Texas State Energy Profile



Texas Quick Facts

  • Texas is the top crude oil- and natural gas-producing state in the nation. In 2022, Texas accounted for 42% of the nation's crude oil production and 27% of its marketed natural gas production.
  • Texas has the most crude oil refineries and the most refining capacity in the nation. The state's 32 petroleum refineries can process a combined total of more than 5.9 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day—one-third of the nation's total refining capacity.
  • In 2022, Texas generated 26% of all U.S. wind-sourced electricity, leading the nation for the 17th year in a row. Wind power surpassed the state's nuclear generation for the first time in 2014 and exceeded coal-fired generation for the first time in 2020.
  • In 2022, Texas produced more electricity than any other state and generated twice as much as second-place Florida. Texas accounted for more than 12% of the nation's total electricity net generation that year.
  • Texas leads the nation in energy consumption across all sectors and is the largest energy-consuming state in the nation. The industrial sector, including the state's refineries and petrochemical plants, accounts for more than half of the state's energy consumption and for 23% of the nation's total industrial sector energy use.

Last Updated: June 15, 2023



Data

Last Update: June 20, 2024 | Next Update: July 18, 2024

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Texas Share of U.S. Period
Population 30.5 million 9.1% 2023  
Civilian Labor Force 15.3 million 9.1% Apr-24  
Economy Texas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 2,563.5 billion 2 2023  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 296,403 million 2 2023  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 65,422 24 2023  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 290,890 million miles 2 2022  
Land in Farms 125.0 million acres 1 2023  
Climate Texas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 68.1 degrees Fahrenheit 3 2023  
Precipitation 23.9 inches 39 2023  
Prices  
Petroleum Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 80.20 /barrel $ 78.97 /barrel Mar-24  
Natural Gas Texas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.45 /thousand cu ft $ 4.05 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Residential $ 16.10 /thousand cu ft $ 13.85 /thousand cu ft Mar-24 find more
Coal Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 22.01 /short ton $ 54.46 /short ton 2022  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 2.49 /million Btu Mar-24  
Electricity Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.92 cents/kWh 16.68 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Commercial 8.78 cents/kWh 12.76 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Industrial 5.72 cents/kWh 7.73 cents/kWh Mar-24 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 17,031 million barrels 41.4% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 133,169 billion cu ft 22.6% 2021 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 12,158 million barrels 46.4% 2021 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 275 million short tons 2.4% 2022 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 118,957 wells 24.6% 2020 find more
Capacity Texas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 5,975,969 barrels/calendar day 33.1% 2023  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 157,356 MW 13.2% Mar-24  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 23,844 trillion Btu 24.2% 2021 find more
Crude Oil 5,584 thousand barrels per day 42.4% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 10,828,515 million cu ft 27.5% 2022 find more
Coal 17,084 thousand short tons 2.9% 2022 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 40,136 thousand MWh 12.4% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Texas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 47.4 % 40.3 % Mar-24 find more
Coal-Fired 8.0 % 11.9 % Mar-24 find more
Nuclear 7.6 % 19.6 % Mar-24 find more
Renewables 36.4 % 27.6 % Mar-24  
Stocks Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 3,709 thousand barrels 34.4% Mar-24  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 19,447 thousand barrels 21.0% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 721,213 million cu ft 10.7% Mar-24 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,430 thousand barrels 6.4% Mar-24 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 14,527 thousand tons 10.9% Mar-24 find more
Fueling Stations Texas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 10,904 stations 9.8% 2021  
Propane 326 stations 13.6% May-24  
Electric Vehicle Charging Locations 3,162 stations 5.0% May-24  
E85 259 stations 5.9% May-24  
Biodiesel, Compressed Natural Gas, and Other Alternative Fuels 76 stations 2.7% May-24  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Texas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 13,781 trillion Btu 1 2022 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 486 million Btu 6 2021 find more
Total Expenditures $ 202,632 million 1 2022 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 5,469 5 2021 find more
by End-Use Sector Texas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 1,633 trillion Btu 8.4% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial 1,546 trillion Btu 9.3% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial 7,338 trillion Btu 23.6% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation 3,269 trillion Btu 11.8% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 27,940 million 8.4% 2022 find more
    »  Commercial $ 18,373 million 7.6% 2022 find more
    »  Industrial $ 66,554 million 23.3% 2022 find more
    »  Transportation $ 89,764 million 10.4% 2022 find more
by Source Texas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 1,537 million barrels 21.0% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas 4,889 billion cu ft 15.2% 2022 find more
    »  Coal 59,340 thousand short tons 11.5% 2022 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 138,675 million 13.2% 2022 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 28,154 million 10.4% 2022 find more
    »  Coal $ 2,157 million 8.1% 2022 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 30 thousand barrels 2.1% Mar-24 find more
Natural Gas 135,408 million cu ft 14.4% Mar-24 find more
Coal 2,260 thousand tons 10.2% Mar-24 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Texas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 34.2 % 46.2 % 2022  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 3.9 % 2022  
Electricity 61.5 % 41.3 % 2022  
Propane 2.9 % 5.0 % 2022  
Other/None 1.3 % 3.5 % 2022  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 59,137 MW 17.3% Mar-24  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 380 million gal/year 2.2% 2023  
Renewable Energy Production Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 92 thousand MWh 0.4% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 14,434 thousand MWh 23.1% Mar-24  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 73 thousand MWh 2.0% Mar-24  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 420 thousand MWh 5.9% Mar-24  
Fuel Ethanol Production 6,974 thousand barrels 2.0% 2021  
Renewable Energy Consumption Texas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 9.0 % 32 2021  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 35,458 thousand barrels 1 2021  
Total Emissions Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 663.5 million metric tons 13.5% 2021  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 213,621 thousand metric tons 12.9% 2022  
Sulfur Dioxide 126 thousand metric tons 11.7% 2022  
Nitrogen Oxide 157 thousand metric tons 12.8% 2022  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 15, 2023

Overview

Texas is the nation’s largest net energy supplier.

Texas leads the nation in energy production, providing nearly one-fourth of the country's domestically produced energy.1 Second only to Alaska in total land area, Texas occupies 7% of the nation's total area and stretches about 800 miles at its widest points, east to west and north to south. Crude oil and natural gas fields are present across much of that expanse.2 Coal is found in bands that cut across the eastern Texas coastal plain and in other areas in the north-central and southwestern parts of the state.3 Additionally, Texas has abundant renewable energy resources and is first in the nation in wind-generated electricity.4 With a significant number of sunny days across vast distances, Texas is among the leading states in solar energy potential and generation.5,6 Geothermal resources suitable for power generation also are present in eastern and southern Texas.7 Uranium—the fuel for nuclear reactors—was mined from sandstone deposits in the Texas coastal plain as early as 1961, and significant resources remain.8,9 More recently, a project that will mine rare earth elements and other critical minerals is in development in southwest Texas. These minerals are used in many energy-related technologies.10

Texas ranks second in the nation, after California, in both population and the size of its economy.11,12 Texas also accounts for about one-seventh of the nation's total energy consumption, more than any other state, and it is sixth among the states in per capita energy consumption.13 However, because Texas produces much more energy than it consumes, it is the nation's largest net energy supplier.14 The Texas industrial sector includes the energy-intensive chemical manufacturing, crude oil and natural gas extraction, and petroleum refining industries, and industry is the state's largest energy consumer.15,16 It accounts for more than half of the state's total energy consumption and 23% of the nation's total industrial sector energy use. Transportation is the second-largest energy user and accounts for slightly more than one-fifth of the state's energy consumption.17

The Texas climate varies significantly from east to west. Warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico sweeps westward across the state, losing moisture as it goes. The result is a climate that ranges from humid and subtropical along the coast, where much of the state's population resides, to semi-arid on the high plains of central and western Texas and arid in the state's mountainous west. Frequent freezing temperatures occur in winter in the lightly populated high plains, and summer temperatures average above 90°F in the most densely populated parts of Texas, where energy use for cooling is high.18,19,20 Even so, the residential sector accounts for just one-eighth of the state's total energy consumption. However, in part because of the state's large population, Texas leads the nation in total residential energy use, even though it ranks among the lowest one-fifth of states in per capita residential energy consumption.21 The commercial sector accounts for almost as much energy use as the residential sector.22

Petroleum

Almost one-third of the nation’s crude oil refining capacity is in Texas.

Texas produces more crude oil than any other state and accounted for more than two-fifths (42%) of the nation's production from both onshore and offshore areas in 2022.23 Texas has led all states in crude oil production in every year but one, since at least 1970.24 The state also accounts for more than two-fifths of the nation's crude oil proved reserves and has more than one-fourth of the nation's 100 largest oil fields as measured by reserves. Many of those fields are in the Permian Basin of West Texas and in the Eagle Ford Shale of South Texas.25,26 The discovery of the Spindletop oil field in East Texas started the state's first major oil boom in 1901.27 Later discoveries led to increased state crude oil production until 1972, when Texas' annual crude oil production peaked at slightly more than 1.26 billion barrels. Output fell in subsequent years, and by 2007 production was only slightly more than one-fourth of the 1972 peak.28 However, because hydraulically fractured horizontal wells drilled in both the Permian Basin and the Eagle Ford shale led to increased crude oil production, a surge in production began around 2010 after more than 25 years of gradual decline.29,30 In 2017, Texas oil production exceeded the state's 1972 peak for the first time, and in 2019 annual output reached a new high of 1.85 billion barrels. In 2022, Texas produced about 1.84 billion barrels of oil.31 Texas crude oil is used as a national standard. West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a light (low density), sweet (low sulfur content) crude oil produced in Texas and elsewhere, is the benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America in both the physical and futures markets. WTI is a standard in part because of its ample supply and because of its proximity to a major market trading hub at Cushing, Oklahoma.32

Texas is home to two of the nation's four U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage sites. The SPR was created to offset the impacts of supply disruptions. The Reserve, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), can hold a combined total of up to 714 million barrels of crude oil in 60 huge underground salt caverns. The Texas sites have a combined storage capacity of about 417 million barrels and are located in salt caverns in the state's Gulf Coast region.33 In 2021, SPR sold millions of barrels of crude oil to counter market disruptions caused, in part, by the COVID-19 pandemic.34 In 2022, SPR released more crude oil to ensure an adequate supply of petroleum in response to Russia's invasion of Ukraine.35,36 However, in May 2023, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that it would begin adding crude oil back into the Reserve at the Big Hill site in Texas.37

Texas has about one-fourth of the nation's operable crude oil refineries and nearly one-third of the total U.S. refining capacity. The state's 32 petroleum refineries can process a combined total of more than 5.9 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.38,39 The majority of the Texas refineries are clustered near ports along the Gulf Coast, giving that region the largest concentration of oil refineries in the United States. The largest U.S. refinery is in Port Arthur, Texas, and it alone can process about 626,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day.40 Many of the Texas refineries are complex facilities that can process a wide variety of crude oil types into high-value products, such as motor gasoline, and into feedstocks for the chemical industry.41,42,43 Texas petroleum products are sent from the state's refineries by interstate pipeline, barge, and tanker to U.S. markets, primarily in the eastern and central states, and some are shipped to foreign markets.44,45 Texas refinery infrastructure is vulnerable to shutdowns during hurricane season and extreme winter weather.46,47

Texas consumes more petroleum than any other state. In 2020, the state ranked third by volume in per capita petroleum use, after Louisiana and Alaska.48 Unlike all other states, except Louisiana, the industrial sector, where hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) are used as feedstocks for the petrochemical industry, is the largest petroleum consumer in Texas. That sector accounts for almost two-thirds of state use.49 Texas is the nation's largest consumer of HGLs, using more than all other states combined. Texas is also the largest consumer of distillate fuel oil, including diesel fuel for highway use, and residual fuel oil.50,51,52 The transportation sector accounts for almost all the rest of the petroleum consumed in the state. The commercial and residential sectors together account for about 1% of petroleum use. The commercial sector consumes four times as much petroleum as the residential sector, where 3% of households use petroleum products, primarily propane, for space heating.53,54

Much of Texas can sell conventional motor gasoline without ethanol, but the eastern half of the state and El Paso County at the state's extreme western tip require various motor gasoline blends to meet diverse clean air-quality requirements. The metropolitan areas of Greater Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth require reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol.55 Texas has four fuel ethanol plants that can produce a combined total of about 9 million barrels of ethanol per year.56 However, in 2020 state ethanol production was only 5.5 million barrels.57 Texans typically consume more than three times as much fuel ethanol as the state's plants can produce, and additional supplies come from out of state.58

Natural gas

Nearly one-fourth of U.S. proved dry natural gas reserves and about 30 of the nation's 100 largest natural gas fields are located, in whole or in part, in Texas.59,60 In 2022, the state accounted for more than one-fourth of the nation's natural gas production. Texas gross withdrawals of natural gas reached an all-time high of 11.3 trillion cubic feet that year.61,62 Most of the past decade's increase in Texas natural gas production came from the Eagle Ford shale and the Permian Basin, where advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies improved production from shales and other low permeability formations.63,64

Texas has 17,000 miles of interstate natural gas pipelines within its borders.65 Those pipelines transport natural gas from Texas across the nation and into Mexico. Large volumes of natural gas enter the state, primarily through Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Louisiana, but in 2021, almost four times more natural gas left Texas than entered the state. More than half of that natural gas went to other countries, primarily Mexico. Most of the rest continued on to Louisiana.66

Texas exports natural gas by pipeline to Mexico and to other countries by ships loaded at the state's liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals along the Texas Gulf Coast at Freeport and Corpus Christi. The Corpus Christi LNG export facility began operating in 2018.67 The Freeport LNG import terminal converted into an export terminal and began export operations in 2019.68 Export facilities are under construction at the Golden Pass LNG import terminal at Sabine Pass and are expected to be operational in 2024.69,70,71 In 2021, Texas LNG export terminals accounted for half of all U.S. LNG exports.72

Texas accounts for more than one-fourth of the nation's natural gas production.

Texas produces and imports more natural gas than it consumes or sends out of state, so some natural gas is placed in underground storage.73,74,75 The state has more than 847 billion cubic feet of underground natural gas storage capacity, which is almost one-tenth of the U.S. total.76 More than half of the 35 active storage reservoirs in Texas—about 70% of the state's natural gas working gas storage capacity—are in depleted oil and gas fields converted for storage use. The rest are in salt caverns.77

Texas is the nation's largest natural gas consumer and accounts for about 15% of U.S. total natural gas use.78 The Texas industrial sector typically accounts for between 21% and 23% of the nation's total industrial sector natural gas consumption.79 The amount of natural gas used for electricity generation in Texas is greater than in any other state and typically accounts for about 15% of the U.S. electric power sector's total.80 In 2022, the industrial sector accounted for 47% of the natural gas delivered to consumers in Texas, and the electric power sectors accounted for 43% of state natural gas use.81 Texas uses almost twice as much natural gas in the production, processing, and distribution of natural gas as is consumed in the state's commercial and residential end-use sectors combined. In 2022, the residential and commercial sectors, together, accounted for about 10% of all the natural gas delivered to Texas consumers.82 About one-third of Texas households rely on natural gas as their primary fuel for space heating, but Texas is among the 10 states that use the least natural gas per capita in the residential sector.83,84,85

Coal

Texas has about 9 billion tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, almost 4% of the nation's total.86 The state is the second-largest lignite producer in the United States, after North Dakota, and the seventh-largest coal producer overall.87 Lignite is the rank of coal with the lowest heat value. It is used almost exclusively for power generation, usually at power plants near producing lignite mines.88 Substantial lignite deposits are found in a broad band in the Texas Gulf Coast region from the Rio Grande to the Arkansas border.89 Higher-grade bituminous coal occurs in deposits in north-central Texas west of Fort Worth and in small areas in the center of the state and along the state's southern border.90 Although underground mines produced most of the coal in Texas before the mid-1950s, those mines closed decades ago, and now surface mines produce all of the state's coal.91 In 2021, five Texas mines produced lignite, and none produced bituminous coal.92

Texas is the second-largest lignite coal producer in the nation.

Texas is the nation's largest coal consumer.93 On a tonnage basis, Texas lignite accounts for almost one-third of the state's coal consumption, with nearly all the rest of the state's needs met by subbituminous coal brought from Wyoming by rail. Texas consumes all of the lignite mined within the state and uses almost all of it to generate electricity. Railroads, trucks, and conveyor belts deliver the lignite to Texas power plants. In 2021, industrial facilities in the state received small amounts of coal from Colorado.94,95

Electricity

Texas generates more electricity than any other state, almost twice as much as second-place Florida.

Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as second-place Florida. Natural gas-fired power plants supplied about half the electricity generated in Texas in 2022. Natural gas fuels more electricity generation in Texas than in any other state and accounts for 15% of all U.S. natural gas-fired generation.96,97 Wind is the second-largest source of in-state generation in Texas. In 2022, wind supplied one-fifth of Texas' in-state utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) generation, and it provided more in-state power than coal for the third year in a row. Because of the increase in wind power and the retirement of more than 7,400 megawatts of coal-fired generating capacity, coal-fired power plants supplied 16% of state generation in 2022, down from a 36% share in 2011.98 The state's two operating nuclear power plants supplied 8% of the state's electricity net generation in 2022.99 Most of the rest of the state's total generation is from solar energy.100

Unlike other states, most of Texas is not connected to the nation's regional power grids.101 The Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) operates the state's main power grid. The ERCOT grid operates completely within Texas and serves about 75% of the state's land area, 90% of the electric load, and 26 million customers.102,103 The ERCOT service area does not extend across the state's borders, so ERCOT is not subject to federal oversight. It is, for the most part, dependent on its own resources to meet the state's electricity needs because of the limited number of connections the ERCOT grid has with the nation's larger interconnected grids.104 In February 2021, a major winter weather system spread across much of the central United States and disrupted energy systems, particularly in Texas. The cold weather increased energy demand and also affected energy supply. Electricity deliveries were disrupted in the parts of Texas served by ERCOT leaving millions of people without power during the severe cold.105

Texas is the nation's largest electricity consumer, but per capita consumption in Texas is less than in about a dozen other states. Texas also leads the nation in residential sector electricity consumption, but the residential sector's per capita consumption is less than in about one-third of the states.106 Electricity demand in Texas peaks during the hot summer months with the increased use of electricity for air conditioning.107 The residential sector, where three in five households use electricity as their primary source for home heating and almost all homes have air conditioning, accounts for the largest share Texas electricity use.108,109 In 2022, the Texas residential sector accounted for almost two-fifths of state electricity sales. The commercial sector used one-third, and the industrial sector consumed almost three-tenths. A very small amount of power is used in the state's transportation sector for public transit.110

Renewable energy

Texas leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation.

Renewable resources provided about one-fourth of in-state electricity net generation in Texas in 2022. The state accounted for about 15% of the nation's total electricity generation from all renewable sources and about 29% of the nation's total electricity generation from all nonhydroelectric renewable sources.111 In 2022, Texas led the nation in utility-scale wind-powered electricity generation, producing more than one-fourth of the U.S. total.112,113 In 2011, Texas was the first, and until 2020 the only, state to reach 10,000 megawatts of wind generating capacity.114 By February 2023, Texas had nearly 40,000 megawatts of wind capacity, which was more than one-fourth of the state's utility-scale generating capacity and almost three fourths of its total renewable generating capacity, including from small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) solar installations.115

Texas ranks sixth in the nation in solar power potential.116 In 2022, the state was the country's second-largest producer, after California, of solar power. Solar PV capacity at the state's large- and small-scale facilities rose to more than 13,500 megawatts in early 2023. Solar energy accounted for about 5% of the state's total electricity generation in 2022. Small-scale solar facilities provided about one-eighth of that total.117,118

Biomass fueled less than 0.3% of Texas total in-state electricity generation in 2022, nearly four-fifths of it from wood or wood-derived fuels.119 Texas has a large densified biomass fuel manufacturing plant and can process wood waste into about 500,000 tons of wood pellets per year.120 The state has several biogas facilities that recycle organic waste into renewable energy. Most are at wastewater treatment centers and landfills. Two anaerobic digesters, located in the state's panhandle, process manure and agricultural waste into methane that can fuel power generation.121,122 Texas also has 3 fuel ethanol manufacturers that can produce almost 400 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.123 The state's 6 biodiesel plants can produce almost 300 million gallons of biodiesel each year.124 A new refinery in Newton County, Texas, will process one million tons of wood waste into a variety of biofuels, including sustainable aviation fuel and renewable diesel.125

Although there are a large number of non-powered dams in Texas, there is limited potential for hydroelectric development.126 Fewer than twenty operating utility-scale hydroelectric power plants contribute less than 0.3% to Texas' in-state electricity generation.127 Texas does not have any geothermal power plants.128 However, thousands of crude oil and natural gas wells in Texas produce billions of barrels of non-potable water annually as a byproduct of crude oil and natural gas production. That water, as hot as 200°C, is a potential geothermal resource that could be used to generate electricity. Direct-use applications, such as ground-source heat pumps, use low-temperature geothermal resources at locations around the state.129

In 1999, Texas became the first state to establish an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) that requires the state's investor-owned electric utilities to reduce energy use.130 In 1999, the Texas Public Utility Commission adopted rules for a state renewable generation requirement. They required each retail electricity provider to acquire their proportional share of the mandated 10,000 megawatts of renewable capacity by 2025, including 500 megawatts from resources other than wind. Texas exceeded the 2025 goal in 2009, mostly because of the state's wind farms.131 By early 2023, the state had more than 12,400 megawatts of utility-scale renewable capacity from sources other than wind. When small-scale solar was included, the state had almost 14,600 megawatts of non-wind renewable generating capacity.132

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
2 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Texas' Natural Environment, accessed May 1, 2023.
3 U.S. EIA, Texas Profile Overview, U.S Energy Atlas with Total Energy Layers, Interactive GIS Data Viewer, State Mask Texas, Oil Wells, Gas Wells, Coal Fields, Coal Fields Layers, accessed May 1, 2023.
4 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Wind, Annual, 2022.
5 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
6 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
7 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, Map, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
8 Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Uranium, accessed May 1, 2023.
9 Uranium Producers of America, Uranium in America, Uranium in Texas, accessed May 1, 2023.
10 Friend, Daniel, Texas Could Play Central Role in Shift Away from China's Rare Earth Dominance, The Texan (December 27, 2021).
11 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2022.
12 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, All Areas, All Industry Total, 2022.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2020.
15 U.S. EIA, Use of Energy Explained, Energy Use in Industry, updated August 2, 2021.
16 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, Texas, All statistics in table, 2021.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
18 Bomar, George W., Weather, Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, updated February 1, 1996.
19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Texas Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
20 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2020.
23 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2022.
24 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production grew 17% in 2018, surpassing the previous record in 1970," Today in Energy (April 9, 2019).
25 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2021.
26 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7, 11.
27 Wooster, Robert, and Christine Moor Sanders, "Spindletop Oilfield," Texas State Historical Association, updated April 2, 2019.
28 The Railroad Commission of Texas, Historical Crude Oil Production and Well Counts, History of Texas Initial Crude Oil, Annual Production and Producing Wells Since 1935, 1935-2018.
29 U.S. EIA, U.S. tight oil production—selected plays, 2007-2023.
30 U.S. EIA, "Advances in technology led to record new well productivity in the Permian Basin in 2021," Today in Energy (September 30, 2022).
31 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Texas Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 1981-2022.
32 U.S. EIA, "Benchmarks play an important role in pricing crude oil," Today in Energy (October 28, 2014).
33 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy, SPR Storage Sites, accessed May 2, 2023.
34 U.S. Department of Energy, "DOE to Notice Sale From Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Ongoing Exchange to Address Oil Supply Disruptions Costing Americans at the Pump," Press Release (December 10, 2021).
35 U.S. EIA, "U.S. to release 30 million barrels of crude oil from its Strategic Petroleum Reserve," Today in Energy (March 8, 2022).
36 U.S. EIA, "As much as 15 million barrels of crude oil sold from the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve," Today in Energy (October 24, 2022).
37 U.S. Department of Energy, DOE Announces Purchases for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Press Release (May 15, 2023).
38 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2022.
39 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2022.
40 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2022), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2022.
41 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, API Gravity, Annual, 2017-22.
42 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, Sulfur Content, Annual, 2017-22.
43 U.S. EIA, Refinery Net Production, Texas Gulf Coast, and Texas Inland, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2017-22.
44 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2017-22, From PADD 3.
45 U.S. EIA, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets (February 2016), Supply and logistics, Markets, p. 87-93.
46 U.S. EIA, "Cold weather led to refinery shutdowns in U.S. Gulf Coast region," Today in Energy (March 1, 2021).
47 U.S. EIA, "Gulf Coast refinery runs are approaching levels seen prior to Hurricane Harvey," Today in Energy (October 26, 2017).
48 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2021.
52 U.S. EIA, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Explained, updated September 13, 2022.
53 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
54 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2021.
55 Larson, B.K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements as of January 2018, ExxonMobil, accessed May 2, 2023.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 1, 2022, Excel File.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2020.
58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2021.
59 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, 2021, Dry Natural Gas, Annual.
60 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 8-10.
61 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross withdrawals and Marketed Production, Annual, 2022.
62 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2022.
63 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Texas, Data Series, Annual, 2017-22.
64 Railroad Commission of Texas, Eagle Ford Shale, accessed May 3, 2023.
65 Texas Railroad Commission, Texas Pipeline System Mileage, accessed April 8, 2022.
66 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2016-21.
67 Cheniere, Who We Are, We are US LNG accessed May 2, 2023.
68 Freeport LNG, Corporate History, Freeport LNG Milestones, accessed May 2, 2023.
69 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals: Existing, Approved not Yet Built, and Proposed, updated May 1, 2023.
70 Golden Pass LNG, LNG Export Project, accessed May 2, 2023.
71 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals: Existing, Approved not Yet Built, and Proposed, updated May 1, 2023.
72 U.S. EIA, U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports by State, Export Volume, Annual. 2017-22.
73 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1967-2022.
74 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Annual, Texas, 2017-22.
75 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2016-21.
76 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, 2021.
77 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Texas, Annual, 2021.
78 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2017-22.
79 U.S. EIA, Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers, Industrial, Annual, 2016-21.
80 U.S. EIA, Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers, Electric Power, Annual, 2016-21.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2022.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2022.
83 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Residential, Annual, 2022.
85 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2022.
86 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2021.
87 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021.
88 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Lignite, accessed May 8, 2023.
89 Henderson, Dwight F., and Diana J. Kleiner, "Coal and Lignite Mining," Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, updated September 26, 2019.
90 Mapel, W. J., Bituminous Coal Resources of Texas, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Bulletin 1242-D (1967), p. D-2.
91 Garner, L. Edwin, Mineral Resources and Mining, Coal, Lignite, Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas, updated January 19, 2019.
92 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021, and Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2021.
93 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2020.
94 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2021 (October 2022), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2021.
95 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2021 (October 2022), Texas, Table OS-22, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 2021, and Table DS-38, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2021.
96 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 1.3.B.
97 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 1.7.B.
98 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Retired Generators as of March 2023.
99 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Texas, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated March 9, 2021.
100 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-22.
101 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Texas Electric Grids: Demand and Supply, accessed May 12, 2023.
102 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, United States Electricity Industry Primer, DOE/OE-0017 (July 2015), p. 11.
103 ERCOT, Company Profile, accessed May 12, 2023.
104 Morehouse, Catherine, "Congress, Texas should 'rethink' ERCOT's 'go it alone approach': FERC Chair Glick," Utility Dive (February 19, 2021).
105 U.S. EIA, "Extreme winter weather is disrupting energy supply and demand, particularly in Texas," Today in Energy (February 21, 2021).
106 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2020.
107 ERCOT, Fact Sheet March 2023, accessed May 13, 2023.
108 U.S. Census Bureau, Texas, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
109 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey, 2020 RECS Survey Data, State Data, Highlights for air conditioning in U.S. homes by state, 2020.
110 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, Texas, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation, Annual, 2022.
111 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Texas, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Other renewables (total), Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
112 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, United States, Texas, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Wind, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
113 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Table 1.14.B.
114 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Historical State Data, Existing Nameplate and Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source, Producer Type and State (EIA-860), 1990-2021, Excel File.
115 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2023), Tables 6.2.A, 6.2.B.
116 Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
117 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2023), Tables 1.17.B, 6.2.B.
118 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
119 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Biomass (total), Wood and wood-derived fuel, Other biomass, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2022.
120 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2023.
121 American Biogas Council, Biogas State Profile: Texas, updated August 7, 2015.
122 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, AgSTAR, Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database, accessed May 15, 2023.
123 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Excel File, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2022.
124 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity, as of January 1, 2022.
125 "USA BioEnergy to build $1.7 bn biorefinery in Texas," Upstream (February 16, 2022).
126 Hadjerioua, Boualem, et.al, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 2012), p. 8.
127 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Texas, All fuels, Conventional hydroelectric, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Annual, 2021-22.
128 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of March 2023.
129 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program, Texas, DOE/GO-102006-2213 (April 2006).
130 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Required Energy Efficiency Goals, updated April 29, 2016.
131 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Renewable Generation Requirement, updated November 10, 2022.
132 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2023), Table 6.2.B.


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