South Dakota State Energy Profile



South Dakota Quick Facts

  • South Dakota is the nation's fifth-largest fuel ethanol producer and accounted for about 8% of U.S. total fuel ethanol production in 2019. In 2021, the state ranked fourth in the nation in ethanol production capacity at 1.4 billion gallons annually.
  • In 2021, renewable resources provided about 82% of South Dakota's total utility-scale electricity net generation. Wind surpassed hydroelectric power for the first time and accounted for about 52% of total generation, the second-largest share among the states.
  • Crude oil production in South Dakota has ranged between about 1 million and 2 million barrels per year for four decades. In 2021, production fell to its lowest level since 1981.
  • South Dakota uses less total petroleum than all but two other states and the District of Columbia, but uses more petroleum per capita than about four-fifths of the states.
  • South Dakota’s total electricity net generation in 2021 was two and a half times greater than it was in 2008, primarily because of increased generation from wind.

Last Updated: June 16, 2022



Data

Last Update: November 17, 2022 | Next Update: December 15, 2022

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Energy Indicators  
Demography South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.9 million 0.3% 2021  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% Sep-22  
Economy South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 61.2 billion 47 2021  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 5,177 million 42 2021  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 64,720 17 2021  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,743 million miles 44 2020  
Land in Farms 43.2 million acres 5 2017  
Climate South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.0 degrees Fahrenheit 36 2021  
Precipitation 18.2 inches 41 2021  
Prices  
Petroleum South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 90.47 /barrel $ 93.75 /barrel Aug-22  
Natural Gas South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 11.21 /thousand cu ft $ 10.49 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Residential $ 18.30 /thousand cu ft $ 25.61 /thousand cu ft Aug-22 find more
Coal South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 36.50 /short ton 2021  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.08 /million Btu $ 2.51 /million Btu Aug-22  
Electricity South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 13.03 cents/kWh 15.95 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Commercial 10.79 cents/kWh 13.45 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Industrial 8.76 cents/kWh 9.72 cents/kWh Aug-22 find more
Reserves  
Reserves South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2020 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2020 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2021 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 91 wells * 2020 find more
Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2022  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 6,335 MW 0.5% Aug-22  
Supply & Distribution  
Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 268 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
Crude Oil 3 thousand barrels per day * Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 161 million cu ft * 2021 find more
Coal -- -- 2021 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,595 thousand MWh 0.4% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.2 % Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 9.6 % 45.7 % Aug-22 find more
Coal-Fired 17.7 % 20.5 % Aug-22 find more
Nuclear 0 % 16.6 % Aug-22 find more
Renewables 72.7 % 16.4 % Aug-22  
Stocks South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 29 thousand barrels 0.2% Aug-22  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 528 thousand barrels 0.6% Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Aug-22 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 44 thousand barrels 0.2% Aug-22 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Aug-22 find more
Fueling Stations South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 609 stations 0.5% 2019  
Propane 21 stations 0.8% 2022  
Electricity 53 stations 0.1% 2022  
E85 82 stations 2.0% 2022  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 0 stations 0.0% 2022  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 397 trillion Btu 44 2020 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 447 million Btu 8 2020 find more
Total Expenditures $ 3,714 million 47 2020 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,187 5 2020 find more
by End-Use Sector South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 70 trillion Btu 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial 62 trillion Btu 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial 168 trillion Btu 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation 97 trillion Btu 0.4% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 762 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Commercial $ 551 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Industrial $ 792 million 0.5% 2020 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,609 million 0.4% 2020 find more
by Source South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 24 million barrels 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas 85 billion cu ft 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal 1 million short tons 0.3% 2020 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,068 million 0.4% 2020 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 380 million 0.3% 2020 find more
    »  Coal $ 42 million 0.2% 2020 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Aug-22 find more
Natural Gas 1,402 million cu ft 0.1% Aug-22 find more
Coal 177 thousand short tons 0.4% Aug-22 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 46.2 % 46.5 % 2021  
Fuel Oil 1.4 % 4.1 % 2021  
Electricity 33.0 % 41.0 % 2021  
Propane 16.1 % 5.0 % 2021  
Other/None 3.4 % 3.5 % 2021  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,372 MW 1.5% Aug-22  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,444 million gal/year 8.3% 2022  
Renewable Energy Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 502 thousand MWh 2.2% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 655 thousand MWh 1.6% Aug-22  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation NM NM Aug-22  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Aug-22  
Fuel Ethanol Production 27,664 thousand barrels 8.3% 2020  
Renewable Energy Consumption South Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 43.1 % 3 2020  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,131 thousand barrels 44 2020  
Total Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 16.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2019  
Electric Power Industry Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 2,362 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: June 16, 2022

Overview

South Dakota stretches from the fertile lowlands in the eastern part of the state across the rolling hills, canyons, buttes to the state’s famous Badlands and hills in the west. The Black Hills, a mineral-rich area with gold, silver, copper, and lead deposits, lie along South Dakota’s western border. The state’s modest crude oil and natural gas reserves also are concentrated in western South Dakota.1,2,3,4 Substantial renewable resources are found statewide. The Missouri River, the longest river in North America, cuts across central South Dakota and, along with its many tributaries, provides the state with abundant hydroelectric resources.5 Four of the six major hydroelectric dams along the Missouri River are located in South Dakota.6 Winds that blow unobstructed across South Dakota provide the state with a significant wind energy resource.7,8,9 Solar resources are greatest in the western half of the state, and there is geothermal potential across much of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.10,11 Biomass from the state’s almost 45 million acres of farmland and from forests in western South Dakota provides additional renewable resources.12,13,14 Uranium, the source for nuclear reactor fuel, was found in western South Dakota in the early 1950s. Although it is not currently produced in the state, a uranium in-situ leach mining project is in development.15,16

The industrial sector, which accounts for two-fifths of state total energy consumption in the end-use sectors, is South Dakota’s leading energy consumer, and agriculture is the state’s primary industry.17,18 In addition to farming and food production, the state’s manufacturers produce machinery, chemicals, fabricated metal products, and transportation equipment.19 In 2001, the Homestake Mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold during its 125-year history, closed, but other large-scale energy-intensive mining activities continue, including the extraction of sand, gravel, crushed stone, clays, granite, limestone, and gypsum. Natural gas and crude oil production contribute to the state’s energy-intensive mining activities.20,21,22 South Dakota’s transportation sector accounts for one-fourth of state total energy consumption, and the residential and commercial sectors split the rest.23 In part because South Dakota has one of the smallest populations of any state, its total energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.24,25 However, with its energy-intensive industries and a climate typified by hot summers and exceptionally cold winters, South Dakota is one of the top 10 energy-consuming states on a per capita basis.26,27

Electricity

In 2021, South Dakota generated two and a half times more electricity than in 2008, primarily because of wind power.

South Dakota’s total electricity net generation in 2021 was two and a half times greater than it was in 2008, primarily because of increased generation from wind. In 2021, wind provided slightly more than half the state’s total electricity net generation, up from about one-fifth in 2019, and surpassed the previous leader, hydroelectric power, for the first time.28 However, three of South Dakota’s four largest power plants by capacity and by generation are hydroelectric facilities located on the upper Missouri River and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.29 All of those dams are more than 60 years old. The northernmost is the Oahe Dam, which forms the fourth-largest man-made reservoir in the nation. It began generating hydroelectric power in 1962. Downstream is the Big Bend Dam, whose power plant went into operation in 1964. The Fort Randall Dam, just north of the Nebraska state line, is the oldest of the three and first produced power in March 1954. Water released from those and other upstream dams is stored in Lewis and Clark Lake behind a fourth South Dakota dam, Gavins Point. That dam straddles the border between South Dakota and Nebraska; however, its power plant is on the Nebraska side. The Gavins Point Dam plays an important role in controlling the water flow on the 800 miles of open river between the South Dakota border and St. Louis, Missouri.30 The state’s only other utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger capacity) hydroelectric power plant has 4 megawatts of generating capacity and has been in operation since 1912.31 South Dakota’s remaining net generation comes almost entirely from coal and natural gas. Coal’s contribution declined from more than half of the state’s net generation in 2008 to less than one-tenth in 2021. Natural gas’ share of South Dakota’s net generation reached an all-time high in 2021 when it supplied about 9% of in-state generation. Biomass, petroleum, and solar energy contributed very small amounts.32 South Dakota does not have any nuclear power plants.33

South Dakota has a small population, and it consumes less electricity than more than four-fifths of the states.34,35 However, South Dakota’s per capita electricity retail sales are greater than in two-thirds of the states.36 Electricity retail sales have steadily increased during the past two decades. In 2021, the residential sector accounted for 39% of the state’s electricity retail sales, followed closely by the commercial sector at 37%. The rest was purchased by the industrial sector.37 Per capita electricity retail sales to South Dakota’s residential sector are greater than in three-fourths of states, in part because about one in three households uses electricity for home heating during the state's extremely cold winters.38,39,40

Renewable energy

Renewable resources supplied more than four-fifths of the electricity generated in South Dakota in 2021, mostly from wind and hydroelectric power.41 South Dakota has some of the best onshore wind resources in the nation.42 In 2021, wind energy surpassed hydroelectric power’s contribution to South Dakota’s in-state electricity generation for the first time. Wind provided 52% of the South Dakota’s in-state net generation that year, a larger share than in all other states except Iowa.43 In early 2022, South Dakota had almost 2,800 megawatts of wind energy capacity at 23 active wind farms.44,45 Hydropower accounted for 30% of the state’s electricity net generation in 2021, down from 41% in 2020, in large part because of the increase in wind capacity.46

In 2021, wind provided 52% of the South Dakota’s in-state net generation, a larger share than in all other states, except Iowa.

South Dakota has abundant biomass resources from forest waste and agricultural activities, but biomass only fuels about 0.1% of South Dakota’s power.47,48,49 Wood pellets, also known as densified biomass, are manufactured from forest and mill waste and can be used for electricity generation and space heating.50 South Dakota has two wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined production capacity of about 70,000 tons per year.51 Almost two-fifths of South Dakota‘s agricultural economy comes from raising cattle and hogs.52 A renewable natural gas (RNG) project that uses animal manure from some of the state’s dairy farms to produce biogas is in development. It is anticipated that the project will produce more than 200 million cubic feet of RNG each year that will be fed into the interstate pipeline system for use across the state.53,54 The city of Sioux Falls also uses biogas created by anaerobic digestion at its water reclamation facility to generate enough electricity to meet about 40% of the facility’s needs.55

South Dakota is the fifth-largest producer of fuel ethanol among the states, accounting for about 8% of the nation’s total. A fuel ethanol plant in the state uses wood waste to generate power for the plant’s own use.56,57 South Dakota is one of the nation’s top 10 corn producers, and the state’s abundant corn crop is used, in part, to supply the feedstock for South Dakota’s fuel ethanol production industry.58,59 Sixteen fuel ethanol plants are in operation in the state, and all of them use corn as a feedstock.60,61 Those ethanol plants can produce about 34 million barrels per year, of which only about 1.1 million barrels, or about 3%, is consumed in the state.62,63 In 2019, there was no biodiesel production in South Dakota.64

Moderate solar PV potential exists across most of South Dakota, and the greatest solar resources are in the state’s southwestern corner.65 However, South Dakota has only small amounts of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation, and half of it is from customer-sited, small-scale (less than 1 megawatt capacity) installations, such as rooftop solar panels.66 Geothermal energy is used in direct heat applications in South Dakota, such as district heating through distribution networks and to heat individual spas, swimming pools, residences, barns, and other buildings.67 In 2021, there was no utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy in the state.68

In 2008, South Dakota’s legislature established a voluntary renewable portfolio objective that renewable and recycled energy resources, and later energy conservation, were to provide 10% of all electricity retail sales by 2015. Many of the state’s electricity providers met the goal, but others noted barriers that limited their ability to do so. Those barriers included: lack of transmission capacity for renewable projects; intermittent nature of power supplied by renewable resources; competition from other fuels, especially natural gas; and the location of many renewable resources far from transmission lines and populated areas.69,70 South Dakota does have state and utility policies, financial incentives, and technical resources that encourage energy efficiency and renewable electricity generation. The state also has interconnection standards but does not have net metering rules, and interconnection costs are usually paid by the generating system owner.71,72

Petroleum

South Dakota has no significant proved crude oil reserves and no oil refineries, but it does have a small amount of crude oil production.73,74,75 Although the Williston Basin extends into South Dakota from the north, its oil-rich Bakken Shale does not. Other potentially productive formations are present but unexplored.76,77 Almost all of the state’s crude oil production is concentrated in the northwestern corner of the state, where Harding County produces most of South Dakota’s crude oil and natural gas.78 Since the 1980s, the state’s annual crude oil production ranged between about 1 million and 2 million barrels per year. It declined from a peak of nearly 1.9 million barrels in 2013 to about 1 million barrels in 2021, the lowest level since 1981.79 Crude oil production in South Dakota accounts for less than 0.03% of the nation’s total.80

The two crude oil pipelines that cross eastern South Dakota transport oil to refineries and terminals in other states.81 The route of a proposed third crude oil pipeline, the Keystone XL, was designed to provide a shortcut for the transport of oil from the Canadian tar sands and from the U.S. Bakken shale to a pipeline interconnect in Nebraska. The planned route ran diagonally across South Dakota. However, in 2021, the Biden administration revoked the 2019 presidential permit for construction of that pipeline.82,83 Other petroleum product pipelines bring refined products to South Dakota consumers through neighboring states.84

South Dakota uses less total petroleum than all but two other states and the District of Columbia, but uses more petroleum per capita than about four-fifths of the states.85 The transportation sector accounts for almost three-fourths of the state’s petroleum consumption, most of it as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.86,87 South Dakota is one of five states with significantly higher motor gasoline expenditures per capita than the U.S. average, in part because it has a relatively low population density, high vehicle miles traveled per capita, and less access to the alternative forms of public transportation common in urban areas compared to other states.88 South Dakota does not have any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air quality non-attainment areas, and conventional gasoline without ethanol can be used statewide.89 However, there are about 82 fueling stations in South Dakota that sell E85, a motor gasoline blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.90 The industrial sector and the residential sector consume almost all the rest of the petroleum used in the state. The industrial sector accounts for nearly one-fifth of state consumption. The residential sector, where about one in six South Dakota households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for heating, accounts for 5% of the state’s petroleum use. Most of the rest is consumed in the commercial sector. The electric power sector uses a minimal amount of petroleum, primarily as backup when additional power is needed.91,92

Natural gas

South Dakota does not have any significant proved natural gas reserves, and, with fewer than 100 producing wells, natural gas production in the state is modest.93,94 Natural gas is produced from both natural gas and crude oil wells in Harding County in the northwest corner of South Dakota.95 Gross withdrawals of natural gas in the state increased steadily from 1980 until 2013 when they reached an annual high of more than 16 billion cubic feet. They remained near that level through 2015, but then rapidly decreased as the number of producing wells declined.96 Since 2016, South Dakota has produced less than 500 million cubic feet of natural gas per year and accounts for less than 0.01% of U.S. natural gas gross withdrawals.97,98

In part because of its small population, South Dakota uses little natural gas. However, more natural gas is consumed in the state than is produced there.99,100 The industrial sector is South Dakota’s largest natural gas-consuming sector, accounting for 56% of the natural gas delivered to the state’s consumers in 2020. Although almost half of South Dakota households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, the residential sector used only about 16% of the natural gas delivered to consumers.101 The commercial sector used 15% and the electric power sector used about 13%.102

South Dakota does not have any intrastate pipelines other than local distribution systems owned by natural gas utilities. A handful of major interstate pipelines bring natural gas into the state.103,104 Almost all the natural gas that enters the state comes from North Dakota. South Dakota does not have any underground natural gas storage fields, and nine-tenths of the natural gas that enters South Dakota leaves the state. Almost all of it continues on to Minnesota.105,106

Coal

South Dakota does not have any coal mines and the state’s estimated coal reserves are small.107 Coal arrives from Wyoming by rail and truck to meet the state’s limited needs.108 In 2020, about 85% of the 1.3 million tons of coal consumed in South Dakota was used for electricity generation at the state’s only coal-fired power plant.109 The rest of the coal was delivered to industrial facilities in the state.110

Energy on tribal lands

Native Americans account for almost one-tenth of South Dakota’s population and tribes or individual tribal members hold almost one-tenth of the state’s land. South Dakota has the fifth-largest amount of acreage in tribal hands in the nation.111,112 The tribes on the Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud, and Standing Rock reservations are among the largest tribal landholders in the lower 48 states.113 South Dakota is home to nine federally recognized tribes on nine reservations. Two of the reservations straddle the North Dakota–South Dakota border.114,115

South Dakota’s tribal lands have some of the best onshore wind resources in the nation. Four of the nation’s top five reservations with the greatest wind-powered electricity generation potential are in South Dakota.116 In 2003, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe installed a 750-kilowatt wind turbine. It was the first tribe-owned and -operated commercial wind turbine that large in the Lower 48 states.117 In 2013, six South Dakota Sioux tribes announced plans for the collaborative development of an interconnected grid of wind farms. The planned facilities will provide more than 1,000 megawatts of generating capacity.118 To expedite development of the wind project, including transmission lines, the six tribes formed a Multi-Tribal Power Authority. The wind farm locations were selected because they are near existing transmission lines.119 Phase one of the development, with its first two interconnected wind power projects, will have 570 megawatts of capacity. It was initially expected to come online in 2021 but is now planned for 2024.120

South Dakota tribes also have biomass and solar resources. The Sisseton Tribe of northeastern South Dakota is one of the five tribes in the nation with the greatest biomass potential on their reservations. The Pine Ridge reservation of southwestern South Dakota and northern Nebraska has some of the largest concentrating solar power potential in the nation. The Standing Rock reservation that straddles the North and South Dakota border is one of the five reservations with the greatest utility-scale solar PV potential in the nation.121 What would be the state’s largest solar farm is on tribal lands within the Pine Ridge reservation. It will be on 810 acres leased from tribal members and could provide up to 140 megawatts of power to the regional electric grid.122 In 2018, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe Tribal Utilities Commission received a U.S Department of Energy (DOE) grant to deploy 250 kilowatts of solar PV in Rosebud, and, in 2019, DOE awarded the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe a grant to expedite the installation of a total of 318 kilowatts of solar PV in Flandreau. In 2020, Oglala Sioux (Lakota) Housing received a grant to install about 55 kilowatts of solar PV capacity on the Pine Ridge Reservation.123 Individual tribal members on several reservations in South Dakota have installed small-scale, customer-sited solar PV systems.124,125

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, South Dakota, The Geography of South Dakota, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2016–21.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2016–21.
4 South Dakota Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oil and Gas in South Dakota, Production and Injection Data, 2020 Oil and Gas Statistics, accessed May 19, 2022.
5 U.S. Geological Survey, Rivers of the World: World’s Longest Rivers (June 11, 2018).
6 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Missouri Basin and Arkansas-Rio Grande-Texas Gulf Regions, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated September 29, 2017.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, South Dakota, Farm Operations.
8 NETSTATE, South Dakota, The Geography of South Dakota, updated February 25, 2016.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in South Dakota, accessed May 19, 2022.
10 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
11 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
12 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021 State Agriculture Overview, South Dakota, Farm Operations.
13 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
14 Meneguzzo, Dacia M., and Charles S. Paulson, Forests of South Dakota, 2018, Resource Update FS-199, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station (2019), p. 3.
15 Encore Energy, South Dakota, Dewey Burdock Uranium Project, accessed May 19, 2022.
16 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, Quarterly, Table 4, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status, Operating status at the end of 1st Quarter 2022.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
18 Heemstra, Jody, “Agriculture: A $32 billion contributor to South Dakota’s economy,” DRGRadio.com (August 30, 2021).
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by state, GDP in current dollars, South Dakota, All statistics in table, 2020.
20 U.S. Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, “Homestake Strikes Gold Again,” Press Release (July 12, 2007).
21 NETSTATE, South Dakota, South Dakota Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2016–21.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
24 U.S. Census Bureau, Evaluation Estimates, 2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2019.
26 Todey, Dennis, South Dakota, “The Land of Infinite Variety,” CoCoRaHs ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed May 19, 2022.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Rankings: Total Energy Consumed per Capita, 2019.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual 2001–21.
29 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2020, Tables 2A, 2B.
30 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Missouri Basin and Arkansas-Rio Grande-Texas Gulf Regions, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated September 29, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual 2001–21.
33 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Dakota, updated March 19, 2020.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2020.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity, South Dakota, All sectors, Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Annual, 2001–21.
38 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
39 Todey, Dennis, South Dakota, “The Land of Infinite Variety,” CoCoRaHs ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed May 20, 2022.
40 U.S. Census Bureau, South Dakota, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001–21.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy and Renewable Energy, United States—Land-Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 m (December 13, 2013).
43 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2022), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (April 2022), Table 6.2.B.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2022, South Dakota, Onshore Wind Turbine.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001–21.
47 Roberts, Billy J., Forest Residues in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
48 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
49 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, All fuels, Biomass, Annual, 2001–21.
50 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Densified Biomass Fuel, accessed May 20, 2022.
51 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, February 2022.
52 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture, State Profile, South Dakota.
53 “New dairy methane project launched in South Dakota,” Solid Waste & Recycling (February 14, 2020).
54 Mercer, Bob, “Regulators OK South Dakota’s first pipeline that will carry renewable natural gas,” Kelo (December 8, 2021).
55 City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, SiouxperGrow (Biosolids) Program, accessed May 20, 2022.
56 POET, Chancellor, SD, accessed May 20, 2022.
57 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2019.
58 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production, 2021 Summary (January 2022), p. 11.
59 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2019.
60 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020, Excel file.
61 “U.S. Ethanol Plant, RINs, Operational,” Ethanol Producer Magazine (December 13, 2021).
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