Texas State Energy Profile



Texas Quick Facts

  • Texas is the top U.S. producer of both crude oil and natural gas. In 2019, the state accounted for 41% of the nation's crude oil production and 25% of its marketed natural gas production.
  • As of January 2019, the 30 petroleum refineries in Texas were able to process about 5.8 million barrels of crude oil per day and accounted for 31% of the nation's refining capacity.
  • Texas leads the nation in wind-powered generation and produced about 28% of all the U.S. wind-powered electricity in 2019. Texas wind turbines have produced more electricity than both of the state's nuclear power plants since 2014. 
  • Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as Florida, the second-highest electricity-producing state.
  • Texas is the largest energy-producing and energy-consuming state in the nation. The industrial sector, including its refineries and petrochemical plants, accounts for half of the energy consumed in the state.

Last Updated: March 19, 2020



Data

Last Update: March 18, 2021 | Next Update: April 15, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Texas Share of U.S. Period
Population 29.4 million 8.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 14.0 million 8.8% Jan-21  
Economy Texas U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 1,887.0 billion 2 2019  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 246,436 million 2 2019  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 52,504 28 2019  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 288,227 million miles 2 2019  
Land in Farms 127.0 million acres 1 2017  
Climate Texas U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 66.8 degrees Fahrenheit 3 2020  
Precipitation 26.1 inches 34 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 44.73 /barrel $ 43.96 /barrel Dec-20  
Natural Gas Texas U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 3.15 /thousand cu ft $ 3.55 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Residential $ 10.41 /thousand cu ft $ 9.73 /thousand cu ft Dec-20 find more
Coal Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 16.90 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.91 /million Btu Dec-20  
Electricity Texas U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 11.87 cents/kWh 12.80 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Commercial 7.75 cents/kWh 10.48 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Industrial 4.89 cents/kWh 6.40 cents/kWh Dec-20 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 18,622 million barrels 42.1% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 113,736 billion cu ft 24.4% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 9,175 million barrels 42.4% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 345 million short tons 2.4% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 122,879 wells 25.0% 2019 find more
Capacity Texas Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 5,855,529 barrels/calendar day 30.9% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 129,613 MW 11.6% Dec-20  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 20,421 trillion Btu 21.3% 2018 find more
Crude Oil 4,619 thousand barrels per day 41.8% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 9,301,616 million cu ft 25.5% 2019 find more
Coal 23,307 thousand short tons 3.3% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 38,243 thousand MWh 11.1% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Texas U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 44.2 % 36.4 % Dec-20 find more
Coal-Fired 20.3 % 22.8 % Dec-20 find more
Nuclear 9.9 % 20.3 % Dec-20 find more
Renewables 24.8 % 19.5 % Dec-20  
Stocks Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 4,135 thousand barrels 21.8% Dec-20  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 28,978 thousand barrels 22.5% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 727,167 million cu ft 9.4% Dec-20 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 768 thousand barrels 3.0% Dec-20 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers 9,648 thousand tons 7.3% Dec-20 find more
Fueling Stations Texas Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 11,397 stations 10.1% 2018  
Propane 395 stations 14.6% 2021  
Electricity 1,957 stations 4.8% 2021  
E85 233 stations 6.3% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 93 stations 7.4% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Texas U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 14,259 trillion Btu 1 2018 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 498 million Btu 6 2018 find more
Total Expenditures $ 153,012 million 1 2018 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 5,345 5 2018 find more
by End-Use Sector Texas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 1,779 trillion Btu 8.3% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial 1,658 trillion Btu 9.0% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial 7,282 trillion Btu 22.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation 3,541 trillion Btu 12.4% 2018 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 20,684 million 7.7% 2018 find more
    »  Commercial $ 14,000 million 7.2% 2018 find more
    »  Industrial $ 51,529 million 24.2% 2018 find more
    »  Transportation $ 66,799 million 11.2% 2018 find more
by Source Texas Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 1,575 million barrels 21.1% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas 4,663 billion cu ft 15.0% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 64 million short tons 10.9% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 108,343 million 14.6% 2018 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 12,335 million 8.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,999 million 7.9% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 8 thousand barrels 0.5% Dec-20 find more
Natural Gas 122,214 million cu ft 13.6% Dec-20 find more
Coal 5,473 thousand short tons 12.6% Dec-20 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Texas U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 35.0 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 0.1 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 61.1 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 2.8 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 0.9 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 36,258 MW 13.9% Dec-20  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 405 million gal/year 2.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Production Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 150 thousand MWh 0.7% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 9,214 thousand MWh 23.4% Dec-20  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 112 thousand MWh 2.3% Dec-20  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 121 thousand MWh 4.8% Dec-20  
Fuel Ethanol Production 9,103 thousand barrels 2.4% 2018  
Renewable Energy Consumption Texas U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 7.0 % 35 2018  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 36,641 thousand barrels 2 2019  
Total Emissions Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 707.0 million metric tons 13.7% 2017  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Texas Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 217,556 thousand metric tons 12.6% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 143 thousand metric tons 11.3% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 163 thousand metric tons 12.2% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 19, 2020

Overview

Texas, a large state with a wealth of energy resources, leads the nation in energy production. The state provides more than one-fifth of U.S. domestically produced energy.1 Second only to Alaska in total land area, Texas stretches 800 miles at its widest points, east to west and north to south, and crude oil and natural gas fields are present across much of that expanse.2,3 Coal is found in bands that cut across the eastern Texas coastal plain and in other areas in the north-central and southwestern parts of the state.4 Texas also has abundant renewable energy resources and is first in the nation in wind-generated electricity.5,6 With a significant number of sunny days across vast distances, Texas is also among the leading states in solar energy potential.7,8 Geothermal resources suitable for power generation are present in East Texas, and uranium—the fuel for nuclear reactors—has been found in South Texas.9,10 The state has three licensed uranium in-situ recovery plants, but there have been no commercial operations for several years.11,12

Texas has the nation's second-largest population and second-largest economy after California.13,14,15 Texas uses more energy than any other state and accounts for almost one-seventh of the U.S. total consumption. The state is sixth in the nation in per capita energy consumption and is the third-largest net energy supplier despite its high energy use.16,17 The industrial sector, which includes the energy-intensive petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries, is the largest energy consuming end-use sector and accounts for half of the state's end-use energy consumption.18,19 Transportation is the second-largest end user, in part because of the large number of registered motor vehicles in Texas, the great distances across the state, and the high number of vehicle miles traveled annually.20,21,22

The Texas climate varies significantly from east to west. Warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico sweeps westward across the state, losing moisture as it goes. The result is a climate that ranges from humid and subtropical along the coast, where much of the state's population resides, to semi-arid on the high plains of central and western Texas, and arid in the state's mountainous west. Frequent freezing temperatures occur in winter in the lightly populated high plains, and summer temperatures average above 90°F in the most densely populated parts of Texas where energy use for cooling is high.23,24,25 Even so, the residential sector accounts for just one-eighth of state end-use energy consumption. Because of the state's large population, Texas leads the nation in state residential energy use, but it ranks near the lowest one-fifth of states in per capita residential energy consumption.26,27

Petroleum

Texas leads the nation in crude oil production, as it has in every year but one since 1970.28 The state has more than two-fifths of U.S. crude oil proved reserves and produces two-fifths of the nation's crude oil, not only more than any other state but also exceeding that of all the federal offshore producing areas combined.29,30 More than one-fourth of the nation's 100 largest oil fields by reserves are in Texas. Most of those are in the Permian Basin of West Texas and in the south-central part of the state.31 However, the first major oil boom in Texas began in 1901 with the discovery of the Spindletop oil field in southeast Texas.32 Later discoveries led to increased crude oil production until 1972 when the state's annual production rose to slightly more than 1.26 billion barrels.33 Output fell in subsequent years to a low of less than one-third of the 1972 peak in 2007. Production began to rise again, most sharply after 2010, as hydraulically fractured horizontal wells drilled in both the Permian Basin in western Texas and the Eagle Ford shale in southern and eastern Texas led to increased crude oil production.34,35,36 In 2017, Texas oil production exceeded the state's 1972 peak for the first time when it rose to more than 1.27 billion barrels, and in 2019, annual production increased to more than 1.8 billion barrels.37

West Texas Intermediate crude oil serves as a benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America.

West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a light (low density), sweet (low sulfur content) crude oil produced in Texas and elsewhere, is the benchmark for crude oil pricing in North America in both the physical and futures markets. It is used as a standard in part because of its ample supply and proximity to a major market hub.38,39 Some of the nation's crude oil supplies are stored in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve as a buffer against supply disruptions. Texas has two of the four U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities. They are located in salt caverns in the Texas Gulf Coast region.40

More than three-tenths of the nation’s crude oil refining capacity is in Texas.

Texas leads the nation in crude oil refining. It has more than one-fifth of the nation's refineries and more than three-tenths of U.S. total refining capacity. The state's 30 operable petroleum refineries can process a combined total of almost 5.8 million barrels of crude oil per calendar day.41,42 The majority of the state's refineries are clustered near ports along the Gulf Coast, including the nation's largest refinery in Port Arthur. The Texas Gulf Coast region has the largest concentration of oil refineries in the United States.43 Many of the Texas refineries are complex facilities that can process a wide variety of crude oil types into high-value products, such as motor gasoline.44,45,46 The petroleum products refined in Texas are shipped from the state's refineries by interstate pipeline, barge, and tanker to U.S. markets, primarily in the eastern and central states but also as far west as Arizona, as well as to foreign markets.47,48

Texas also leads the nation in petroleum consumption and ranked third in per capita petroleum use in 2017.49 Unlike most states, the industrial sector is the largest petroleum consumer in the state, followed by the transportation sector.50 Texas is the nation's largest consumer of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs), distillate fuel oil, and residual fuel oil.51 HGLs include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and their associated olefins.52 In 2017, Texas HGL use was greater than the HGL consumption of all other states combined. Almost all the HGLs are consumed by the industrial sector, where they are used in a variety of applications, particularly as feedstock for the state's petrochemical industry.53,54 While much of Texas can use conventional motor gasoline without ethanol, the eastern half of the state and El Paso County at the state's extreme western tip require several different motor gasoline blends to meet diverse air-quality requirements. In the metropolitan areas of Greater Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth, reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol is required.55 The state has four ethanol plants that can produce more than 9 million barrels of ethanol per year, but Texans consume almost four times as much ethanol as is produced in the state.56,57,58 The residential and commercial sectors together use less than 1% of the petroleum consumed in Texas.59

Natural gas

More than one-fourth of the nation's proved natural gas reserves are in Texas.

More than one-fourth of the nation's proved natural gas reserves and about three-tenths of the 100 largest natural gas fields are located, in whole or in part, in Texas.60,61 The state leads the nation in natural gas production, accounting for one-fourth of U.S. gross withdrawals in 2019. The state's natural gas production reached a peak in 1972. From that peak of more than 9.5 trillion cubic feet, yearly production declined to about 5.5 trillion cubic feet in the late 1990s. Since then, natural gas production levels have rebounded, largely because of increased production from the Eagle Ford and Permian Basin regions.62,63 In 2019, the state exceeded its earlier peak and produced more than 10.2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.64 Much of the last decade's rise in production resulted from advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies that increased production from shale and other low permeability formations.65,66

With more than 18,000 miles of interstate natural gas pipelines within its borders, Texas has more natural gas market hubs than any other state.67,68 Because of that infrastructure, Texas is well connected to markets throughout the country.69 Natural gas is shipped from Texas across the nation and into Mexico. Large volumes of natural gas also enter the state, primarily through Oklahoma, Louisiana, and New Mexico, but more natural gas leaves the state than enters. Most of it continues on to Louisiana and Mexico.70 Texas had two liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals along its Gulf Coast, one each at Freeport and Sabine Pass.71 The Freeport Terminal has since been transformed into an export terminal and the Sabine Pass facility is also adding export capabilities.72,73 There is also an export terminal at Corpus Christi.74 Several other export terminals have been approved but are not yet built.75 Because Texas produces more natural gas than it consumes or sends out of state, some natural gas is placed in underground storage.76,77,78 The state has more than one-tenth of the nation's total working natural gas storage capacity.79 More than half of the state's 35 active storage facilities—about 70% of the state's natural gas working gas storage capacity—are in depleted oil and gas fields converted for storage use. The rest are in salt caverns.80

Texas leads the nation in natural gas consumption, accounting for almost 15% of the U.S. total.81 The industrial and electric power sectors accounted for nearly four-fifths of Texas natural gas use. The industrial sector alone was responsible for more than two-fifths of the state's consumption and more than one-fifth of the nation's total industrial sector consumption of natural gas in 2019.82,83 The amount of natural gas used for electricity generation in Texas is greater than in any other state and accounted for more than 15% of the total used by the U.S. electric power sector in 2019.84 Less than one-tenth of the total natural gas consumed in Texas goes to the residential and commercial end-use sectors. More natural gas is used in the recovery, processing, and distribution of natural gas than is consumed by those two end-use sectors combined.85 More than one-third of Texas households rely on natural gas as their primary heating fuel, but the state's per capita residential natural gas consumption ranks among the lowest one-fifth of states.86,87,88

Coal

Texas is the largest lignite producer in the nation.

Texas has more than 9 billion tons of estimated recoverable coal reserves, almost 4% of the nation's total.89 The state is the largest lignite producer in the nation and is among the top 10 coal producers overall.90 Lignite is the rank of coal with the lowest heat value. It is used almost exclusively for power generation, usually at coal-fired power plants near the mines.91 Substantial lignite deposits are found in narrow bands in the Texas Gulf Coast region.92 Higher-grade bituminous coal is located in deposits that run southward from north-central Texas to the Rio Grande Valley at the state's southern border.93 Although coal was primarily produced from underground mines in Texas before the mid-1950s, production at those mines ceased decades ago, and now all of the state's coal production is from surface mines.94 Lignite is recovered at eight surface mines, and one surface mine produces bituminous coal.95 In 2017, one of the state's lignite mines closed because the power plant it supplied with fuel shut down.96,97

Texas is also the largest coal-consuming state.98 On a tonnage basis, Texas lignite accounts for more than one-third of the state's coal consumption, with nearly all the rest of the state's needs met by subbituminous coal brought from Wyoming by rail. The lignite mined in Texas is consumed entirely within the state, and almost all of it is used to generate electricity. Lignite is delivered directly to Texas power plants by conveyor belt, truck, or rail. A small amount of coal is delivered to industrial facilities in the state.99,100

Electricity

Texas generates more electricity than any other state, almost twice as much as the second-highest electricity-producing state.

Texas produces more electricity than any other state, generating almost twice as much as Florida, the second-highest electricity-producing state.101 Natural gas-fired power plants supplied more than half of the state's electricity net generation in 2019.102 About 5,000 megawatts of Texas coal-fired generating capacity have been retired since 2016.103 As a result, coal-fired power plants supplied less than one-fifth of state generation in 2019, down from about one-third as recently as 2014.104 Wind-powered generation in Texas has rapidly increased during the past two decades.105 In 2019, wind energy provided more than one-sixth of Texas' generation.106 The state's two operating nuclear power plants typically supply almost one-tenth of the state's electricity net generation.107,108 Most of the capacity added in Texas since 2010 is fueled by natural gas or wind.109

Among the contiguous 48 states, Texas is the only state with a stand-alone electricity grid.110 Although there are four electricity grids that serve Texas, the state's main electricity grid is operated by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The ERCOT grid serves about three-fourths of the state and is largely isolated from the other interconnected power systems serving the eastern and western contiguous United States.111 This isolation means the ERCOT grid is not subject to federal oversight and is, for the most part, dependent on its own resources to meet the state's electricity needs.112 The state's electricity supply has increased each year, but so has demand.113 Texas is the largest electricity consumer among the states. The largest share of its electricity retail sales go to the residential sector, followed by the commercial sector, and then the industrial sector.114 Three in five households in Texas use electricity as their primary source for home heating, but demand peaks during the hot summer months with the increased use of electricity for cooling.115,116

In 1999, Texas became the first state to establish an energy efficiency resource standard (EERS). The standard requires investor-owned electric utilities in the state to reduce energy use and demand. The initial savings goal for each utility is equal to 30% of the utility's annual growth in peak demand. After that target is met, the EERS requires that annual savings equal up to 0.4% of each utility's peak demand.117

Renewable energy

Texas leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation, producing almost three-tenths of the U.S. total in 2019.

Renewable energy sources contribute nearly one-fifth of the net electricity generated in Texas and account for one-fifth of the total U.S. utility-scale electricity generation from all nonhydroelectric renewable sources.118 The state has encouraged renewable energy use by authorizing construction of transmission lines to bring electricity from remote wind farms to urban market centers.119 Wind accounts for nearly all of the electricity generated from renewable resources in Texas, and the state leads the nation in wind-powered electricity generation, producing almost three-tenths of the U.S. total.120 In 2011, Texas was the first state to reach 10,000 megawatts of installed wind generating capacity.121 At the end of 2018, Texas had about 24,185 megawatts of wind capacity installed, and, by the end of 2019 installed capacity was about 28,800 megawatts.122,123 Utility-scale wind facilities in Texas (those with capacities of 1 megawatt or greater) accounted for more than one-fifth of the state's total generating capacity and produced more than one-sixth of the state's net generation in 2019.124 More than 6,200 megawatts of additional wind generation capacity are under construction.125

The high levels of direct solar radiation in the western part of the state give Texas some of the greatest solar power potential in the nation, and the state was the country's sixth-largest producer of solar power in 2019.126,127 Decreased costs for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and improved transmission access have resulted in rapid increases in solar PV capacity in Texas.128 Installed solar capacity in the state doubled between 2017 and 2019, exceeding 3,100 megawatts in 2019. Nearly one-fifth of Texas solar generation came from customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt) facilities in 2019.129,130

Texas has abundant biomass and biofuel resources.131 Biomass fuels less than 0.5% of the state's electricity generation, but Texas does produce liquid biofuels.132 The state has four biofuels plants in the agriculturally rich high plains region in the Texas Panhandle. Those plants have the capacity to produce almost 400 million gallons of ethanol per year from corn and sorghum feedstocks.133,134 The state also has 8 biodiesel producers capable of providing about 375 million gallons of biodiesel per year.135 There are two wood pellet plants in Texas with a combined capacity of nearly 550,000 tons per year.136,137,138

Texas has two dozen hydroelectric power plants that typically contribute less than 0.5% to in-state electricity generation.139,140 The relatively gentle terrain and low rainfall throughout much of the state are not conducive to hydroelectric power development. Despite a large number of non-powered dams in Texas, the potential for further hydroelectric development is limited.141

The large number of crude oil and natural gas wells in Texas provide a unique untapped geothermal resource. Billions of barrels of non-potable water are produced annually as a byproduct from the state's crude oil and natural gas wells. That water can be as hot as 200°C and could be used to generate electricity. Low-temperature geothermal resources are already used in direct-use applications, such as ground-source heat pumps, at locations around the state.142

The Public Utility Commission of Texas first adopted rules for the state's renewable energy mandate in 1999 and amended them in 2005 to require that 5,880 megawatts, or about 5% of the state's electricity generating capacity, come from renewable sources by 2015 and 10,000 megawatts of renewable capacity by 2025, including 500 megawatts from resources other than wind. Texas surpassed the 2025 goal in 2009, predominantly because of the generating capacity provided by the state's wind farms.143

Endnotes

1 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), State Energy Data System, Table P2, Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
2 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Environment, The Physical State of Texas, accessed February 3, 2020.
3 Smith, Thomas, Oil Production Surges in Texas, GEOExPro, Vol. 12, No. 6 (2015).
4 Railroad Commission of Texas, Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Historical Coal Mining, Coal Regions/Fields in Texas (February 11, 2015).
5 American Wind Energy Association, Texas Wind Energy, accessed February 3, 2020.
6 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All states, Wind, Annual, 2018.
7 Current Results, Days of Sunshine Per Year in Texas, accessed February 3, 2020.
8 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
9 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resources of the United States, Map, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
10 Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Uranium, accessed February 3, 2020.
11 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, Third Quarter 2019 (November 2019), Table 4, U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status.
12 U.S. EIA, 2018 Domestic Uranium Production Report (May 2019), Table 5, U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2013-18.
13 Texas State Historical Association, Texas Almanac, Environment, The Physical State of Texas, accessed February 3, 2020.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, Table PEPANNRES, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018, 2018 Population Estimates.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product by State, Current Dollars, All Areas, All Industry Total, 2018.
16 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2017.
18 U.S. EIA, Use of Energy Explained, Energy Use in Industry, updated May 9, 2019.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP and Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in current dollars, Texas, All statistics in table, 2017.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
21 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2016, Table MV-1, State Motor-Vehicle Registrations, 2017 (January 2019).
22 Federal Highway Administration, Policy and Governmental Affairs, Office of Highway Policy Information, Highway Statistics 2018, Table VM-2, Functional System Travel, 2018, Annual Vehicle Miles (August 30, 2019).
23 Bomar, George W., Weather, The Handbook of Texas Online, accessed February 4, 2020.
24 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Texas Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
25 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air conditioning, Table HC7.10, Air Conditioning in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009.
26 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C13, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2017.
28 U.S. EIA, "U.S. crude oil production grew 17% in 2018, surpassing the previous record in 1970," Today in Energy (April 9, 2019).
29 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2018.
31 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil & Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 5-7, 11.
32 Wooster, Robert, and Christine Moor Sanders, "Spindletop Oilfield," Texas State Historical Association, accessed February 5, 2020.
33 Kim, Eugene M., and Stephen C. Ruppel, Oil and Gas Production in Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, p. 2, accessed February 5, 2020.
34 U.S. EIA, Permian Region Drilling Productivity Report (January 2020).
35 U.S. EIA, Eagle Ford Region Drilling Productivity Report (January 2020).
36 U.S. EIA, "Hydraulically fractured horizontal wells account for most new oil and natural gas wells," Today in Energy (December 20, 2018).
37 U.S. EIA, Texas Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, Thousand Barrels (1981-2018), Monthly, Thousand Barrels (Jan 1981-Dec 2019).
38 U.S. EIA, Petroleum & Other Liquids, Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes, West Texas Intermediate (WTI-Cushing), accessed February 5, 2020.
39 U.S. EIA, "Benchmarks play an important role in pricing crude oil," Today in Energy (October 28, 2014).
40 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy, SPR Storage Sites, accessed February 5, 2020.
41 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual (as of January 1), 2019.
42 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity, Annual (as of January 1), 2019.
43 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report (June 2019), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2019, p. 17, 20.
44 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, API Gravity, Annual, 2013-18.
45 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Input Qualities, Sulfur Content, Annual, 2013-18.
46 U.S. EIA, Refinery Net Production, Texas Gulf Coast, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2018.
47 U.S. EIA, Movements by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD Districts, Petroleum Products, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2013-18, From PADD 3.
48 U.S. EIA, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets (February 2016), p. 87.
49 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2017.
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2017.
52 U.S. EIA, Glossary, H, Hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), accessed February 5, 2020.
53 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F11, Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Consumption Estimates, 2017.
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58 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
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65 U.S. EIA, Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas, 2007-18.
66 U.S. EIA, Energy Explained, Natural Gas Explained, Where Our Natural Gas Comes From, updated November 13, 2019.
67 Texas Railroad Commission, Texas Pipeline System Mileage, updated August 14, 2019.
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70 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2013-18.
71 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Import Terminals, Existing, updated January 24, 2020.
72 Freeport LNG, Corporate History, accessed February 28, 2020.
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75 U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, North American LNG Export Terminals, Approved, Not Yet Built, updated February 5, 2020.
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77 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Annual, Texas, 2013-18.
78 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Texas, Annual 2013-18.
79 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Working Gas Capacity, Annual, 2018.
80 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Texas, Annual, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Total Consumption, Annual, 2018.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2018.
83 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Industrial Consumers, Annual, 2019.
84 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Volumes Delivered to Electric Power Consumers, Annual, 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, Texas, Annual, 2018.
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101 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
102 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.7.B.
103 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
104 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Coal, Texas, Annual, 2010-19.
105 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, All fuels, Wind, Texas, Annual, 2001-19.
106 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
107 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Texas, Operating Nuclear Power Reactors, updated August 23, 2018.
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109 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
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116 Electricity Reliability Council of Texas, Quick Facts (September 2019).
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119 Lasher, Warren, The Competitive Renewable Energy Zones Process, ERCOT (August 11, 2014).
120 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.14.B.
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122 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 6.2.B.
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124 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B, 6.2.A, 6.2.B.
125 American Wind Energy Association, Texas Wind Energy, accessed February 13, 2020.
126 Nebraska Energy Office, Comparison of Solar Power Potential by State, updated March 11, 2010.
127 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.17.B.
128 Solar Energy Industries Association, Solar Industry Research Data, accessed February 28, 2020.
129 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2019), Table 6.2.B.
130 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.17.B, 6.2.B.
131 Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Bioenergy, 2010 Status Report (September 2010) p. 38-40.
132 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Tables 1.3.B, 1.15.B.
133 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, XLS, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Production Capacity, January 2019.
134 Ethanol Producers Magazine, U.S. Ethanol Plants, RINs, Operational, updated November 12, 2019.
135 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, November 2019.
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140 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2018 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only).
141 Hadjerioua, Boualem, et.al, An Assessment of Energy Potential at Non-Powered Dams in the United States, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (April 2012), p. 8.
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143 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Texas, Renewable Generation Requirement, updated June 26, 2018.


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