,21

Coal deposits are found in 53 of West Virginia's 55 counties, but only 43 counties have economically recoverable coal reserves.22 The state is the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, the most abundant coal mined in the United States.23 The largest share of West Virginia's mined bituminous coal is delivered to electric power plants.24 The sulfur content of the state's coal varies across West Virginia. The Central Appalachian region, which includes the southern part of West Virginia, is the nation's primary source for bituminous coal that is relatively low in sulfur. Coal from the Northern Appalachian region, which includes northern West Virginia, has relatively high sulfur content and is less desirable for burning because of air pollution regulations.25

Almost three-fourths of the coal produced from West Virginia's more than 160 mines was shipped out of state in 2019, mainly to almost 20 other states, but also to foreign markets. The remaining mined coal was used primarily by West Virginia's electric power sector.26,27,28 Fewer than 1% of the households in the state heat with coal.29 A small amount of coal is used at coke plants and industrial facilities in the state. Additional coal arrives in West Virginia from other states in the Appalachian region, mostly from Pennsylvania and Ohio.30

Electricity

Coal-fired power plants account for almost all of West Virginia's electricity generation, and 8 of the 10 largest power plants in the state by capacity and by generation are coal-fired.31 In 2019, coal fueled the smallest share of state generation in more than 20 years, and it still exceeded nine-tenths. Almost all the rest of the in-state electricity generation was from natural gas, hydropower, and wind. In 2019, natural gas fueled a record amount of electricity in West Virginia at about 3% of the state's net generation. Hydropower and wind each supplied almost 3% of the state's net generation in 2019.32 West Virginia does not produce electricity from nuclear power and is one of nine states east of the Mississippi River without an operating nuclear power plant.33

West Virginia has the lowest average price for electricity among states east of the Mississippi River, and its electricity retail sales are less than in about two-thirds of the states.34 However, West Virginia is among the nation's top five states in electricity use per capita.35 The state's industrial sector is the largest end-user and accounts for more than two-fifths of West Virginia's electricity consumption. Almost half of the households in West Virginia use electricity as their primary source for home heating, and the residential sector accounts for one-third of electricity retail sales.36 The commercial sector consumes the rest.37 Overall, West Virginians use less than half of the electricity generated in the state. As a result, West Virginia is a net supplier of electricity to the regional grid and is among the top 10 states in interstate transfers of electricity. In 2019, only five other states sent more electricity out of state.38,39

Natural gas

West Virginia has the fourth-largest natural gas reserves of any state, because it overlies part of one of the largest U.S. natural gas-producing areas in the nation.40 Production from the Marcellus and Utica-Point Pleasant shale formations has contributed to the state becoming the nation's sixth-largest producer of marketed natural gas in 2019.41,42,43 In 2014, West Virginia's annual natural gas production exceeded 1 trillion cubic feet for the first time, and in 2019, it exceeded 2 trillion cubic feet.44 Shale wells accounted for nearly nine-tenths of West Virginia's natural gas production in 2018 and provided the state with almost 32 trillion cubic feet of shale gas reserves, 9% of the nation's total.45,46 In addition to shale gas, West Virginia has natural gas reserves and production from conventional natural gas fields and from coalbeds. Slightly more than one-tenth of West Virginia's production comes from conventional natural gas wells. The state's proved reserves of coalbed methane, however, are small, and less than 0.1% of the state's natural gas production is coalbed methane.47,48

West Virginia is the sixth-largest producer of marketed natural gas in the nation.

West Virginia is crossed by several thousand miles of interstate and intrastate natural gas pipelines.49,50 Natural gas moves into West Virginia from surrounding states, particularly from Pennsylvania, and exits to Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. On balance, much more natural gas leaves the state than enters because the amount of natural gas produced in West Virginia is much greater than the amount used in the state.51,52,53 New pipeline projects have come online in recent years and more are planned to transport natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica Shale producing areas of West Virginia to markets across the eastern United States and Canada.54,55 Natural gas processing plants that separate dry natural gas from associated natural gas liquids have been constructed or expanded in West Virginia in recent years to handle the liquids produced from the Marcellus Shale.56 A pipeline was built to transport those natural gas liquids from Appalachia to petrochemical facilities on the Texas Gulf Coast.57

West Virginia's natural gas storage fields supply the region in periods of high demand. The state has 31 underground natural gas storage fields. Those fields have a combined storage capacity of about 531 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which is almost 6% of the nation's total underground natural gas storage capacity.58,59 The proximity of the state's natural gas storage to northeastern markets makes West Virginia an important supplier to that region during the winter months when natural gas demand peaks.60

More than half of the natural gas consumed in West Virginia is used to gather, process, and distribute natural gas within the state or by pipelines for transmission. West Virginia's industrial sector is the largest end-use natural gas consumer in the state, and that sector accounts for nearly two-fifths of the natural gas delivered to end users. The residential sector, where about two in five West Virginia households use natural gas for home heating, and the commercial sector each receive almost one-fourth of the end-use natural gas deliveries.61 The consumption of natural gas for electric power generation has increased in recent years, reaching a high of more than 15 billion cubic feet in 2019. However, that was only 15% of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. West Virginia's natural gas use for power generation is less than in four-fifths of the states.62,63,64

Petroleum

In 2019, crude oil production in West Virginia, mostly from the Marcellus Shale, exceeded 16 million barrels for the first time in more than a century.

West Virginia's economically recoverable crude oil reserves are small, and the state accounts for less than 0.5% of U.S. crude oil production.65,66 West Virginia's first oil field began producing just before the Civil War, and the state's total crude oil production reached a high of 16 million barrels in 1900.67 Production did not reach that level again until 2019, when production reached and exceeded 16 million barrels for the first time in more than a century.68 Most of the state's recent increase in crude oil and natural gas liquids production has come from the Marcellus Shale in northern West Virginia.69 Less than one-tenth of the state's production comes from older stripper wells (each producing fewer than 10 barrels of oil per day).70 West Virginia's one oil refinery is located on the Ohio River at the extreme northern tip of the state's northern panhandle in Newel, West Virginia.71 That refinery can process about 22,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day into ultra-low sulfur fuels and paraffinic specialty products.72

West Virginia uses less petroleum than about three-fourths of the states, but per capita petroleum consumption is greater than in two-thirds of the states. The transportation sector accounts for about three-fourths of state use, and most of the rest is consumed in the industrial sector.73,74 Conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be used statewide, but, like most of the nation, motor gasoline blended with 10% ethanol is widely available.75,76 West Virginia does not produce any fuel ethanol or biodiesel.77 However, nearly 2 million barrels of fuel ethanol and 250,000 barrels of biodiesel were consumed in the state in 2018.78,79 There are about 30 fueling stations that sell E85, the 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline blend, in West Virginia.80

Renewable energy

Renewable resources provide almost all of West Virginia's electricity generation not fueled by coal or natural gas. In 2019, 5.5% of the state's net generation came from hydropower and wind energy in almost equal amounts.81 Hydropower has long been used in mountainous West Virginia, originally to power grist and saw mills and later to generate electricity.82 The oldest hydroelectric power plant still in service in West Virginia began operating in 1909; a third generating unit was added in 1991. The largest of the state's dozen hydroelectric facilities is a 97-megawatt power plant built in the mid-1930s, and the newest, with a capacity of 44 megawatts, began operating in 2016.83 Hydroelectric generation in West Virginia has nearly doubled in the past 20 years, and its share of state generation has also more than doubled.84

Power supplied by wind energy in West Virginia reached an all-time high of almost 1.8 million megawatt-hours in 2018 and was almost as high in 2019. Wind's contribution to the state's net generation briefly surpassed that of hydropower in 2017.85 Most of West Virginia's wind energy potential is on the narrow ridges in the mountainous eastern third of the state, and that is where the state's wind turbines are located.86,87 In mid-2020, there was almost 750 megawatts of wind capacity in West Virginia.88 Electricity also is generated at small-scale, customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) installations (less than 1 megawatt) such as rooftop panels, but the state does not have any large, utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) solar facilities.89

In 2009, West Virginia enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that required investor-owned electric utilities and retail suppliers with more than 30,000 customers to obtain 25% of their electricity from eligible alternative and renewable energy resources by 2025. However, in 2015, the state became the first in the nation to completely repeal its RPS. Before then, West Virginia was one of the few states in the nation that had allowed a variety of alternative, non-renewable technologies, including advanced coal technology, coalbed methane, and natural gas, to meet its RPS requirement.90,91

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
2 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, 2013-18, Dry Natural Gas.
3 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
4 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2013-18.
5 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed September 12, 2020.
6 NETSTATE, The Geography of West Virginia, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
7 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Physiographic Provinces of West Virginia, updated December 18, 2019.
8 NETSTATE, West Virginia Economy, updated December 10, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, All Coal Mines, Oil Wells, and Gas Wells Map Layers, accessed September 12, 2020.
10 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant, and Wind Power Plant Map Layers, accessed September 12, 2020.
11 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed September 12, 2020.
12 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forests of West Virginia, 2016, Resource Update FS-123 (June 2017), p. 2.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P5A, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2018, and Table P5B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Renewable and Total Energy, in Trillion Btu, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 Dinterman, Philip A., 2018 Marcellus Shale and Utica‐Point Pleasant Production Summary, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, revised September 16, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
17 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, West Virginia, All statistics in table, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2018.
19 West Virginia Geologic and Economic Survey, History of West Virginia Mineral Industries-Coal, updated June 20, 2017.
20 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
21 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
22 West Virginia Office of Miners' Health, Safety and Training, West Virginia Coal Mining Facts, History & Geology, updated October 10, 2012.
23 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2019.
24 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Origin State, West Virginia, Table OS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
25 Milici, Robert C., and Kristin O. Dennen, Production and Depletion of Appalachian and Illinois Basin Coal Resources, Chapter H, The National Coal Resource Assessment Overview, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-F (2009), p. 5-6.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Origin State, West Virginia, Table OS-26, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, West Virginia, Table DS-44, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Electricity Profile 2018, Tables 2A, 2B.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
33 U.S. EIA Electric Power Monthly (September 2020), Table 1.9.B.
34 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
36 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
37 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 5.4.B.
38 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2018, Wet NG and Dry Natural Gas.
41 U.S. EIA, Top U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013, p. 8.
42 U.S. EIA, "Appalachia region drives growth in U.S. natural gas production since 2012," Today in Energy (December 4, 2017).
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, 2014-19.
44 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet), 1967-2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, West Virginia, 2014-19.
46 U.S. EIA, Shale Gas. Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, West Virginia, 2014-19.
48 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, 2017.
49 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate and Intrastate Pipeline Map Layers, accessed September 14, 2020.
50 American Gas Association, Annual Distribution and Transmission Miles of Pipeline (December 13, 2019), Table 5-3, Gas Industry Miles of Pipeline and Main by State and Type, 2018.
51 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, West Virginia, 2014-19.
52 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2014-19.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual, 2014-19.
54 U.S. EIA, "Northeast region slated for record natural gas pipeline capacity buildout in 2018," Today in Energy (May 18, 2018).
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipeline Projects (Excel file), accessed September 14, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, "U.S. natural gas processing plant capacity and throughput have increased in recent years," Today in Energy (March 7, 2019).
57 Scott, Jennifer, "Appalachia-to-Texas Pipeline for Natural Gas Liquids Begins Operating," American Chemistry Council (January 14, 2014).
58 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, West Virginia, Data Series, Annual, 2019.
59 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2019.
60 Clemente, Jude, "West Virginia Emerging as a Natural Gas Powerhouse," Rigzone (September 23, 2019).
61 U.S. Census Bureau, West Virginia, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
62 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, West Virginia, 2014-19.
63 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (Million Cubic Feet), Annual, 1997-2019.
64 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Electric Power Consumers, Annual, 2019.
65 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of December 31, 2018.
66 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2014-19.
67 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, History of WV Mineral Industries, Oil and Gas, updated July 16, 2004.
68 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Field Production of Crude Oil, 1991-2019.
69 Dinterman, Philip A., 2018 Marcellus Shale and Utica‐Point Pleasant Production Summary, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, revised September 16, 2019.
70 Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, Marginal Wells: Fuel for Economic Growth, 2016 Report (2016), p. 9.
71 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Petroleum Refinery Map Layer, accessed September 15, 2020.
72 Ergon, Ergon-West Virginia, Inc. (EWV), accessed September 15, 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
75 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, accessed September 15, 2020.
76 U.S. EIA, "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
79 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
80 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Total, accessed September 16, 2020.
81 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-19.
82 The West Virginia Encyclopedia, Hydroelectricity, updated May 20, 2013.
83 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data-Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
84 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Conventional hydroelectric, Annual, 2001-19.
85 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Annual, 2001-19.
86 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in West Virginia, accessed September 16, 2020.
87 U.S. EIA, West Virginia Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer, accessed September 16, 2020.
88 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2020), Table 6.2.B.
89 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, West Virginia, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-19.
90 Heeter, Jenny, and Lori Bird, Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience, Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-55979, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (November 2012), p. 6-7.
91 Fried, Rona, "West Virginia: First State to Repeal Renewable Portfolio Standard!" SustainableBusiness.com (January 23, 2015).


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