Wisconsin State Energy Profile



Wisconsin Quick Facts

  • Wisconsin's industrial sector, including agriculture and the energy-intensive manufacture of food and beverages, is the state's largest energy-consuming end-use sector. In 2021, industry accounted for 31% of the state's total energy consumption.
  • In 2022, natural gas-fired generation surpassed coal for the first time, when it fueled 37% of Wisconsin's total net generation. Coal contributed 36% of the state’s total net generation in 2022, down from more than half as recently as 2018.
  • In 2021, Wisconsin ranked ninth in the nation in fuel ethanol production, and the state has the nation's ninth-largest ethanol production capacity. Wisconsin’s 9 ethanol plants can produce almost 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year, more than twice the amount consumed in the state.
  • In 2022, Wisconsin's one nuclear power plant supplied about 16% of Wisconsin's total in-state electricity generation, down from about 22% in 2012 when the state had two operating nuclear power plants.
  • Wisconsin consumes almost six times as much energy as the state produces.

Last Updated: August 17, 2023



Data

Last Update: February 15, 2024 | Next Update: March 21, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period
Population 5.9 million 1.8% 2022  
Civilian Labor Force 3.1 million 1.9% Dec-23  
Economy Wisconsin U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 401.8 billion 21 2022  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 71,666 million 13 2022  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 61,210 27 2022  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 64,983 million miles 18 2021  
Land in Farms 14.2 million acres 20 2022  
Climate Wisconsin U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 46.3 degrees Fahrenheit 41 2023  
Precipitation 30.1 inches 32 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Wisconsin U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 77.46 /barrel Nov-23  
Natural Gas Wisconsin U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.25 /thousand cu ft $ 4.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Residential $ 9.05 /thousand cu ft $ 13.36 /thousand cu ft Nov-23 find more
Coal Wisconsin U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.58 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Nov-23  
Electricity Wisconsin U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 16.75 cents/kWh 16.19 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Commercial 12.52 cents/kWh 12.60 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Industrial 8.38 cents/kWh 7.90 cents/kWh Nov-23 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2020 find more
Capacity Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 38,000 barrels/calendar day 0.2% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 16,835 MW 1.4% Nov-23  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 305 trillion Btu 0.3% 2021 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2022 find more
Coal -- -- 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 4,871 thousand MWh 1.5% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Wisconsin U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 44.2 % 42.0 % Nov-23 find more
Coal-Fired 28.8 % 15.9 % Nov-23 find more
Nuclear 17.3 % 19.3 % Nov-23 find more
Renewables 9.6 % 21.9 % Nov-23  
Stocks Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 108 thousand barrels 0.9% Nov-23  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 861 thousand barrels 1.0% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Nov-23 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 720 thousand barrels 3.2% Nov-23 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,733 thousand tons 2.8% Nov-23 find more
Fueling Stations Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 2,545 stations 2.3% 2021  
Propane 49 stations 2.0% Jan-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 548 stations 0.9% Jan-24  
E85 262 stations 6.1% Jan-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 57 stations 2.0% Jan-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Wisconsin U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 1,764 trillion Btu 19 2021 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 300 million Btu 24 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 23,911 million 20 2021 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,066 23 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 425 trillion Btu 2.0% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial 358 trillion Btu 2.1% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial 546 trillion Btu 1.7% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation 435 trillion Btu 1.6% 2021 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 5,394 million 1.9% 2021 find more
    »  Commercial $ 3,676 million 1.8% 2021 find more
    »  Industrial $ 4,282 million 1.8% 2021 find more
    »  Transportation $ 10,559 million 1.7% 2021 find more
by Source Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 108 million barrels 1.5% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas 595 billion cu ft 1.8% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 12,912 thousand short tons 2.5% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 13,019 million 1.7% 2021 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 5,132 million 1.9% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 585 million 2.2% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 5 thousand barrels 0.3% Nov-23 find more
Natural Gas 12,560 million cu ft 1.4% Apr-23 find more
Coal 797 thousand tons 2.7% Nov-23 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Wisconsin U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 64.4 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 1.4 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 17.7 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 12.3 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 4.2 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,373 MW 0.7% Nov-23  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 556 million gal/year 3.1% 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 133 thousand MWh 0.7% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 261 thousand MWh 0.5% Nov-23  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 72 thousand MWh 1.9% Nov-23  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 16 thousand MWh 0.3% Nov-23  
Fuel Ethanol Production 12,600 thousand barrels 3.5% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Wisconsin U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 10.1 % 28 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 6,389 thousand barrels 21 2021  
Total Emissions Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 92.5 million metric tons 1.9% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Wisconsin Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 32,978 thousand metric tons 2.0% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 12 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 20 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: August 17, 2023

Overview

Bordered by navigable waterways, Wisconsin lies between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan to the north and east and the Mississippi and Saint Croix rivers to the west. The glaciers that covered most of the state during the Ice Ages created rolling hills, thousands of lakes, and the marshy areas where the state's abundant cranberry crops are grown.1,2,3 Wisconsin does not have fossil fuel reserves, but it does have renewable resources. Dozens of dams throughout the state supply hydroelectric power, and several areas, including offshore in the Wisconsin portion of the Great Lakes, have significant wind energy resources. Although the state has limited solar potential, solar energy's contribution to Wisconsin's electricity generation is increasing.4,5,6 The state's fertile soil and strong agricultural economy make it a leader in the market value of agricultural products.7,8 Wisconsin's agricultural activities provide the state with valuable renewable energy resources as well. The state's corn crop provides the feedstock for several fuel ethanol production facilities.9 Anaerobic digesters on farms around the state process manure from the state's many farm animals, including more than 1 million dairy cows, into methane gas, which is used to fuel electricity generation and to provide heat.10,11 Wisconsin's 17 million acres of forestland hold additional biomass energy resources.12,13

Although Wisconsin does not have any fossil fuel resources, coal and petroleum products are shipped from the state's many ports, including from the Wisconsin side of the Port of Duluth-Superior, the largest harbor on the Great Lakes.14,15 Coal from Wyoming and Montana is transferred from railcars to ships in Superior for shipment east through the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway.16,17 Coal and petroleum products are also shipped from other Wisconsin ports along Lake Michigan and the upper Mississippi River.18 Crude oil, petroleum product, and natural gas pipelines cross Wisconsin en route to markets in the state and elsewhere.19

Despite winters that are cold and snowy, with temperatures frequently falling to minus 30°F in the northern part of the state, Wisconsin's energy consumption per capita is less than that of almost half of the states and is only slightly above the national average.20,21 An important dairy state, Wisconsin produces about one-third of the cheese made in the nation, and beer is the state's most valuable processed beverage product.22 Industry, including agriculture and food and beverage manufacturing, is Wisconsin's leading end-use energy consumer. The industrial sector accounts for more than three-tenths of the energy consumed in the state.23 The transportation sector uses one-fourth. The residential sector accounts for almost one-fourth of state energy use, and the commercial sector consumes one-fifth.24 Overall, Wisconsin uses almost six times more energy than it produces.25

Renewable energy

Wisconsin, one of the top 10 ethanol-producing states, can manufacture about 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

Wisconsin's primary renewable energy resource is biofuels. The state is among the nation's top 10 fuel ethanol producers.26 Wisconsin's 8 ethanol plants can produce almost 600 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year, more than twice the amount consumed in the state.27,28 Wisconsin is also one of the nation's top 10 corn-producing states, and the state's fuel ethanol plants use corn as feedstock.29,30 Most of those plants are located in agriculturally rich southern and central Wisconsin.31 The state also is one of the nation's top 20 biodiesel producers.32 The production capacity of the state's one biodiesel plant is about 28 million gallons per year, which is slightly more than Wisconsin's annual consumption of biodiesel. In 2021, about 27 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in the state.33,34

In 2022, renewable resources provided nearly 11% of Wisconsin's in-state electricity net generation. Hydroelectric facilities were the largest contributors and accounted for almost two-fifths of the state's renewable electricity generation. Wind energy accounted for nearly three-tenths of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation.35 The state's best onshore wind energy resources are along ridges in eastern Wisconsin and in isolated areas in the northern section of the state's western uplands.36,37 Most of the state's wind farms are located in the eastern and southern parts of the state, including Wisconsin's newest wind farm, a 92-megawatt facility that came online in April 2023.38,39 Additional wind resource potential exists offshore in the Wisconsin portion of Lake Michigan.40

Biomass resources accounted for nearly one-fifth of Wisconsin's renewable electricity generation in 2022.41 Much of it is from the many waste-to-energy systems (anaerobic digesters) and landfill facilities in Wisconsin that capture biogas (methane) for use in power generation.42,43 Agricultural and forest waste also contribute to the state's net generation, as do wood and wood waste from paper and pulp mills.44 Most of the wood-fueled biomass power plants are in the more heavily forested northern part of Wisconsin.45,46 The state also has five manufacturing plants that produce fuel-grade wood pellets used for power generation and heating. Those plants have a combined annual capacity of about 230,000 tons of pellets.47 About 1 in 36 Wisconsin households heat with wood.48

Wisconsin's solar resources, although modest, contributed almost one-sixth of the state's renewable-sourced electricity generation in 2022, an increase from about one-tenth in 2021.49 Utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) installations generated about two-thirds of the state's solar power in 2021, when their contribution exceeded that of small-scale (less than 1 megawatt), customer-sited solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities for the first time. In 2022, utility-scale solar supplied almost four times more than the state's small-scale installations.50 By mid-2023, there were 46 utility-scale solar PV facilities in Wisconsin, and they had a combined capacity of nearly 800 megawatts, up from slightly more than 500 megawatts a year earlier.51,52 Other large-scale projects are planned. More than 1,600 megawatts of additional utility-scale solar PV capacity are in development, with almost 900 megawatts expected to come online by the end of 2023.53

The Wisconsin state energy policy has a number of goals, including increased energy efficiency, greater use of renewable energy, and reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through increased forestation.54 In 1999, Wisconsin became the first state to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) without restructuring its electric utility industry. Later modifications to the RPS required that 10% of electricity retail sales statewide come from renewable resources by the end of 2015. Wisconsin utilities met their 2015 target two years early in 2013. After 2015, the RPS required that each electricity provider maintain, at a minimum, their 2015 percentage.55,56 Wisconsin's renewable energy goal also required that all new generating capacity be powered by renewable energy resources to the extent that it is cost-effective and technically feasible.57 In 2019, an executive order established the state Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy and set a goal that all electricity consumed in the state come from 100% carbon-free sources by 2050.58

Electricity

Wisconsin’s Point Beach Unit 1 is one of the oldest operating nuclear reactors in the United States.

Natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy generate most of Wisconsin's electricity. Five of the state's 10 largest power plants by capacity are natural gas-fired, and four are coal-fired. Coal had supplied the largest share of in-state electricity generation on an annual basis until 2022.59 In 2022, natural gas surpassed coal for the first time when it fueled 37% of the state's total net generation, up from 10% in 2011. In 2022, coal contributed 36% of Wisconsin's total electricity net generation, down from more than half as recently as 2018.60

Nuclear power and renewable energy supply almost all of the state's remaining net generation. Until 2013 the reactors at two nuclear power plants typically supplied about one-fifth of Wisconsin's electricity generation.61,62 However, the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant's single reactor ceased operations in May 2013.63 Since 2013, the two operating nuclear reactors at the Point Beach plant, including one of the nation's oldest, have typically supplied about 15% of the state's net generation annually.64,65 Point Beach is the state's third-largest power plant by capacity and the largest by actual generation.66,67,68 In 2022, hydroelectric power provided 4% of Wisconsin's total net generation, wind supplied more than 3%, biomass fueled less than 2%, and utility-scale and small-scale solar combined accounted for almost 1%.69

Per capita electricity retail sales in Wisconsin are less than in 28 states and the District of Columbia and only slightly above the national average. Despite the cold winters, residential electricity sales per capita are lower than in about two-thirds of the states, in part because only about one in six Wisconsin households rely on electricity to heat their homes.70,71 Wisconsin's electricity sales to the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are almost equal.72 Overall, Wisconsin consumers use more electricity than the state's power plants generate. To meet consumer demand, Wisconsin receives additional power from the regional electric grid.73

Petroleum

Wisconsin has about 6% of the nation’s public-access fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline and 85% ethanol.

Wisconsin has no crude oil production or reserves.74 However, high-quality sand mined in southwestern Wisconsin is used in other states to enhance crude oil and natural gas recovery by propping fractures open in low permeability rock formations during a process known as hydraulic fracturing.75 Refined petroleum products are delivered to Wisconsin markets from refineries in the Chicago and Minneapolis metropolitan areas. The state has one small refinery, which is located in Superior in northwestern Wisconsin.76,77 When operational that refinery can process light and heavy crude oil into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, and heavy fuel oils. Refinery operations were interrupted by an explosion and fire in April 2018. However, the refinery was rebuilt, and crude oil began arriving in March 2023.78,79 The crude oil delivered to the Superior refinery comes from Canada and North Dakota via a pipeline system that also transports crude oil south across the state to Chicago area refineries and across northern Wisconsin to Michigan's Upper Peninsula and then south and across a border to a Canadian refinery.80,81

The transportation sector uses most of the petroleum consumed in Wisconsin. Almost three-fifths of the state's petroleum consumption is as motor gasoline and one-fourth is distillate fuel oil, which includes on- and off-highway diesel fuels.82,83 Although conventional gasoline is legal in most of the state, a cleaner-burning reformulated motor gasoline blend of 10% ethanol and 90% conventional motor gasoline is required in a six-county area surrounding Milwaukee, in southeastern Wisconsin.84 As in most states, retail gasoline stations throughout Wisconsin sell gasoline blended with at least 10% ethanol.85 Other ethanol-motor gasoline blends are available statewide. Wisconsin has 263 public-access fueling stations that sell E85, a blend of 15% motor gasoline with 85% ethanol. The state has 6% of the nation's public-access E85 fueling stations.86

In 2021, the transportation sector accounted for 76% of Wisconsin's petroleum consumption, and the industrial sector consumed about 12%. The residential sector, where about one in seven Wisconsin households heat with petroleum products—four-fifths of it as propane and the rest as fuel oil and kerosene—used 8%.87 The commercial sector accounted for 3% of the state's petroleum consumption, and the electric power sector used 1%.88

Natural gas

Although eastern Wisconsin is within the boundary of the natural gas-rich Michigan Basin, a geologic structure centered in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, Wisconsin does not share in any of the Basin's substantial natural gas production history and does not have any natural gas reserves or production.89,90 Wisconsin's needs are primarily met by natural gas transported by interstate pipelines from Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Kansas, and Alberta, Canada. Pipeline natural gas enters Wisconsin by way of Minnesota, Illinois, and Michigan.91 In 2021, 55% of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin was used in state. Most of the natural gas that was not consumed in the state was sent on to Michigan.92 Wisconsin has no underground natural gas storage fields.93

About two-thirds of Wisconsin households use natural gas for home heating.

Natural gas use by Wisconsin's electric power sector is increasing, and in 2022 it was almost four times greater than in 2010.94 The electric power sector is Wisconsin's largest natural gas consumer and has been since 2020.95 In 2022, that sector accounted for about 28% of natural gas delivered to consumers.96 The residential sector, where about two-thirds of state households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, surpassed the industrial sector in 2022 to become the second-largest natural gas user.97 It accounted for 26% of the natural gas delivered to Wisconsin consumers. The industrial sector used almost as much. The commercial sector consumed 20%. The transportation sector used a very small amount.98

Coal

Wisconsin has no coal mines and no coal reserves.99 Wisconsin consumed almost 16 million tons of coal in 2021, and almost all of it arrived by rail from Wyoming. It was used to generate electricity. Electric power generators in Wisconsin also received some coal from Pennsylvania. A small amount of coal from a variety of states went to industrial and commercial users in the state.100 Although most of Wisconsin's coal supply arrives by rail, minor amounts arrive on Great Lakes ships and by river barge.101,102 Several of the state's ports along the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes handle shipments of coal from other states, most notably at the Superior terminal on the Great Lakes where large amounts of western coal arrive by rail and are transferred onto ships.103 Wisconsin coal consumption is declining, and more than half of the state's almost 5,300 megawatts of coal-fired electricity generation capacity is scheduled for retirement by 2026.104

Endnotes

1 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
2 Ice Age Trail Alliance, Ice Age Trail Landscape and Geology, accessed July 14, 2023.
3 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Cranberry production in top-producing States to increase modestly in 2021 (November 24, 2021).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Hydroelectric Power Plant and Wind Power Plant Map Layers, accessed July 14, 2023.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science, Solar Resource Maps and Data, U.S. Annual Solar, accessed July 14, 2023.
6 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All solar, Small-scale photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2013-22.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2022 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
8 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, FAQs, Which are the top 10 agricultural producing States?, accessed July 14, 2023.
9 Ethanol Producer Magazine, Plants List, accessed August 7, 2023.
10 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2022 State Agriculture Overview, Wisconsin.
11 Kar, Shiba; Nowakowski, Tom; Panduranga, Kishan, Wisconsin Biogas and Feedstock Survey Final Report, Center for Land Use Education, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point (2021), p. 2.
12 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry Resources, Forestry, accessed July 14, 2023.
13 University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Renewable Energy Education, Biomass Feedstocks, accessed July 14, 2023.
14 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed July 14, 2023.
15 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014).
16 DTE, Midwest Energy Resources Company, Company, Fueling Success for Everyone, accessed July 14, 2023.
17 American Great Lakes Ports Association, Great Lake Seaway Cargoes, accessed July 14, 2023.
18 Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Economic Development, Economic Impact of Wisconsin's Commercial Ports (January 2014).
19 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Natural Gas Pipeline, HGL Pipeline, Crude Oil Pipeline and Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layers, accessed July 14, 2023.
20 Wisconsin State Climatology Office, Climate of Wisconsin (March 25, 2003).
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2021.
22 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Economy, Manufacturing, updated December 19, 2017.
23 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, Wisconsin, All statistics in table, 2021, 2022.
24 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2021.
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Biofuels, in Thousand Barrels, Ranked by State, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. fuel ethanol plant count by state, 2023.
28 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2021.
29 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production 2022 Summary (January 2023), Corn Area Planted for All Purposes and Harvested for Grain, Yield, and Production - States and
United States: 2020-2022.
30 Ethanol Producer Magazine, Plants List, accessed August 7, 2023.
31 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Ethanol Plant and Biodiesel Plant Map Layers, accessed July 14, 2023.
32 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4B, Primary Energy Production Estimates, Biofuels, in Thousand Barrels, Ranked by State, 2021.
33 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity, U.S. biodiesel plant count by state, 2028.
34 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
36 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Wisconsin, Wisconsin 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed July 14, 2023.
37 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
38 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Wind Power Plants Map Layer, accessed July 14, 2023.
39 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023, Wisconsin, Onshore Wind Turbine.
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wisconsin Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed July 14, 2023.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional Hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
42 Pennington, Melissa, Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Processing Food Waste in the United States (2016), Survey Results September 2019, EPA/903/S-19/001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. vii, 9, 30.
43 Wisconsin Office of Energy Innovation, Wisconsin Biogas Survey Report (2016), p. 2.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023, Wisconsin, Other Waste Biomass, Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass.
45 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Biomass Plant Map Layer, accessed July 15, 2023.
46 NETSTATE, Wisconsin, The Geography of Wisconsin, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2023.
48 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table 25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Wisconsin.
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, All Solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2021-22.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, All utility-scale solar, Annual, 2001-21.
51 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2023, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
52 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (June 2023), Table 6.2.B.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2023, Wisconsin, Solar photovoltaic.
54 Wisconsin State Legislature, 2019-20 Wisconsin Statutes and Annotations, Chapter 1, Section 1.12, State energy policy (May 6, 2021).
55 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Wisconsin Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated November 3, 2022.
56 Content, Thomas, "Wisconsin utilities hit 10% renewable energy goal, two years early," The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (June 12, 2014).
57 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Renewable Energy, accessed July 16, 2023.
58 Vickerman, Michael, "Governor Evers Delivers a Clean Energy Vision for Wisconsin," Renew Wisconsin (September 23, 2019).
59 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2021, Table 2A.
60 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-22.
61 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-22.
62 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Wisconsin, updated March 9, 2021.
63 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Kewaunee Power Station, updated November 3, 2021.
64 Stebbins, Samuel, "America's Oldest Nuclear Power Plants," 24/7 Wall St (April 30, 2022).
65 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Nuclear, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-22.
66 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2021, Tables 2A, 2B.
67 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Unit 1, updated May 6, 2022.
68 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Point Beach Nuclear Plant 2, updated May 6, 2022.
69 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Wisconsin, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables, Wind, Biomass (total), All utility-scale solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
70 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2021.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table 25040, Home Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Wisconsin.
72 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Wisconsin, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Annual, 2022.
73 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2021, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2021.
74 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed July 18, 2023.
75 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Industrial sand mining overview, accessed July 18, 2023.
76 U.S. EIA, Wisconsin, Profile Overview, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, Petroleum Product Pipeline, HGL Pipeline, Petroleum Product Terminals, and Petroleum Refinery Map Layers, accessed July 18, 2023.
77 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Wisconsin, Annual as of January 1, 2023.
78 Cenovus Energy, Superior Refinery, Fact Sheet, accessed July 18, 2023.
79 Johnson, Natalie, Wisconsin's Only Refinery Poised to Reopen in 2023, Maintenance World (July 12, 2023).
80 Enbridge, Enbridge in Wisconsin, Superior Terminal, accessed July 18, 2023.
81 Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Petroleum Pipelines 2015s, from Wisconsin Energy Statistics 2018, p. 95. accessed July 18, 2023.
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