Vermont State Energy Profile



Vermont Quick Facts

  • Vermont consumes more than three times as much energy as it produces, but its total energy consumption is the smallest among the states, which contributes to Vermont having the lowest energy-related carbon dioxide emissions of any state.
  • About 60% of Vermont households heat with petroleum products and 13% use wood, both the highest shares of those two fuels in any state. More than one-third of Vermont schoolchildren attend facilities heated by wood products.  
  • In 2020, Vermont generated about 100% of its electricity from renewable resources, a larger share than in any other state. About 58% of Vermont's utility-scale in-state generation came from conventional hydroelectric power.
  • In 2020, Vermont’s five utility-scale wind farms accounted for about 15% of the state’s total electricity net generation, a larger share than in three-fourths of the states.
  • Vermont’s 2016 Comprehensive Energy Plan set an overall goal of obtaining 90% of all energy used in the state from renewable resources by 2050.

Last Updated: September 16, 2021



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography Vermont Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.6 million 0.2% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.3 million 0.2% Jul-21  
Economy Vermont U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 32.8 billion 51 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 2,979 million 47 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 58,650 20 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 7,346 million miles 49 2019  
Land in Farms 1.2 million acres 42 2017  
Climate Vermont U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 44.8 degrees Fahrenheit 42 2020  
Precipitation 40.1 inches 27 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Vermont U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Vermont U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.97 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 19.96 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Vermont U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector -- $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Vermont U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 19.35 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 16.65 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 11.31 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells -- -- 2019 find more
Capacity Vermont Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 829 MW 0.1% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 41 trillion Btu * 2019 find more
Crude Oil -- -- Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed -- -- 2019 find more
Coal -- -- 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 191 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Vermont U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.3 % 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 0.1 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 0 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 99.5 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 22 thousand barrels * Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 28 thousand barrels 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 0 thousand tons 0.0% Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Vermont Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 388 stations 0.3% 2019  
Propane 1 stations * 2021  
Electricity 281 stations 0.7% 2021  
E85 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 3 stations 0.2% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Vermont U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 137 trillion Btu 51 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 219 million Btu 43 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 2,736 million 50 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,384 12 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Vermont Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 48 trillion Btu 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 26 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 17 trillion Btu 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 46 trillion Btu 0.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 917 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 484 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 302 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,033 million 0.2% 2019 find more
by Source Vermont Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 16 million barrels 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 14 billion cu ft * 2019 find more
    »  Coal 0 million short tons 0.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 1,725 million 0.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 108 million 0.1% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 0 million 0.0% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 2 thousand barrels 0.2% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 2 million cu ft * Jun-21 find more
Coal 0 thousand short tons 0.0% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Vermont U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 18.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 41.4 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 6.4 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 18.4 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 15.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 687 MW 0.3% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 100 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 54 thousand MWh 0.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 35 thousand MWh 0.8% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 21 thousand MWh 0.4% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Vermont U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 32.0 % 5 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 719 thousand barrels 49 2019  
Total Emissions Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 5.9 million metric tons 0.1% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Vermont Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons * 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide * * 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 16, 2021

Overview

Vermont consumes less energy than any other state, but it produces less than one-third of the total energy it needs.

Vermont's forest-covered mountains and fast-running rivers are home to substantial renewable energy resources, but the state has no fossil energy reserves.1,2,3 Less than 100 miles across at its widest, Vermont lies between the shores of the Connecticut River on its eastern border with New Hampshire and Lake Champlain and the Hudson River Valley on its western border with New York. The mountains that run the length of Vermont, from Canada in the north to the hills of Massachusetts in the south, occupy most of the state and have Vermont's greatest wind resources.4,5,6 Rivers that descend from the mountains and those that border the state provide hydroelectric resources.7 Forests that cover almost four-fifths of Vermont support the state's wood products industry, whose byproducts also fuel electricity generation and home heating.8,9 More than one in eight Vermont households use wood for their primary heating source, eight times more than the national average and the largest share of any state.10

Vermont is the second-smallest state by population, after Wyoming, and the eighth-smallest state by area.11,12 More than one-fourth of Vermont's residents live along Lake Champlain in the northwestern county that includes the city of Burlington.13 Most other Vermonters live in small towns and on farms. Based on the percentage of its population that lives in rural census districts, Vermont is one of the two most rural states in the nation.14 In part because of the state's small population, Vermonters use less total energy than the residents of any other state in the nation, and their total energy consumption per capita is among the lowest one-fifth of states. However, Vermont consumes more than three times as much energy as it produces.15,16,17 The residential sector, with its high heating requirements during the state's frigid winters, is the largest energy end-use consumer in the state and accounts for more than one-third of Vermont's end-use consumption, even though about one in six Vermont homes are occupied only seasonally.18,19 The transportation sector follows at about one-third of state energy consumption. The commercial sector uses nearly one-fifth and the industrial sector accounts for about one-eighth.20

Electricity

More than half of Vermont’s electricity supply comes from out of state.

Vermont's in-state electricity net generation has come almost entirely from renewable resources since the permanent shutdown of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station at the end of 2014.21,22 Prior to its shutdown, Vermont Yankee alone accounted for nearly half of the state's generating capacity and contributed more than three-fourths of the state's net generation.23,24 Today, the state's electric utilities own little generating capacity and do not generate enough electricity to meet demand.25 Vermont relies primarily on imports from Canada and in-state independent power producers for electricity.26,27,28 The largest share of Vermont's electricity supply comes from hydroelectric power, most of it generated in Canada.29

More than half of Vermont's electricity supply comes from out of state.30 However, in 2020, Vermont's in-state generation from both utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) and customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities provided almost half of the electricity consumed in the state, and more than half of that came from hydroelectric power.31 An additional one-sixth came from biomass, primarily from generating units that burn wood and wood-derived fuels. Almost all the rest came from wind and solar energy in nearly equal amounts. Solar energy's contribution has increased rapidly, and, in 2020, it was almost four times greater than it was in 2015. Natural gas and petroleum fuel very minor amounts of Vermont's in-state generation.32

Vermont is a member of the 11-state Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), which was established to cap and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power generation.33 In part because Vermont is one of only a half dozen states that do not have any utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation, the state has the lowest carbon dioxide emissions of any state in the nation.34,35 Proceeds from the sale of RGGI carbon allowances help fund state energy efficiency programs like Vermont's Energy Efficiency Utility Program, which was created to provide energy efficiency services to residential and business energy consumers.36,37

In 2019, Vermont ranked 10th-lowest among the states in per capita total electricity retail sales and 11th-lowest in residential electricity retail sales.38 However, Vermont's average electricity retail prices across all sectors are the eighth-highest in the nation, and the state's average residential sector prices are the seventh-highest.39 Although only about 1 in 16 Vermont households use electricity as their primary home heating source and few use air conditioning, the residential sector accounts for two-fifths of the state consumption.40 The commercial sector accounts for slightly more than one-third, and the industrial sector purchases one-fourth.41

Vermont is the only New England state that did not restructure its electricity industry to allow retail competition. The state has 1 investor-owned distribution utility, 14 municipal utilities, and 2 rural electric cooperatives.42 In 1956, Vermont's electric utilities pooled their transmission systems to connect with hydroelectric generators in New York and Canada, creating the nation's first statewide transmission-only company.43 That company also represents the state's utilities in power pool matters with the New England regional transmission operator, Independent System Operator—New England (ISO-NE). ISO-NE is responsible for managing reliable electricity flow across the six New England states. 44

Renewable energy

Vermont has the largest share of in-state electricity net generation from renewable resources of any state, reaching about 100% in 2020.45,46 About 54% of Vermont's total electricity net generation comes from the 47 hydroelectric plants at dams around the state.47 Biomass, almost entirely from wood and wood waste, accounts for 17% of Vermont's total net generation.48 In addition to the about one in eight Vermont households that rely on wood for heat, more than one-third of Vermont children attend a school heated by wood.49,50 Vermont's biomass resources also provide feedstock to the state's one wood pellet manufacturing plant, which has a production capacity of 16,000 tons per year.51

Renewable resources provided about 100% of Vermont’s in-state electricity generation in 2020, the largest share for any state.

Vermont also generates electricity from wind and solar energy. In 2020, Vermont's five utility-scale wind farms contributed 15% of the state's total net generation.52,53 Two of Vermont's commercial wind farms are on mountain crests near the state's southern border. The others are located in northern Vermont. There are also a number of small-scale, generally about 100-kilowatt, wind facilities in northern Vermont.54,55 In 2020, solar energy at utility-scale and small-scale installations accounted for one-seventh of Vermont's total net generation. Utility-scale solar facilities accounted for more than 7% of total in-state generation. Customer-sited, small-scale generating facilities contributed another almost 7% of the state's total electricity net generation.56 By the end of June 2021, Vermont had about 266 megawatts of solar capacity installed at large- and small-scale sites across the state.57 The state's largest solar farm, with almost 20 megawatts of generating capacity, began operating in December 2018. Additional solar projects are in development including a 20-megawatt solar farm scheduled to come online in 2023.58,59

Vermont encourages small-scale, customer-sited renewable generation. The state's Clean Energy Development Fund assists small-scale and community projects that use environmentally sustainable electric generation and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technologies.60 The program allows net metering of installations that use renewable resources and have up to 500 kilowatts of capacity. The program limits net metering of CHP systems that use non-renewable fuels to 20 kilowatts, and those facilities must meet efficiency standards. Vermont does not have a cap on how much of an electricity supplier's peak demand can be net-metered.61

Vermont's renewable energy standard (RES), enacted in 2015, integrated increasing renewable energy production with reducing total energy use and costs, a national first. The RES requires that all retail electricity suppliers in the state obtain 75% of their annual electricity retail sales from eligible renewable sources by 2032, including 10% from new, in-state, renewable generation at customer-sited facilities with capacities of 5 megawatts or less. The Vermont RES also requires retail electricity suppliers to help consumers reduce their total fossil fuel use by supporting energy transformation projects that produce energy-related goods and services. The projects do not generate electricity but must result in a net reduction in fossil fuel consumption. The support is in increments equivalent to 2% of electricity retail sales, reaching a goal of 12% by 2032.62,63 Vermont's 2016 Comprehensive Energy Plan set an overall goal to obtain 90% of all energy used in the state from renewable resources by 2050.64 In 2019, renewable resources accounted for about one-third of all energy consumed in the state.65

Petroleum

Petroleum, consumed primarily for transportation and home heating, accounts for more than half of Vermont’s energy use.

Vermont has no crude oil reserves or production, nor does it have any petroleum refineries.66 There are no petroleum product pipelines in the state, but there is a petroleum product terminal in the Burlington area.67 Refined products arrive by rail and truck from neighboring states and Canada.68 One rarely used crude oil pipeline crosses Vermont but makes no deliveries in the state.69 Because of environmental concerns, a proposal to use the pipeline to bring crude oil from Canada and North Dakota to Portland, Maine, for export has encountered opposition in Vermont and the other states the pipeline crosses.70,71

Almost three-fifths of the energy consumed in Vermont is petroleum-based.72 Although Vermont uses less petroleum than almost all other states, per capita petroleum consumption in Vermont is greater than in more than three-fourths of the states.73 Like almost all other states, Vermont's transportation sector consumes the largest share, accounting for nearly three-fifths of the state's total petroleum use.74 As part of its Comprehensive Energy Plan, Vermont has identified strategies to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Those strategies include increased vehicle efficiency, increased use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and land-use planning that reduces the need for automobiles.75 By mid-2021, more than 830 public electric vehicle charging stations were available statewide.76 Because the entire state meets federal air quality standards, conventional motor gasoline without ethanol can be sold statewide. However, almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with at least 10% ethanol.77,78,79

The residential sector accounts for about one-fourth of Vermont's petroleum consumption. About three in five Vermont households use fuel oil, kerosene, or propane to heat their homes, the largest share of any state.80,81 As a result, the state is particularly vulnerable to heating oil shortages and price spikes during the winter months. The U.S. Department of Energy's Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve—created in 2000 to respond to heating fuel supply disruptions in the region—holds 1 million barrels of ultra-low sulfur heating oil at three storage sites located in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey.82 The commercial and industrial sectors use almost all the rest of the petroleum consumed in Vermont, and together they account for almost one-fifth of the state's total petroleum use.83 The electric power sector uses a very small amount of the petroleum consumed in Vermont.84

Natural gas

Vermont has no natural gas reserves or production.85 Vermont's single natural gas utility receives its supply from a small-capacity pipeline that brings natural gas south from Canada. The utility distributes natural gas in three counties along Lake Champlain down to the Burlington area.86 A 41-mile expansion of natural gas service into Addison County south of Burlington was completed in 2017.87 However, the northeastern part of the state remains the only area with access to natural gas service. As a result, Vermont is the nation's second-smallest natural gas consumer, and the second-smallest natural gas consumer per capita, among the states. Only Hawaii uses less natural gas.88

Vermont's commercial sector accounts for more than half of the natural gas consumed in the state, and the residential sector uses almost three-tenths. Because much of the state's population lives in the Greater Burlington area, almost one in five Vermont households rely on natural gas for their primary home heating fuel.89 The industrial sector consumes most of the rest. The only natural gas used in the electric power sector is used as a secondary energy source at two biomass-fueled power plants.90 The transportation sector uses very small amounts of natural gas.91 The state has three compressed natural gas vehicle fueling stations, all located in the Burlington area.92

Coal

Vermont has no coal reserves or coal mining, and the state does not have any operating coal-fired power plants.93,94 Vermont is part of the six-state ISO-NE regional grid, which receives a decreasing share of its power from coal-fired power plants, but ISO-NE, and Vermont, remain dependent on out-of-state coal-fired facilities during periods of peak electricity demand.95

Endnotes

1 Roberts, Billy J., Forest Residues in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
2 Samu, N.M., et al., The 2020 National Hydropower Map, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accessed August 2, 2021.
3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Vermont, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed August 2, 2021.
4 NETSTATE, Vermont, Vermont Almanac, updated March 9, 2018.
5 Morrissey, Charles Thomas, Vermont, Land, Relief, Britannica, accessed August 2, 2021.
6 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Vermont, accessed August 2, 2021.
7 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, Hydroelectric Power, accessed August 2, 2021.
8 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, Overview of Vermont's Forests, accessed August 2, 2021.
9 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, All fuels, Wood and wood-derived fuels, Annual, 2019-20.
10 U.S. Census Bureau, Vermont, United States, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
11 U.S. Census Bureau, National Population Totals: 2010-20, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020.
12 U.S. Census Bureau, Vermont, accessed August 2, 2021.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, County Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for States and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (CO-EST 2020).
14 Vermont Tax Structure Commission, Population Changes and Vermont State Revenue (December 6, 2019), p. 12.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Energy Production and Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2019.
18 Dupigny-Giroux, Lesley-Ann, "Oh, the Maple Sweetness of Vermont's Climate," Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, CoCoRaHS State Climates Series, accessed August 2, 2021.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Vermont, Table B25002, Occupancy Status, 2019, and Vermont Table B25004, Vacancy Status, 2019, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F33, Total Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
21 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, updated March 24, 2021.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001-20.
23 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Detailed State Data, 1990-2019, Annual Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860).
24 U.S. EIA, Vermont Electricity Profile 2019, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2019.
25 U.S. EIA, Vermont Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
26 Vermont Department of Public Service, Electric, Vermont Electric Utilities, accessed August 2, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, Vermont Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 1.3.B.
29 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 381.
30 U.S. EIA, Vermont Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Vermont, All sectors, Annual, 2001-20.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2001-20.
33 Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Elements of RGGI, accessed August 2, 2021.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2018.
36 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Efficiency Vermont, updated March 21, 2017.
37 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, "Vermont receives record funding for state energy efficiency efforts," Press Release, accessed August 2, 2021.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.6.B.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Vermont, End-Use Sector, All sectors, Annual 2001-20.
42 Vermont Department of Public Service, Electric, Vermont Electric Utilities, accessed August 2, 2021.
43 Vermont Electric Power Company, About Vermont Electric Power Company, accessed August 2, 2021.
44 Vermont Electric Power Company, Who's who in Vermont's electric system, accessed August 2, 2021.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B, 1.7.B, 1.10.B, 1.11.B, 1.17.B.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other resources, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, Monthly, 2020.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, Fuel Type-Check all, Annual, 2020.
49 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
50 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 324.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report (July 21, 2021), Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, April 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021.
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, Wind, Annual, 2001-20.
54 U.S. EIA, Vermont Profile Overview, Wind Power Plant Map Layer with Wind Turbine Layer visible, accessed August 4, 2021.
55 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, p. 309.
56 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Vermont, All fuel, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2001-20.
57 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2021), Tables 6.2.B.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of June 2021 and Inventory of Planned Generators as of June 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (August 2021), Table 6.5.
60 Vermont Department of Public Service, Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF), accessed August 4, 2021.
61 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Net Metering, updated July 2, 2018.
62 Vermont Public Utility Commission, Renewable Energy Standard, accessed August 24, 2021.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Vermont, Renewable Energy Standard, updated June 27, 2018.
64 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Cover Letter, p. 1 and Executive Summary, p. 2.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Total Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019, and Table C12, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2019.
66 U.S. EIA, Vermont Profile Data, Profile Data, Reserves, accessed August 4, 2021.
67 U.S. EIA, Vermont Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layer, accessed August 4, 2021.
68 Global Companies, LLC, Global Burlington VT, accessed August 4, 2021.
69 Canada Energy Regulator, Pipeline Profiles: Montreal, Pipeline System and Throughput and Capacity, updated September 2018.
70 Herrick, John, "13 Vermont Towns Oppose Reversal of Portland-Montreal Oil Pipeline," VT Digger (March 5, 2014).
71 Tuttle, Robert, "Biden backs Maine town's opposition to Suncor's Montreal pipeline reversal proposal," Financial Post (June 30, 2021).
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019, in barrels.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
75 Vermont Department of Public Service, 2016 Vermont Comprehensive Energy Plan, Executive Summary, p. 9.
76 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles, accessed August 27, 2021.
77 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, Gasoline Winter Oxygenates, accessed August 5, 2021.
78 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
79 "Almost all U.S. gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol," Today in Energy (May 4, 2016).
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
81 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
82 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, History, accessed August 5, 2021.
83 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Consumption Estimates, 1960 Through 2019, Table CT8, Electric Power Sector Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1960-2019, Vermont.
85 U.S. EIA, Vermont Profile Data, Profile Data, Reserves and Supply & Distribution, accessed August 5, 2021.
86 Vermont Public Service Commission, Natural Gas, and Coverage Map, accessed August 5, 2021.
87 Parent, Beth, "Vermont Gas Completes 41-Mile Expansion, Begins Serving Customers in Addison County," Vermont Gas Press Release (April 12, 2017).
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
89 U.S. Census Bureau, Data, Vermont, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
90 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for natural gas, Vermont, all sectors, 2020.
91 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Vermont, 2015-20.
92 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Natural Gas Fueling Station Locations, Advanced Filters, Vermont, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Public & private access, Map Results, accessed September 8, 2021.
93 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Tables 1, 15.
94 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020ER Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3.1, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
95 ISO New England, New England Power Grid 2020-2021 Profile (February 2021), p. 2.


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map