Virginia State Energy Profile



Virginia Quick Facts

  • In 2020, Virginia ports handled two-fifths of the nation’s coal exports, the largest share handled by any state. The Port of Hampton Roads in the Norfolk Customs District is the nation's largest coal export center.
  • In 2020, natural gas accounted for 61% of Virginia's utility-scale electricity net generation, nuclear supplied 29%, renewables, mostly biomass, provided 6%, and coal fueled less than 4%.
  • Virginia’s Bath County Pumped Storage Station, with a net generating capacity of 3,003 megawatts, is the largest hydroelectric pumped storage facility in the world.
  • The PPL Pipeline (formerly Plantation Pipeline), one of the nation's largest petroleum products pipelines with a capacity of 720,000 barrels per day, delivers refined  products throughout the Southeast before reaching its final delivery point in northern Virginia.
  • In 2020, more than four-fifths of Virginia’s natural gas production was coalbed methane, and the state accounted for about one-tenth of the nation’s total coalbed methane production.

Last Updated: November 18, 2021



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Population 8.6 million 2.6% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 4.3 million 2.6% Sep-22  
Economy Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 591.9 billion 13 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 49,149 million 18 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 65,408 16 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 76,110 million miles 13 2020  
Land in Farms 7.8 million acres 34 2017  
Climate Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 57.0 degrees Fahrenheit 15 2021  
Precipitation 40.8 inches 26 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase -- $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 11.89 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 28.91 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 120.31 /short ton $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 3.64 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity Virginia U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.35 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 10.53 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 8.93 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 1,950 billion cu ft 0.4% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 149 million short tons 1.2% 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 7,974 wells 1.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 0 barrels/calendar day 0.0% 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 28,859 MW 2.5% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 822 trillion Btu 0.9% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 0 thousand barrels per day 0.0% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 96,044 million cu ft 0.3% 2021 find more
Coal 10,691 thousand short tons 1.9% 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 9,401 thousand MWh 2.3% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Virginia U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.4 % 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 62.4 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 4.5 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 23.8 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 10.8 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 7 thousand barrels 0.1% Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 1,637 thousand barrels 1.9% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 6,902 million cu ft 0.1% Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,640 thousand barrels 7.8% Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 425 thousand tons 0.6% Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,070 stations 2.7% 2019  
Propane 62 stations 2.5% 2022  
Electricity 1,000 stations 2.1% 2022  
E85 52 stations 1.3% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 7 stations 0.5% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Virginia U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 2,273 trillion Btu 13 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 263 million Btu 29 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 25,577 million 11 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 2,963 33 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 550 trillion Btu 2.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 610 trillion Btu 3.6% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 420 trillion Btu 1.3% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 693 trillion Btu 2.8% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 7,062 million 2.7% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,013 million 2.9% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 2,411 million 1.4% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 11,091 million 2.7% 2020 find more
by Source Virginia Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 147 million barrels 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 713 billion cu ft 2.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 3 million short tons 0.6% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 12,676 million 2.5% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 3,029 million 2.2% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 235 million 1.2% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 87 thousand barrels 4.8% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 42,439 million cu ft 3.0% Aug-22 find more
Coal 219 thousand short tons 0.5% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Virginia U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 32.3 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 3.5 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 57.2 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 4.4 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 2.7 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,162 MW 1.4% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 0 million gal/year 0.0% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 158 thousand MWh 0.7% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 511 thousand MWh 1.3% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 342 thousand MWh 7.1% Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 38 thousand MWh 0.6% Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 32 thousand barrels * 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption Virginia U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.5 % 35 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 8,868 thousand barrels 11 2020  
Total Emissions Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 106.8 million metric tons 2.1% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Virginia Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 31,807 thousand metric tons 2.0% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 11 thousand metric tons 1.1% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 21 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: November 18, 2021

Overview

Coal is the primary energy resource produced in Virginia.

Virginia is located on the East Coast of the United States, midway between the southern tip of Florida and the northern coast of Maine. The state stretches almost 430 miles west to east and includes the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula on the eastern side of the Chesapeake Bay. The coastal plain that occupies eastern Virginia includes: the site of the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown; several of the state's modern-day population centers; and the nation's largest coal export port at Hampton Roads.1,2,3,4,5 To the west, the flat coastal plain meets the rolling hills of the Piedmont region along a boundary known as the Fall Line, which is characterized by rapids and waterfalls.6 However, most of the state's hydroelectric power plants are further west, where the Piedmont rises into the Blue Ridge Mountains.7 The valleys and ridges that occupy the western part of the state are parallel to the spine of the Appalachian Mountains and, along with the Appalachian Plateau, contain most of the state's coal, the primary energy resource produced in Virginia.8,9 The Appalachian Plateau, which cuts across the southwestern corner of Virginia, holds almost all the state's crude oil and natural gas fields.10 About 16 million acres in Virginia are forested, and the state's widely distributed forests hold abundant biomass resources.11 Virginia has offshore and onshore wind energy potential as well.12 Uranium, the source for nuclear fuel, was discovered in southern Virginia, but the state has banned uranium mining since the 1980s.13

Virginia has the nation's third-largest state-maintained transportation network, including six major interstate highways.14 More than a dozen railroads operate on 3,500 miles of railway in the state. Virginia also has several commercial airports, including two near Washington, DC, that are among the nation's busiest, and one of the nation's largest seaports, the Port of Virginia at Hampton Roads.15,16 As a result, the transportation sector accounts for the largest share of the state's total end-use energy consumption at about one-third. The commercial sector accounts for slightly more than one-fourth, the residential sector uses almost one-fourth, and the state's industrial sector consumes nearly one-fifth.17 Overall, Virginia consumes almost three times more energy than the state produces.18 Although Virginia is just below the top one-fourth of states in total energy consumption, the state's per capita use is well below the national average and is less than that of 30 other states.19,20

Coal

In 2020, Virginia ports handled two-fifths of the nation’s coal exports.

Virginia ports are the leading exporters of U.S. coal. In 2020, about two-fifths of the country's total coal exports were shipped through the Norfolk Customs District, the largest U.S. coal port complex, which includes Hampton Roads, Norfolk, and Newport News.21 Although the state has more than 40 active coal mines, Virginia mines account for less than 2% of both the nation's total coal reserves and U.S. total coal production.22 Most of the coal exported from Virginia's seaports comes from other states.23 About nine-tenths of the coal mined in Virginia was sent to other nations or other states in 2020.24,25

In 2020, Virginia consumed nearly 3.1 million tons of coal, including about one million tons mined in-state.26 Typically, most of the additional coal Virginia needs comes from Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.27 In 2020, the electric power sector consumed about three-fifths of the coal burned in-state, coke plants used three-tenths, and industrial facilities consumed almost all the rest. Minor amounts of coal went to the commercial sector, and a few Virginia households heat their homes with coal.28,29 Overall, Virginia accounted for less than 1% of the nation's total coal consumption in 2020.30

Natural gas

Most of Virginia’s natural gas production comes from wells drilled into coal-rich formations.

Virginia accounts for less than 1% of the nation's total natural gas reserves and production, but it contains one-fifth of U.S. coalbed methane proved reserves, the third-largest amount of any state.31,32,33 Coalbed methane is natural gas produced from coal-rich formations.34 All of the state's natural gas fields are located in seven counties in southwestern Virginia.35 Two of those natural gas fields are among the nation's top 100 as ranked by proved reserves, and both produce coalbed methane.36,37 In 2020, more than four-fifths of Virginia's natural gas production was coalbed methane, and the state accounted for about one-tenth of the nation's total coalbed methane production.38 Although the state's annual natural gas production has steadily declined from its peak of more than 151 billion cubic feet in 2011, it is substantially greater than it was three decades earlier.39

In 2020, Virginia natural gas use was almost seven times greater than state production.40,41 Most of the natural gas supplied to consumers in Virginia comes from the Gulf Coast and from the Appalachian region by interstate natural gas pipelines.42 In the past, the largest share of the state's natural gas supply came from the south through North Carolina. However, after 2011, natural gas movements into Virginia from the south abruptly declined when more natural gas entered the state from the north through Maryland as a result of the increase in natural gas production from the Marcellus Shale in nearby Pennsylvania.43,44,45,46 Much of the natural gas that enters Virginia continues on to other states. In 2016, for the first time, the largest share of natural gas leaving Virginia went south to North Carolina, and increasing amounts also went to Tennessee. A small amount of the natural gas that leaves Virginia is distributed to Washington, DC, and the surrounding Maryland suburbs by Washington Gas, the local natural gas utility.47,48 Some of the natural gas that enters Virginia is stored in the state's two underground storage facilities—one a salt cavern and one a depleted natural gas reservoir. Their combined total storage capacity is 9 billion cubic feet, about 0.1% of the nation's total.49,50

The electric power sector is Virginia's largest natural gas consumer and its natural gas use has more than tripled since 2010.51 In 2015, Virginia's electric power sector used more natural gas than all the other end-use sectors combined for the first time. By 2020, it accounted for almost two-thirds of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. The industrial sector is the second-largest natural gas-consuming sector in Virginia and accounted for 15% of deliveries to consumers in 2020. The residential sector, where one in three households use natural gas for home heating, used about 11%.52 The commercial sector consumed almost all the rest. A small amount of natural gas went to the transportation sector for use as vehicle fuel.53 There are 24 compressed natural gas fueling stations in Virginia, but more than half of them are private access for fleet use.54

Petroleum

Virginia has no appreciable crude oil reserves and only a very small amount of crude oil production, all of which is from wells in two counties in the far southwestern corner of the state.55,56 There are no operating petroleum refineries in the state, and no major crude oil pipelines cross Virginia.57,58 Less than 1 million barrels of crude oil have been produced in the state since 1942, when Virginia's first crude oil well came online. In 1983, the state's total annual production peaked at more than 65,000 barrels, but it was less than one-tenth of that in 2020.59,60

Refined petroleum products arrive in Virginia by pipeline and by ship. Two major petroleum product pipelines—Colonial Pipeline and PPL Pipeline (formerly known as Plantation Pipeline)—deliver refined petroleum products to locations across the state.61 The Colonial Pipeline originates in Texas and has several delivery locations in Virginia before reaching its endpoint in New Jersey.62 The PPL Pipeline brings petroleum products north from Louisiana and Mississippi to its terminus in northern Virginia near Washington, DC.63 Petroleum products also arrive from overseas at Virginia ports at Norfolk.64,65

Virginia no longer has any petroleum refineries. The state's last petroleum refinery, located in Yorktown, suspended operations in 2010, and the site became a storage depot and transportation hub for crude oil and petroleum products entering the state. The terminal connects to the Colonial Pipeline system and has rail and dock facilities. Crude oil arrives by rail and transfers onto ships at the terminal docks. Petroleum products arrive by ship, railway, or pipeline and are sent to market by marine vessels or by truck.66

Virginia uses more petroleum than 37 other states but consumes less per capita than all but 19 other states.67 The transportation sector uses almost 88% of the petroleum products consumed in Virginia, and about three-fifths of that share is motor gasoline.68,69 Federal clean air regulations require counties and cities in the northern Virginia to use reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol to reduce harmful emissions. Several counties and cities in central and eastern Virginia also require reformulated motor gasoline to reduce smog.70 The state's industrial sector accounts for almost 6% of state petroleum consumption, and the commercial sector uses less than 4%. The residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 12 households heat with fuel oil, kerosene, propane, or other petroleum products, consumes 3%. Very little petroleum is used for electricity generation.71,72

Electricity

Natural gas and nuclear power accounted for 90% of Virginia's in-state electricity net generation in 2020. Natural gas fueled the largest share, about three-fifths, and the state's two nuclear power plants supplied about three-tenths.73,74 Renewable energy sources, including biomass, hydroelectric power, and solar, accounted for almost 7%. Coal and, to a much lesser extent, petroleum together fueled less than 4% of in-state generation.75 Coal-fired power plants supplied the largest share of the state's net generation until 2009, when coal's contribution fell below that of nuclear power. As coal-fired generation decreased, natural gas-fired generation increased. In 2012, natural gas fueled more of Virginia's generation than coal for the first time, and, in 2015, the contribution from natural gas-fired generation surpassed that of nuclear power. In large part because of the continued decline in coal-fired generation, in 2019, in-state electricity generation from renewable energy sources also exceeded coal's contribution for the first time.76,77

Virginia's in-state electricity generation increased by 40% between 2010 and 2020.78 However, electricity consumption in the state is still greater than generation, and Virginia receives additional power from two regional grids.79 One grid, the PJM Interconnection, supplies most of the state. The PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization that coordinates the movement of electricity in all or parts of 13 Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states plus the District of Columbia.80 The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) provides electricity to local power companies in four counties in southwestern Virginia that are not in the PJM grid.81 In 2019, Virginia was the nation's 10th largest electricity consumer as measured by retail sales, but ranked 20th on a per capita basis.82 The commercial sector accounts for almost half of Virginia's electricity retail sales. The residential sector, where most households have air conditioning and more than half use electricity for home heating, accounts for about two-fifths of electricity sales.83,84 The industrial sector uses almost all the rest.85 Electricity prices in Virginia are below the national averages.86

Renewable energy

Virginia’s Bath County Pumped Storage Station is the largest pumped hydroelectric storage facility in the world.

Renewable resources provided almost 7% of Virginia's total electricity generation in 2020.87 Biomass fuels the largest share of the state's renewably-sourced electricity generation. In 2020, biomass fueled about 3% of the state's total net generation. Municipal solid waste and landfill gas are common forms of biomass used for electricity generation in Virginia, but facilities that use wood and wood waste have almost two-thirds of the state's biomass-fueled generating capacity.88 Virginia also has seven wood pellet manufacturing plants that can produce nearly one million tons of wood pellets per year.89 Wood pellets are used for heating and generating electricity.90 About 2% of the state's households heat with wood.91 Virginia also has a liquid biofuels industry. At the end of 2020, the state's four biodiesel plants had a combined production capacity of about 13 million gallons per year.92 However, Virginia consumers used nearly 17 million gallons of biodiesel in 2019, all of it in the transportation sector.93 There are no fuel ethanol production facilities in Virginia, but the state accounted for about 3% of the nation's consumption in 2019.94,95

Virginia has 25 conventional hydroelectric power plants and 2 pumped-storage hydroelectric facilities.96 The conventional hydroelectric plants typically produce almost 2% of Virginia's in-state generation.97 Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants generate electricity during peak demand periods using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods and then releasing it to flow back to a lower reservoir through turbine generators when additional generating capacity is needed. Pumped-storage facilities typically consume more power than they generate.98,99 One of the two pumped hydroelectric facilities in the state is Virginia's Bath County Pumped Storage Station. With a net generating capacity of 3,003 megawatts, it is the largest power plant in Virginia by capacity and the largest pumped-storage hydroelectric plant in the nation and the world.100,101

Solar energy supplies less than 2% of Virginia's total in-state electricity generation. The largest share of the state's solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is provided by utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities. Although the contribution from all solar PV to Virginia's net generation is small, it doubled between 2018 and 2020.102 Virginia's first utility-scale solar PV generation came online in early 2016. In October 2016, a second PV facility came online on the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It was the largest solar farm in the Mid-Atlantic region.103 That 80-megawatt installation brought Virginia's utility-scale solar PV capacity to more than 100 megawatts. Since 2016, several larger solar farms have been built, including a 100-megawatt facility that became operational in 2017, a 142-megawatt solar farm in 2019, and two that came online in late 2020, a 98-megawatt solar farm and a 165-megawatt facility.104 By July 2021, Virginia's installed utility-scale solar PV capacity was 1,582 megawatts. Small-scale (less than one megawatt) installations accounted for an additional 187 megawatts, increasing the state's total solar PV capacity to 1,769 megawatts.105

Most of Virginia's onshore wind energy potential is found along the state's Atlantic shoreline and in narrow bands on the state's western mountain ridges.106 However, onshore wind resources are limited. Some small wind projects have been installed at host schools in Virginia as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind for Schools program.107 The state has large areas with wind energy potential off its Atlantic coast and in the Chesapeake Bay. A demonstration project, Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind, about 27 miles off Virginia Beach, has two 6-megawatt turbines that became operational in January 2021.108,109 The project is the precursor to the planned development of a 2.6-gigawatt wind farm in an adjacent federal lease tract, targeted for completion by 2026.110

In 2020, Virginia replaced its voluntary renewable portfolio goal with the Virginia Clean Economy Act. The Act requires the state's two largest investor-owned utilities, Dominion Energy Virginia and American Electric Power, to retire their carbon emitting electricity generating units and construct, acquire, or purchase Virginia generating capacity that uses solar and wind energy. Dominion Energy Virginia must obtain 100% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2045, and American Electric Power is to meet its 100% renewable target by 2050. The Act establishes an energy efficiency standard that requires that each utility achieve incremental annual energy efficiency savings.111 Virginia has an incentive program called the "Mandatory Utility Green Power Option." The program gives electric utility customers the option to purchase 100% of their electricity from renewable energy sources. If a utility does not offer a program that meets the 100% renewable energy requirement, its customers can purchase renewable power from any licensed retail supplier.112

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Geography of Virginia, updated February 25, 2016.
2 NETSTATE, Virginia, The Commonwealth of Virginia, updated July 28, 2017.
3 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Virginia Profile.
4 U.S. Coal Exports, Estimated U.S. Coal Port Capacity, 2017 Update, accessed October 4, 2021.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
6 Sethi, Parvinder, et al., Geology of Virginia, Coastal Plain Physiography, Special Physiographic Features, Part 1, The Fall Line, Radford University (2014).
7 U.S. EIA, Virginia, Profile Overview, Hydroelectric Power Plant Map Layer, accessed October 4, 2021.
8 NETSTATE, Virginia, Virginia Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Tables P2, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
10 Virginia Energy, Geology and Mineral Resources, Economic Resources, Map, accessed October 4, 2021.
11 Virginia Department of Forestry, Field Notes: Ground Truthing Forest Data (January 22, 2021).
12 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Virginia Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, and Virginia Land-Based Wind Speed at 100 Meters, accessed October 4, 2021.
13 "Virginia Supreme Court refuses to hear appeal on uranium mining ban," Chatham Star-Tribune (October 4, 2021).
14 Virginia Department of Transportation, Virginia's Highway System, updated November 1, 2019.
15 McDonnell, Gov. Bob, "The Commonwealth of Virginia—Staying Competitive in Today's Global Marketplace," Trade & Industry Development (July 18, 2013).
16 The Port of Virginia, Hampton Roads Harbor, 2020 Trade Overview, accessed October 4, 2021.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 13, U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District.
22 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019, and Table 14, Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2020 and 2019.
23 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 2, Coal production by state, and Table 13, U.S. coal exports by customs district.
24 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2020.
25 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Origin State, Virginia Table OS-24, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2020.
26 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
27 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 2021), By Coal Destination State, Virginia Table DS-39, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
28 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
29 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
30 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Total consumption, Electric power, Commercial and institutional, Coke plants, Other industrial, United States, Virginia, Annual, 2020.
31 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Dry Natural Gas, Annual, 2019.
32 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2020.
33 U.S. EIA, Coalbed Methane, Proved Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Annual, 2017.
34 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Coalbed Methane, accessed October 21, 2021.
35 Virginia Energy, Geology and Mineral Resources, Energy Resources, Natural Gas, accessed October 5, 2021.
36 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Table 2, Top 100 U.S. gas fields as of December 31, 2013.
37 Lyons, Paul C., Coalbed methane potential in the Appalachian states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee—An overview, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 96-735 (1996), p. 12.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Virginia Data Series, and U.S. Data Series, Annual, 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia, Annual, 2015-20.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2020.
42 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline Map Layer, accessed October 5, 2021.
43 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Interstate Receipts From North Carolina, 1989-2020.
44 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Interstate Net Receipts from Maryland, 1989-2020.
45 U.S. EIA, Maryland Natural Gas Net Receipts from Pennsylvania, 1989-2020.
46 U.S. EIA, "Pennsylvania's natural gas production continues to increase," Today in Energy (April 23, 2018).
47 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Virginia, Annual, 2015-20.
48 Washington Gas, Corporate Governance, Company Profile, accessed October 5, 2021.
49 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Virginia, Annual, 2015-20.
50 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2015-20.
51 U.S. EIA, Virginia Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2020.
52 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
53 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Virginia, Annual, 2015-20.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Virginia, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Public and Private Access, Available, accessed October 5, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
56 U.S. EIA, Proved Nonproducing Reserves, Virginia, Annual, 2014-19.
57 U.S. EIA, Virginia Number of Operable Refineries as of January 1, 1982-2021.
58 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed October 5, 2021.
59 Virginia Energy, Geology and Mineral Resources, Energy Resources, Oil, accessed October 5, 2021.
60 U.S. EIA, Virginia Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Petroleum Port, Petroleum Product Pipeline, and Petroleum Product Terminal Map Layers, accessed October 5, 2021.
62 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed October 5, 2021.
63 Kinder Morgan, Operations, Products Pipelines, Overview, Products (SE) Pipe Line Corporation, accessed October 5, 2021.
64 U.S. EIA, Virginia Profile Overview, Map, Petroleum Port description, accessed October 5, 2021.
65 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, January 2021-August 2021.
66 Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Plains Marketing L.P., Yorktown, Virginia, Permit No. TRO-60116 (October 12, 2017), Federal Operating Permit, Facility Information, p. 3-4.
67 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C8, Transportation Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
70 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Reformulated Gasoline, accessed October 5, 2021.
71 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Virginia, Table B25040, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
72 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
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