Virginia State Energy Profile



Virginia Quick Facts

  • Virginia ranks third in the nation, after Colorado and New Mexico, in coalbed methane proved reserves, and two Virginia coalbed methane fields, Oakwood and Nora, are ranked among the top 100 natural gas fields in the United States.
  • The ports in Virginia's Norfolk Customs District processed about 35% of U.S. coal exports in 2019, making it the largest U.S. coal export center.
  • In 2019, natural gas fueled 60% of Virginia's electricity net generation, nuclear power provided almost 30%, renewable resources, primarily  biomass, supplied more than 6%, and coal fueled almost 4%.
  • Virginia’s Bath County Pumped Storage Station, with a net generating capacity of 3,003 megawatts, is the largest hydroelectric pumped storage facility in the nation.
  • The Plantation Pipeline, one of the nation's largest petroleum products pipelines with a capacity of 720,000 barrels per day, delivers refined  products throughout the Southeast before reaching its final delivery point in northern Virginia.

Last Updated: October 15, 2020



Data

Last Update: May 20, 2021 | Next Update: June 17, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Population 8.6 million 2.6% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 4.2 million 2.6% Mar-21  
Economy Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 554.2 billion 13 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 45,300 million 19 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 62,362 14 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 85,432 million miles 11 2019  
Land in Farms 7.8 million acres 34 2017  
Climate Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 57.4 degrees Fahrenheit 15 2020  
Precipitation 61.4 inches 7 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 56.72 /barrel Feb-21  
Natural Gas Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.85 /thousand cu ft $ 12.43 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Residential $ 11.84 /thousand cu ft $ 9.55 /thousand cu ft Feb-21 find more
Coal Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 98.06 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.25 /million Btu $ 1.92 /million Btu Feb-21  
Electricity Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.39 cents/kWh 13.34 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Commercial 7.51 cents/kWh 11.93 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Industrial 6.60 cents/kWh 8.15 cents/kWh Feb-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 2,297 billion cu ft 0.5% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 175 million short tons 1.2% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 7,978 wells 1.6% 2019 find more
Capacity Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 27,846 MW 2.5% Feb-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 900 trillion Btu 0.9% 2018 find more
Crude Oil * * Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 106,366 million cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
Coal 12,297 thousand short tons 1.7% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 7,803 thousand MWh 2.4% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Virginia U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 1.2 % 0.5 % Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 49.2 % 34.1 % Feb-21 find more
Coal-Fired 10.8 % 26.9 % Feb-21 find more
Nuclear 31.9 % 19.3 % Feb-21 find more
Renewables 7.1 % 18.7 % Feb-21  
Stocks Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 19 thousand barrels 0.1% Feb-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 2,696 thousand barrels 2.3% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 6,551 million cu ft 0.1% Feb-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 2,315 thousand barrels 9.4% Feb-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 457 thousand tons 0.4% Feb-21 find more
Fueling Stations Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,070 stations 2.7% 2019  
Propane 64 stations 2.4% 2021  
Electricity 820 stations 2.0% 2021  
E85 44 stations 1.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 7 stations 0.6% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,401 trillion Btu 13 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 283 million Btu 31 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 30,612 million 13 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,601 37 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 610 trillion Btu 2.8% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 636 trillion Btu 3.5% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 438 trillion Btu 1.3% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 717 trillion Btu 2.5% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 7,341 million 2.7% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,515 million 2.9% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,899 million 1.4% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 14,858 million 2.5% 2018 find more
by Source Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 165 million barrels 2.2% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 683 billion cu ft 2.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 3 million short tons 0.6% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 16,872 million 2.4% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,484 million 2.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 304 million 1.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 163 thousand barrels 5.4% Feb-21 find more
Natural Gas 26,290 million cu ft 3.3% Feb-21 find more
Coal 422 thousand short tons 0.9% Feb-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Virginia U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.6 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 4.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 56.2 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.2 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.8 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,914 MW 1.1% Feb-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 2 million gal/year * 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 120 thousand MWh 0.5% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 136 thousand MWh 0.4% Feb-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 301 thousand MWh 6.9% Feb-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 22 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 1,299 thousand barrels 0.3% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Virginia U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 8.0 % 31 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 9,903 thousand barrels 11 2019  
Total Emissions Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 103.2 million metric tons 2.0% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 29,965 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 13 thousand metric tons 1.0% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 22 thousand metric tons 1.6% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: October 15, 2020

Overview

Coal is the primary energy resource produced in Virginia.

Virginia is located on the East Coast of the United States, midway between the southern tip of Florida and the northern coast of Maine. The state stretches almost 430 miles west to east and includes the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula on the eastern side of the Chesapeake Bay.1 The coastal plain that occupies the eastern part of Virginia includes the site of the first permanent English settlement in North America, several of the state's modern-day population centers, and the nation's largest coal export port at Hampton Roads in the Norfolk Customs District.2,3,4,5,6 To the west, the flat coastal plain meets the rolling hills and basins of the Piedmont region along a boundary known as the Fall Line because it is characterized by rapids and waterfalls.7 However, most of the state's hydroelectric power plants are further west, where the rolling hills of the Piedmont rise into the Blue Ridge Mountains.8 The valleys and ridges that occupy the western part of the state are parallel to the spine of the Appalachian Mountains and, along with the Appalachian Plateau, contain most of the state's coal, the primary energy resource produced in Virginia.9,10 The Appalachian Plateau, which cuts across the southwestern corner of Virginia, also holds almost all the state's crude oil and natural gas fields.11 Nearly two-thirds of Virginia is forested, and the state's widely distributed forests hold abundant biomass resources.12 Virginia has offshore wind energy potential as well.13 Uranium, the source for nuclear fuel, has been discovered near the state's southern border. The deposit, although not developed, may be one of the nation's largest.14,15

Energy consumption in Virginia is more than two and a half times greater than the state's energy production.16 The transportation sector uses the largest share and accounts for three-tenths of the state's end-use energy consumption.17 Virginia has the third-largest state-maintained transportation network in the nation, including six major interstate highways.18 More than a dozen railroads operate on 3,500 miles of railway in the state. Virginia also has several commercial airports, including two near Washington, DC, that are among the nation's busiest, and one of the nation's largest seaports, the Port of Virginia at Hampton Roads.19,20 The commercial sector accounts for slightly more than one-fourth of Virginia's end-use energy consumption, the residential sector uses about one-fourth, and the state's industrial sector consumes nearly one-fifth.21 Although Virginia is just below the top one-fourth of states in total energy consumption, the state's per capita energy consumption is well below the national average and is less than that of 30 other states.22,23

Coal

Virginia ports handle more than one-third of the nation’s coal exports.

Virginia ports are the nation's leading exporters of U.S. coal. More than one-third of the country's total coal exports are shipped through the Norfolk Customs District, the largest U.S. coal port, which includes Hampton Roads, Norfolk, and Newport News.24 Although the state has 53 active coal mines, reserves at and production from Virginia's mines are less than 2% of the nation's total, and most of the coal exported from Virginia's seaports is produced in other states.25,26 However, nearly nine-tenths of Virginia's coal was exported to other nations or sent to other states in 2019.27,28

Almost two-fifths of the domestically produced coal used in Virginia is mined in the state. The additional coal Virginia needs comes primarily from Kentucky and West Virginia.29 Most of the coal consumed in-state is used by electric power generators and at coke plants. A small amount is used at industrial facilities and in the commercial sector.30 Only a very small number of Virginia households heat their homes with coal.31 In 2019, Virginia accounted for less than 1% of the nation's coal consumption.32

Natural gas

Most of Virginia’s natural gas production comes from wells drilled into coal-rich formations.

Although Virginia holds less than 1% of the nation's total natural gas reserves, the state contains one-fifth of U.S. coalbed methane proved reserves, the third-largest amount of any state.33,34 In 2019, more than four-fifths of the state's natural gas production was coalbed methane produced from coal-rich formations, and, although Virginia's natural gas production was less than 1% of the nation's total, the state accounted for about 10% of U.S. coalbed methane production.35,36 Two of Virginia's coalbed methane fields—Oakwood and Nora—are among the nation's top 100 natural gas fields as ranked by proved reserves.37,38 In 2019, natural gas production from the state's natural gas fields, all located in seven counties in the southwestern corner of the state, declined.39 Although Virginia's natural gas production has steadily decreased since its 2011 peak, it is substantially greater than it was three decades ago.40

Natural gas demand in Virginia was more than six times greater than state production in 2019.41 Most of the natural gas supplied to consumers in Virginia is delivered from the Gulf Coast and the Appalachian regions by interstate natural gas pipelines.42 In the past, the largest share of the state's natural gas supply came from the south through North Carolina. However, after 2011, natural gas movements into Virginia from the south abruptly declined, and more natural gas entered the state from the north through Maryland.43,44,45 Those deliveries increased as natural gas production from the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania increased.46,47 Much of the natural gas that enters Virginia continues on to other states. In 2015, for the first time, the largest share of natural gas leaving Virginia went south, entering North Carolina and Tennessee. A small amount of the natural gas that leaves Virginia is distributed to Washington, DC, and the surrounding Maryland suburbs by the local natural gas utility.48,49 Some of the natural gas that enters Virginia is stored in two underground storage facilities—one a salt cavern and one a depleted natural gas reservoir.50 Their combined total storage capacity is 9 billion cubic feet, about 0.1% of the nation's total.51,52

Natural gas consumption by Virginia's electric power generators has risen sharply since 2003, and, in 2019, consumption for power generation was almost 12 times greater than it was in 2003.53 In 2015, for the first time, the electric power sector used more natural gas than all the other end-use sectors combined. In 2018, the electric power sector accounted for almost three-fifths of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state, and, by 2019, it was nearly two-thirds. The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Virginia, followed by the residential sector, where one in three households use natural gas for home heating.54 The commercial sector consumes almost all the rest with only a minor amount used in the transportation sector.55

Petroleum

Virginia has no appreciable crude oil reserves and only a small amount of crude oil production, all of which is now from wells in two counties in the far southwestern corner of the state.56,57 Since the first crude oil well in Virginia came online in 1942, less than 1 million barrels have been produced in the state. In 1983, Virginia's total annual production peaked at more than 65,000 barrels, but it was less than one-tenth of that in 2019.58 There are no operating petroleum refineries in the state, and Virginia is not crossed by any major crude oil pipelines.59,60 Refined petroleum products arrive in the state by pipeline and by ship. Two major petroleum product pipelines—the Colonial Pipeline and the Plantation Pipeline—deliver refined petroleum products to locations in Virginia.61 The Colonial Pipeline originates in Texas and has several delivery locations in Virginia before reaching its endpoint in New Jersey.62 The Plantation Pipeline brings petroleum products north from Louisiana and Mississippi to its terminus in northern Virginia near Washington, DC.63 Some petroleum products also arrive at Virginia ports from overseas.64

Virginia's only petroleum refinery, located at Yorktown, suspended refining operations in 2010 and has been converted into a storage depot and transportation hub for crude oil and petroleum products. The terminal was connected to the Colonial Pipeline system in 2011, and rail and dock facilities were expanded to accommodate train and tanker deliveries. Crude oil arrives by rail and is transferred to ships at the terminal docks. Petroleum products arrive by ship, railway, or pipeline and are sent to market by marine vessels or by truck.65

Virginia uses more petroleum than almost three-fourths of the states and consumes more per capita than nearly two-thirds of states.66 Almost nine-tenths of the petroleum products consumed in Virginia are used in the transportation sector, and more than two-thirds of that share is consumed as motor gasoline.67,68 Counties and cities in the northern part of the state are required by federal clean air regulations to use reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce harmful emissions. Several counties and associated cities in central and eastern Virginia also have opted to require reformulated motor gasoline to reduce smog.69 The state's other end-use sectors account for almost one-seventh of the petroleum consumed in the state. The largest share of that is used in the industrial sector; the rest is primarily used by the commercial and residential sectors. The commercial sector accounts for 4% of the Virginia's petroleum consumption, and the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 12 households heat with fuel oil, kerosene, propane, or other petroleum products, accounts for slightly more than 3%. Very little petroleum is used for electricity generation.70,71

Electricity

Natural gas fueled three-fifths of the electricity generated in Virginia in 2019, and the state's two nuclear power plants supplied three-tenths.72 Renewable energy sources, including biomass, hydroelectric power, and solar, as well as coal and petroleum are also used to generate electricity. In 2019, in-state electricity generation from renewable energy sources surpassed coal for the first time.73 Coal-fired power plants supplied the largest share of the state's net generation until 2009, when coal's contribution fell below that of nuclear power. As coal-fired generation decreased, natural gas-fired generation increased. In 2012, natural gas-fueled generation in Virginia exceeded that of coal for the first time, and, by 2015, the contribution from natural gas-fired generation surpassed that of nuclear power.74 However, electricity consumption is greater than electricity generation in Virginia, and the state receives additional power from the regional grid managed by the PJM Interconnection.75 All but a few counties in Virginia are within the PJM Interconnection, a regional transmission organization that coordinates the movement of electricity in all or parts of 13 Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states plus the District of Columbia.76 The four counties in southwestern Virginia that are not served by PJM are supplied by the Tennessee Valley Authority.77

Electricity retail sales in Virginia are highest in the commercial sector, followed by the residential sector, where most households have air conditioning, and almost two-thirds of them use electricity for home heating.78,79 The average electricity price across all sectors in the state is below the national average.80 Virginia has a voluntary energy efficiency resource goal for investor-owned utilities that aims to reduce electricity use by consumers by 10% from 2006 levels by 2022.81

Renewable energy

Virginia’s Bath County Pumped Storage Station is the largest pumped hydroelectric storage facility in the nation.

Renewable resources at large- and small-scale facilities were used to generate more than 6% of Virginia's electricity in 2019. Hydroelectric power is the renewable resource with the greatest generating capacity in Virginia; however, biomass fuels a larger share of the state's electricity generation annually. In 2019, biomass fueled more than 4% of the state's total net generation. Municipal solid waste and landfill gas are common forms of biomass used for electricity generation in Virginia, but the largest share of generating capacity is at facilities that use wood and wood waste.82,83 Virginia also has seven wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce about one million tons of wood pellets per year.84 Wood pellets are compressed wood residues used for generating electricity as well as for heating in residential wood pellet stoves and in large-scale boilers in commercial buildings.85 About 2% of the state's households heat with wood.86 Virginia also has a liquid biofuels industry. Its three biodiesel plants have a combined capacity of about 9 million gallons per year, but state consumers use more than 22 million gallons annually.87,88 Virginia also has one fuel ethanol plant that has a productive capacity of about 2 million gallons per year.89

Hydroelectric generation varies annually, depending on precipitation, and typically contributes less than 2.5% of Virginia's electricity.90 The state has both pumped-storage hydroelectric plants and conventional hydroelectric facilities. Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir in off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir through turbine generators when additional generating capacity is needed.91,92 There are two pumped hydroelectric facilities in the state. Virginia's Bath County Pumped Storage Station, with a net generating capacity of 3,003 megawatts, is the largest power plant in Virginia by capacity, and it is the largest pumped-storage hydroelectric plant in the nation.93 The state also has about two dozen large-scale conventional hydroelectric power plants.94

The largest share of solar PV generation in Virginia is provided by utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities. Although the contribution from all solar PV to Virginia's net generation is small, it almost tripled between 2017 and 2019.95 Virginia's first large-scale solar PV generation came online in October 2016 on Virginia's Eastern Shore. It was the largest solar farm in the mid-Atlantic region at that time.96 The 80-megawatt installation increased Virginia's utility-scale solar PV capacity to more than 100 megawatts that year. More than 450 additional megawatts of utility-scale solar capacity were added by the end of 2019, including a 100-megawatt facility that became operational in 2017 and a 142-megawatt solar farm that came online in late 2019.97 By July 2020, Virginia's installed large-scale solar PV capacity had risen to 611 megawatts. Small-scale (less than one megawatt) installations accounted for an additional 132 megawatts, increasing the state's total solar PV capacity to 743 megawatts by mid-2020.98 In 2019, solar PV contributed about 1% of the state's net generation.99

Virginia has large areas with wind energy potential off its Atlantic coast and in the Chesapeake Bay, but onshore resources are limited and there is no utility-scale wind electricity generation in the state.100 A demonstration project, Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind, 27 miles off Virginia Beach, has two 6-megawatt turbines that are the first wind turbines installed in federal waters. The project is the precursor to the planned development of a 2.6-gigawatt wind farm in an adjacent federal lease tract. That project is expected to be operational by 2026.101 Most of the state's onshore potential is found along Virginia's Atlantic shoreline and in narrow bands on the state's western mountain ridges.102 Some small wind projects have been installed at host schools in Virginia as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind for Schools program.103

Virginia has established a voluntary renewable portfolio goal that encourages investor-owned utilities to acquire 15% of base year 2007 sales from eligible renewable technologies by 2025. Research and development activities can be used to meet up to one-fifth of the goal. Utilities that choose to participate may use renewable energy credits to meet up to 20% of the annual requirement. Double credits are given for energy derived from sunlight, onshore wind, or animal waste, and triple credits are given for those that use offshore wind.104 In 2007, Virginia also enacted an incentive program called the "Mandatory Utility Green Power Option." The program gives electric utility customers the option to purchase 100% of their electricity from renewable energy sources. If a utility does not offer a program that meets the 100% renewable energy requirement, its customers can purchase renewable power from any licensed retail supplier.105

Endnotes

1 World Atlas, Virginia, Virginia Map, accessed August 31, 2020.
2 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Geography of Virginia, updated February 25, 2016.
3 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Commonwealth of Virginia, updated July 28, 2017.
4 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Virginia Profile.
5 U.S. Coal Exports, Estimated U.S. Coal Port Capacity, 2017 Update, accessed August 31, 2020.
6 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
7 Sethi, Parvinder, et al, Geology of Virginia, Coastal Plain Physiography, Special Physiographic Features, Part 1, The Fall Line, Radford University (2014).
8 U.S. EIA, Virginia, Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed August 31, 2020.
9 NETSTATE, Virginia, Virginia Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
10 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Tables P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
11 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Economic Resources, accessed August 31, 2020.
12 Virginia Department of Forestry, Virginia Forest Facts, accessed August 31, 2020.
13 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in Virginia, Virginia Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed August 31, 2020.
14 Virginia Energy Resources, Coles Hill, Virginia (Uranium), accessed August 31, 2020.
15 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Economic Resources, accessed August 31, 2020.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
18 Virginia Department of Transportation, Virginia's Highway System, updated November 1, 2019.
19 McDonnell, Bob, "The Commonwealth of Virginia—Staying Competitive in Today's Global Marketplace," Trade & Industry Development (July 18, 2013).
20 The Port of Virginia, 2019 Trade Overview, accessed August 31, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
24 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
25 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018, and Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2019 and 2018.
26 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2019 (April 2020), Table 2, Coal production by state.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Origin State, Virginia Table OS-25, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2019.
29 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, Virginia Table DS-40, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
30 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
31 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
32 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total consumption, Electric power, Commercial and institutional, Coke plants, Other industrial, United States, Virginia, Annual, 2019.
33 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2017.
35 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Virginia, Annual, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, and Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, Annual, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
38 Lyons, Paul C., Coalbed methane potential in the Appalachian states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee—An overview, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 96-735 (1996), p. 12.
39 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Natural Gas, accessed September 2, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2019.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
42 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed September 2, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
44 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Interstate Receipts From North Carolina, 1989-2019.
45 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Interstate Net Receipts from Maryland, 1989-2019.
46 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas Net Receipts from Pennsylvania, 1989-2019.
47 U.S. EIA, "Appalachia region drives growth in U.S. natural gas production since 2012," Today in Energy (December 4, 2017).
48 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
49 Washington Gas, Corporate Governance, Company Profile, accessed September 2, 2020.
50 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
51 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, 2014-19.
52 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2014-19.
53 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
54 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
55 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
56 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2014-19.
57 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Virginia, Annual, 2013-18.
58 Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Geology and Mineral Resources, Energy Resources, Oil, accessed September 3, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Virginia Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 1982-2020.
60 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed September 3, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Petroleum Port, Petroleum Product Pipeline, and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed September 3, 2020.
62 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed September 3, 2020.
63 Kinder Morgan, Operations, Products Pipelines, Overview, Plantation Pipe Line Company, accessed September 20, 2020.
64 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, June 2020.
65 Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Statement of Legal and Factual Basis, Plains Marketing L.P., Yorktown, Virginia, Permit No. TRO-60116 (October 12, 2017).
66 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
69 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed September 3, 2020.
70 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
71 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
72 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Virginia, updated February 21, 2017.
73 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Virginia, Fuel Type (Check all), 2019.
74 U.S. EIA, Virginia Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, Virginia Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2018.
76 PJM, Who we are, accessed September 10, 2020.
77 Tennessee Valley Authority, TVA in Virginia, Fiscal Year 2019 (October 2018-September 2019), accessed September 10, 2020.
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