Utah State Energy Profile



Utah Quick Facts

  • Utah accounts for 13 in every 100 barrels of crude oil produced in the Rocky Mountain region. The state's five oil refineries, all located in the Salt Lake City area, can process about 204,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.
  • In 2021, 61% of Utah's electricity net generation came from coal-fired power plants, down from 75% in 2015. Over the same period, natural gas-fired generation increased from 20% to 24% and solar power grew from 0.2% to 10% of the state's total generation.
  • Utah has the fourth-highest number of producing oil and natural gas leases on federal lands, after Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado.
  • Utah has the nation’s only operating uranium ore mill, which processes uranium ore and radioactive wastes from other states, but there has been no active uranium mine production in Utah since 2012.
  • In 2021, Utah’s electric power sector became the state’s largest consumer of natural gas, surpassing the residential sector for the first time and accounting for one-third of the state’s natural gas use.

Last Updated: April 21, 2022



Data

Last Update: May 19, 2022 | Next Update: June 16, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Utah Share of U.S. Period
Population 3.3 million 1.0% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 1.7 million 1.1% Mar-22  
Economy Utah U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 195.0 billion 29 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 20,205 million 31 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 52,251 35 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 30,251 million miles 31 2020  
Land in Farms 10.8 million acres 26 2017  
Climate Utah U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 50.7 degrees Fahrenheit 32 2021  
Precipitation 13.6 inches 46 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum Utah U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 78.92 /barrel $ 89.41 /barrel Feb-22  
Natural Gas Utah U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.98 /thousand cu ft $ 5.78 /thousand cu ft Feb-22 find more
Residential $ 9.82 /thousand cu ft $ 12.17 /thousand cu ft Feb-22 find more
Coal Utah U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 37.22 /short ton $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.11 /million Btu $ 2.17 /million Btu Feb-22  
Electricity Utah U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 10.59 cents/kWh 13.83 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Commercial 8.11 cents/kWh 11.78 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Industrial 6.23 cents/kWh 7.46 cents/kWh Feb-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 378 million barrels 1.1% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 2,296 billion cu ft 0.5% 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 63 million barrels 0.3% 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 180 million short tons 1.4% 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 7,756 wells 1.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Utah Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 203,714 barrels/calendar day 1.1% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 9,518 MW 0.8% Feb-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 883 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 114 thousand barrels per day 1.0% Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 241,989 million cu ft 0.7% 2020 find more
Coal 13,163 thousand short tons 2.5% 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 2,855 thousand MWh 0.9% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Utah U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired 0.1 % 0.3 % Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 30.6 % 35.3 % Feb-22 find more
Coal-Fired 54.0 % 21.6 % Feb-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.9 % Feb-22 find more
Renewables 12.2 % 20.9 % Jan-22  
Stocks Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 102 thousand barrels 0.8% Feb-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 682 thousand barrels 0.7% Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 85,897 million cu ft 1.4% Feb-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 44 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 3,170 thousand tons 3.8% Feb-22 find more
Fueling Stations Utah Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 769 stations 0.7% 2019  
Propane 36 stations 1.4% 2022  
Electricity 883 stations 1.9% 2022  
E85 1 stations * 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 29 stations 2.2% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Utah U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 855 trillion Btu 34 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 267 million Btu 35 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 10,029 million 35 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,131 48 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Utah Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 188 trillion Btu 0.9% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 177 trillion Btu 1.0% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 218 trillion Btu 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 273 trillion Btu 1.0% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 1,697 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 1,397 million 0.7% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 1,231 million 0.6% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 5,704 million 1.0% 2019 find more
by Source Utah Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 55 million barrels 0.8% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 256 billion cu ft 0.8% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 11 million short tons 2.3% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 5,029 million 1.0% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 1,237 million 0.9% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 500 million 2.6% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 3 thousand barrels 0.2% Feb-22 find more
Natural Gas 6,303 million cu ft 0.8% Feb-22 find more
Coal 736 thousand short tons 1.9% Feb-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Utah U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 80.8 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 14.8 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 2.3 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 2.0 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,189 MW 0.8% Feb-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity -- -- 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 73 thousand MWh 0.3% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 344 thousand MWh 0.7% Feb-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 5 thousand MWh 0.1% Feb-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 44 thousand MWh 1.2% Feb-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 0 thousand barrels 0.0% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Utah U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.0 % 34 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 2,909 thousand barrels 33 2020  
Total Emissions Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 61.5 million metric tons 1.2% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Utah Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 26,297 thousand metric tons 1.7% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 7 thousand metric tons 0.7% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 28 thousand metric tons 2.3% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: April 21, 2022

Overview

Utah has both fossil and renewable energy resources and is a net energy supplier to neighboring states.

Utah is a state of contrasts, from flat salt desert to rugged canyons, and from mountains soaring more than 13,000 feet above sea level in the northeast to the desert floor 9,000 feet lower in the southwest.1 The state has a variety of energy resources, including crude oil, natural gas, coal, and several forms of renewable energy.2 An arid state with abundant sunshine, Utah is among the states with the greatest solar resources.3,4 Wind, hydropower, and geothermal resources are also major contributors to the state's electricity generation from renewables.5 About 80% of Utah's residents live in Salt Lake City and other communities along the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state.6 Although Utah was the fourth fastest-growing state by population in 2020, most of the state is lightly populated.7,8

The energy industry is an important component of Utah's economy, and the state produces more energy than it consumes.9 Royalties from energy development on extensive state trust lands typically are the largest source of income for Utah's public-school trust fund.10 About 63% of Utah's land is owned by the federal government, the second-highest share after Nevada's 80%.11 Utah has the fourth-highest number of producing crude oil and natural gas leases on federal lands, after Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado.12 In February 2020, the federal Bureau of Land Management reduced the size of the Bears Ears National Monument and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, increasing the amount of land available for possible mining and oil and gas extraction activities within the state. The plan was challenged in federal court.13 In October 2021, the Biden administration restored the monuments to their original borders.14,15

The transportation sector leads Utah in energy consumption, accounting for about one-third of the state's total, followed by the industrial sector at one-fourth. The residential sector and the commercial sector each account for about one-fifth of the state's total end-use sector energy consumption.16 Despite temperatures that vary greatly with season and altitude, ranging from well above 100°F in the south in the summer to well below zero in winter at higher elevations in the north, per capita energy consumption in Utah is below the national average and less than in two-thirds of the states. Utah ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per capita energy consumption in the residential sector.17,18 The state's economy is largely service-oriented with finance, insurance, and real estate as the biggest contributors, followed by government spending, professional and business services, and the manufacturing sector. Utah's energy intensity—the amount of energy needed to produce each dollar of state gross domestic product (GDP)—is less than in two-thirds of the states.19,20

Petroleum

Utah accounts for 13 of every 100 barrels of crude oil produced in the Rocky Mountain region.

Utah has about 1% of the nation's proved crude oil reserves.21 In addition to conventional crude oil reservoirs, northeastern Utah overlays part of the Green River oil shale, a potential oil resource. Eastern Utah also has the largest U.S. deposit of oil sands. However, extraction technology for the state's oil shale and oil sand resources is water-intensive and uneconomic.22,23 Utah accounts for almost 1 in every 100 barrels of crude oil produced in the United States and 13 of every 100 barrels produced in the Rocky Mountain region.24 Oil drilling operations and producing wells are concentrated in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah and the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah.25,26 Utah's crude oil production declined sharply in 2020 following the drop in petroleum demand and oil prices during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the state's output recovered in 2021 to near its pre-pandemic level.27

Utah's five oil refineries, all located in the Salt Lake City area, process about 204,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day. Much of the oil processed by the refineries is brought in by pipeline from Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Canada.28,29 Utah's refineries, which have almost one-third of the refining capacity in the Rocky Mountain region, produce mostly motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.30,31 Pipelines carry refined products from Salt Lake City's refineries to markets in Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, eastern Washington, and Oregon. Petroleum products also enter Utah by pipeline from refineries in Wyoming and Montana.32,33,34

Utah's per capita petroleum consumption ranks among the lowest one-third of the states.35 The transportation sector uses about four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in the state.36 To help reduce ground-level ozone during the summer months, Utah requires the use of motor gasoline blended with ethanol in the two densely-populated counties in the north central part of the state that includes the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The rest of the state can use conventional motor gasoline that is not blended with ethanol.37,38,39 Utah does not have any ethanol production facilities, and ethanol is brought in from other states to be blended with motor gasoline at Utah's fuel terminals.40 About 2 in 100 Utah households use propane, fuel oil, or kerosene for home heating. Total petroleum consumption in the state's residential sector is lower than in all states but Nevada, Louisiana, and Hawaii.41,42

Natural gas

Although Utah holds less than 1% of the nation's proved natural gas reserves, the state has 3 of the 100 largest U.S. natural gas fields.43,44 Utah's marketed natural gas production, most of which is in Uintah County in the northeastern corner of the state, accounted for about 1% of U.S. natural gas output in 2021.45,46 The state's natural gas production rose steadily for three decades starting in the mid-1980s, and it peaked in 2012. Annual production decreased every year since in response to lower marketed natural gas prices and reduced crude oil drilling.47,48 Utah's coalbed methane production, which is natural gas produced from coal seams, peaked in 2007, when it accounted for almost one-fifth of the state's natural gas output. Coalbed methane production has gradually declined since then and in 2020 fell to less than half its peak output.49,50,51

Utah has the largest underground natural gas storage reservoir in the Rocky Mountain region.

Utah is crossed by several interstate pipelines that transport natural gas from the Opal Hub in Wyoming, from the Piceance Basin in western Colorado, and from Utah's in-state production to markets in Nevada, Idaho, and Colorado.52,53 Utah has 3 natural gas storage facilities with a combined storage capacity of almost 125 billion cubic feet, equal to slightly more than 1% of the nation's total natural gas storage capacity.54 The Clay Basin facility, on the Utah-Wyoming border near Colorado, is the largest underground storage reservoir in the Rocky Mountain region and the 14th-largest in the nation. It can hold 120 billion cubic feet of gas.55,56

In 2021, Utah's electric power sector became the state's largest consumer of natural gas for the first time, accounting for one-third of the state's natural gas use. The residential sector took almost three-tenths of gas deliveries. Eight out of 10 Utah households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel, the highest share of natural gas home heating use for any state. The commercial sector and industrial sector each accounted for about one-fifth of natural gas consumption.57,58

Coal

Utah has about 1% of the nation's estimated recoverable coal reserves and accounts for slightly more than 2% of U.S. coal production. Utah had seven active coal mines in 2020. Most active mines in the state are underground operations in central Utah. The only active surface coal mine is in the south near the Arizona border.59,60,61 About three-fifths of the coal mined in Utah is consumed in the state, mostly for electricity generation. About one-tenth of Utah's mined coal is exported to other countries and the rest is sent to other states, primarily to California and Nevada where the coal is used mostly at industrial facilities and some power plants. Utah receives coal by rail from Colorado for electricity generation.62

After Utah's coal production increased in 2019 because of higher demand from the overseas export market, the state's coal output declined in 2020 and dropped again in 2021 to the lowest level in 37 years.63,64,65 The state's coal output fell and mines shut down because of decreased demand for coal from the U.S. electric power sector.66,67,68,69

Electricity

Solar powers about 93% of Utah’s new electric generating capacity added since 2015.

In 2021, coal fueled 61% of Utah's total electricity net generation, down from 75% five years earlier, and natural gas accounted for 24%. Almost all of the rest of Utah's in-state electricity generation came from renewable energy sources, primarily solar power.70 Solar energy powers about 93% of Utah's electric generating capacity added since 2015.71 While the state does not generate any electricity from nuclear energy, plans for a nuclear power plant near Green River, Utah are being considered.72,73,74 A Utah municipal electric cooperative also plans to build a nuclear power station with six small reactors in Idaho to supply power to its Utah customers.75

Utah has the nation's only operating uranium production mill.76,77 The state experienced several booms in uranium mining—in the 1950s during the Cold War, in the 1970s with the growth in the U.S. nuclear power industry, and in the mid-2000s when uranium prices increased. Mine closures followed when uranium demand and prices fell. The Utah mill processes uranium ore from mines in other states and from radioactive waste. There has been no uranium mine production in Utah since 2012.78,79,80,81,82

Utah generates about one-tenth more electricity than it consumes, and the state is a net supplier of power to other states.83 Utah's Strategic Energy Plan expects natural gas-fired generation will replace coal and will back up intermittent renewables like wind and solar power. The state plans to update its long-term energy plan in 2022.84,85,86 No new coal-fired generators have been built in the state since 1993, but about 50 natural gas-fired units have been put into service since then.87 High-capacity transmission lines are being constructed to bring renewable power from Wyoming and Utah to Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, and California, as well as to enhance reliability of electricity delivery within Utah.88

Utah's total per capita electricity consumption is lower than in four-fifths of the states.89 The commercial sector consumes the most electricity—almost two-fifths of the state's total. Electricity consumption is nearly evenly divided at about one-third each between the residential sector and the industrial sector.90 Utah's average electricity retail price is among the lowest five states.91 Electricity is the primary energy source for home heating in about one in seven Utah households.92 Utah is creating an electric vehicle charging network that will have electric vehicle charging stations at least every 50 miles along the state's interstate highway system by the end of 2025.93

Renewable energy

In 2021, about 14% of Utah's total electricity generation came from renewable energy sources. Solar energy generated more electricity than any other renewable resource in the state. Electricity generation from all solar facilities, both small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) customer-site solar panel systems and utility-scale (1-megawatt or larger) solar array farms, accounted for about two-thirds of the state's renewable generation and was more than 40 times greater than in 2015.94 At the end of 2021, Utah ranked 11th among the states in the amount of solar power generating capacity, with 1,843 megawatts. Another 360 megawatts of utility-scale solar capacity is scheduled to come online in 2022.95,96 The state requires investor-owned electric utilities and most electric cooperatives to offer net metering, which encourages installation of solar panels on residential rooftops.97 In 2021, about one-sixth of the state's solar power came from small-scale generating systems and more than four-fifths came from utility-scale solar generating facilities.98

Wind energy produced about 13% of Utah's renewable electricity in 2021, surpassing hydropower within the state for the first time since 2016.99 Utah has five wind farms operating with nearly 400 megawatts of generating capacity.100 The state's two largest wind farms send power to southern California.101 There is commercial wind power potential in the Wasatch and Uinta mountain ranges in Utah's north-central region and on the mesas in western Utah.102

Hydropower made up 12% of the state's renewable generation in 2021. The annual amount of hydropower generation depends on water availability from seasonal rains and melting snow.103 The state has 29 utility-scale hydroelectric plants. Half of those plants' generating units are more than 60 years old. The 1.2-megawatt Granite hydroelectric power station located southwest of Salt Lake City is the oldest one, built in 1896. It provided electricity to the city's streetcar system.104,105

Utah is one of seven states with utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal sources. In 2021, three geothermal facilities in southwestern Utah provided about 6% of the state's renewable electricity generation.106,107,108,109 The state has some of the best geothermal potential in the nation, and more geothermal projects are in development.110,111,112,113,114 In April 2022, the U.S. Interior Department offered 11 geothermal lease sale parcels totaling about 32,500 acres in the southeastern corner of Utah, seeking to have the area's geothermal resources developed for electricity generation.115 In 2021, the U.S. Department of Energy granted $220 million for a project in southwestern Utah to improve drilling technologies for developing underground geothermal reservoirs.116,117

Biomass, primarily in the form of landfill gas at facilities in the population centers on the Wasatch Front in north-central Utah, provided the remaining 1% of the state's renewable electricity generation in 2021. A 3-megawatt biogas generating plant in Beaver County, Utah uses methane gas from pig manure to produce electricity.118,119,120 Utah's wood biomass resources also provide feedstock for the state's one small wood pellet manufacturing plant, which has an annual production capacity of 9,000 tons.121

Utah seeks to have 20% of the electricity sold to state consumers generated from renewable sources by 2025.

Utah has a renewable portfolio goal that requires all electric utilities to pursue renewable energy when it is cost-effective. Each utility has a goal for 20% of its adjusted electricity retail sales to be generated from qualifying renewable sources by 2025. Renewable energy sources that meet this goal include: solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, hydrogen, municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and farm animal manure.122

Endnotes

1 Davies, Robert, "Climate Utah—Cathedral Peaks, Monument Valleys, Ancient Lakes and the Greatest Snow on Earth," Utah's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, ‘State Climate Series,' accessed March 14, 2022.
2 Utah Governor's Office of Energy Development, Utah's Energy Resources, accessed March 14, 2022.
3 Current Results, Average Annual Sunshine by State, accessed March 14, 2022.
4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Direct Normal Solar Irradiance (February 22, 2018).
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Utah, Annual 2001-21.
6 U.S. EIA, Utah Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend: Biomass Power Plant, population density, accessed March 14, 2022.
7 U.S. Census Bureau, Vintage 2020 Population Estimates, National Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the Nation and States, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
8 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Utah Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
9 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
10 State of Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration, Fiscal Year 2020 Annual Report, p. 21.
11 Vincent, Carol H., et al., Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congressional Research Service (February 21, 2020), p. 7-8.
12 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics 2020 (June 2021), Table 3-17, Continuing Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Activities on Federal Lands as of September 30, 2020, p. 104-105.
13 O'Donoghue, Amy Joi, "Interior approves final management plans for Bears Ears, Grand Staircase," Deseret News (February 6, 2020).
14 The White House, Executive Order on Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis, Sec. 3. Restoring National Monuments (January 20, 2021).
15 Shivaram, Deepa, ""Biden restores protections for Bears Ears monument, 4 years after Trump downsized it," NPR (October 8, 2021).
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
17 Davies, Robert, "Climate Utah—Cathedral Peaks, Monument Valleys, Ancient Lakes and the Greatest Snow on Earth," Utah's Climate, The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, ‘State Climate Series,' accessed March 15, 2022.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Utah, All statistics in table, Utah, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved reserves as of 12/31, 2015-20.
22 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 34.
23 Krauss, Clifford, "A Plan to Unlock Billions of Barrels of Oil from Utah's Sands," The New York Times (August 21, 2018).
24 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2016-21.
25 Utah Governor's Office of Energy Development, Utah's Energy Resources, Petroleum, accessed March 15, 2022.
26 Wood, Rebekah E., and Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr., Oil and Gas Fields Map of Utah, Utah Geological Survey (2015).
27 U.S. EIA, Utah Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels, 1981-2021.
28 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2021, Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2021.
29 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 26.
30 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 26.
31 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity 2021, Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2021.
32 UtahRails.net, Utah's Oil Industry and Utah's Railroads, updated February 4, 2020.
33 Phillips 66, Billings Refinery, accessed March 15, 2022.
34 Sinclair, Refineries, Sinclair Wyoming Refining Company, accessed March 15, 2022.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
37 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure, State by State RVP Table, accessed March 15, 2022.
38 Utah State Bulletin, Utah Administrative Code, Rule R307-301. Utah and Weber Counties: Oxygenated Gasoline Program as a Contingency Measure (February 15, 2017), p. 63.
39 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
40 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (September 3, 2021), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District) are available in XLS.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C5, Residential Sector Energy Consumption Estimates, 2019.
42 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Utah.
43 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2015-20.
44 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
45 Vanden Berg, Michael D., Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 127, Utah Geological Survey (2020), p. 32, 34.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2016-21.
47 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2021.
48 Vanden Berg, Michael D., Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 127, Utah Geological Survey (2020), p. 34, 36.
49 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967-2021.
50 U.S. EIA, Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells, 2002-20.
51 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Coalbed Methane, accessed March 16, 2022.
52 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Utah, 2015-20.
53 American Petroleum Institute, Where are the Pipelines? Natural Gas Pipelines, Pipeline 101, accessed March 16, 2022.
54 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity and Total Number of Existing Fields, 2015-20.
55 Dominion Energy, Dominion Energy Questar Pipeline, LLC, accessed March 16, 2022.
56 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Annual Respondent Query System, 191 Field Level Storage Data, 2019.
57 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Utah, 2015-21.
58 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Utah.
59 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019; and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
60 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 121, Utah Geological Survey (2016), p. 16.
61 Utah Economic Council, 2021 Economic Report to the Governor, p. 121.
62 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by: Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state, Utah; Origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Utah Table 0S-23; and Destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Utah Table DS-38.
63 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), Utah, 2001-20.
64 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report (April 1, 2022), Table 2, Coal production by state.
65 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, State Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2019, Table PT1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Utah 1960-2019.
66 Rupke, Andrew, et al., Utah Mining 2020, Circular 131, Utah Geological Survey (2022), Coal, Production p. 31, 37-38.
67 Vanden Berg, Michael, Utah's Energy Landscape, Circular 127, Utah Geological Survey (2020), p. 22-23.
68 Utah Economic Council, 2021 Economic Report to the Governor, p. 119, 121.
69 U.S. EIA, "In 2020, U.S. coal production fell to its lowest level since 1965," Today in Energy (July 14, 2021).
70 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors (thousand megawatthours), Utah, 2001-21.
71 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Utah, Technology: Select All.
72 Webb, Dennis, "Nuke plant unaffected by Westinghouse bankruptcy," The Daily Sentinel (April 13, 2017).
73 Blue Castle Project, accessed March 17, 2022.
74 Webb, Dennis, "Green River nuke project's prospects questioned after loss of water source," The Daily Sentinel (November 29, 2021).
75 "Eastern Idaho nuclear project to be built by Utah co-op goes from 12 to 6 reactors," Associated Press (July 19, 2021).
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104 U.S. EIA, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of January 2022, Plant State: Utah, Technology: Conventional Hydroelectric.
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