South Dakota State Energy Profile



South Dakota Quick Facts

  • In 2018, South Dakota accounted for about 7% of U.S. total fuel ethanol production, and in 2020, the state ranked fourth in the nation in ethanol production capacity.
  • In 2020, renewable resources provided about 83% of South Dakota's total utility-scale electricity net generation. Hydroelectric power accounted for about 50% of total generation and wind for about 33%.
  • Oil production in South Dakota has ranged between about 1 million and 2 million barrels per year for four decades; however, production fell to its lowest level since1982 in 2020 and accounted for less than 0.03% of U.S. total crude oil production.
  • Per capita electricity retail sales to South Dakota's residential sector are among the top one-third of states, in part because about one-third of households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating during the state's extremely cold winters.
  • South Dakota’s total electricity net generation in 2020 was almost two and a half times greater than it was in 2008, primarily because of increased generation from wind, hydropower, and natural gas.

Last Updated: May 20, 2021



Data

Last Update: November 18, 2021 | Next Update: December 16, 2021

+ EXPAND ALL
Energy Indicators  
Demography South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.9 million 0.3% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% Sep-21  
Economy South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 54.9 billion 46 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 5,085 million 41 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 57,273 22 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,922 million miles 46 2019  
Land in Farms 43.2 million acres 5 2017  
Climate South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 46.7 degrees Fahrenheit 38 2020  
Precipitation 16.2 inches 41 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 63.57 /barrel $ 65.67 /barrel Aug-21  
Natural Gas South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 6.32 /thousand cu ft $ 5.67 /thousand cu ft Aug-21 find more
Residential $ 19.91 /thousand cu ft $ 20.96 /thousand cu ft Aug-21 find more
Coal South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.41 /short ton 2020  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 1.77 /million Btu $ 2.06 /million Btu Aug-21  
Electricity South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.83 cents/kWh 13.99 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Commercial 10.44 cents/kWh 11.60 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Industrial 8.13 cents/kWh 7.65 cents/kWh Aug-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2020 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 91 wells * 2020 find more
Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 6,275 MW 0.6% Aug-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 269 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 3 thousand barrels per day * Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 407 million cu ft * 2020 find more
Coal -- -- 2020 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,872 thousand MWh 0.5% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 12.2 % 41.6 % Aug-21 find more
Coal-Fired 12.2 % 24.6 % Aug-21 find more
Nuclear 0 % 16.8 % Aug-21 find more
Renewables 75.5 % 15.9 % Aug-21  
Stocks South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 37 thousand barrels 0.3% Aug-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 447 thousand barrels 0.4% Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Aug-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 43 thousand barrels 0.2% Aug-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Aug-21 find more
Fueling Stations South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 609 stations 0.5% 2019  
Propane 22 stations 0.8% 2021  
Electricity 45 stations 0.1% 2021  
E85 80 stations 2.2% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 0 stations 0.0% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 402 trillion Btu 44 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 453 million Btu 9 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 4,143 million 47 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,670 9 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 74 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 65 trillion Btu 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 164 trillion Btu 0.5% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 98 trillion Btu 0.3% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 799 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 581 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 798 million 0.4% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,966 million 0.3% 2019 find more
by Source South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 23 million barrels 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 90 billion cu ft 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 2 million short tons 0.3% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,447 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 427 million 0.3% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 58 million 0.2% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Aug-21 find more
Natural Gas 1,748 million cu ft 0.1% Aug-21 find more
Coal 143 thousand short tons 0.3% Aug-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 46.4 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 1.5 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 32.5 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 16.3 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 3.3 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 4,372 MW 1.6% Aug-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 1,425 million gal/year 8.1% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 621 thousand MWh 2.9% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 792 thousand MWh 2.0% Aug-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Aug-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Aug-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 28,809 thousand barrels 7.7% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption South Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 41.5 % 2 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 1,162 thousand barrels 44 2019  
Total Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 15.6 million metric tons 0.3% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 2,362 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2020  
Sulfur Dioxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  
Nitrogen Oxide 1 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2020  

Analysis

Last Updated: May 20, 2021

Overview

South Dakota's vast prairie stretches from the lowlands in the state's east across the rolling hills, canyons, and buttes of the plains to the state's highest peaks, including Mount Rushmore, in the west. The Black Hills of western South Dakota are mineral-rich with gold, silver, copper, and lead deposits, and the state's modest crude oil and natural gas reserves are also concentrated in western South Dakota.1,2,3,4 Substantial renewable resources are found statewide. The Missouri River, the longest river in North America, cuts across central South Dakota and, along with its many tributaries, provides the state with abundant hydroelectric resources.5 Four of the six major hydroelectric dams along the Missouri River are located in South Dakota.6 Nine-tenths of the state is covered by crops or pastureland, and the winds that blow unobstructed across South Dakota provide a significant wind energy resource.7,8,9 Solar resources are greatest in the western half of the state, and geothermal potential is present across much of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.10,11 Biomass from the state's almost 45 million acres of farmland and its western forests provides South Dakota with an additional renewable resource.12,13,14 Uranium, the source for nuclear reactor fuel, was found in western South Dakota in the early 1950s. Although uranium is not currently produced in the state, a uranium in-situ leach mining project is in development.15,16

The industrial sector, which accounts for two-fifths of state energy consumption, is South Dakota's leading energy-consuming end-use sector, and agriculture is the state's primary industry.17,18 In addition to farming and food production, the state's manufactured items include machinery, chemicals, fabricated metal products, and transportation equipment.19 Gold mining on a large-scale ceased in 2001 with the closing of the Homestake Mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold during its 125-year history, but other large-scale energy-intensive mining activities continue, including the extraction of sand, gravel, crushed stone, clays, granite, limestone, and gypsum, as well as the production of natural gas and crude oil.20,21,22 South Dakota's transportation sector accounts for one-fourth of state energy consumption and the residential and commercial sectors split the rest.23 In part because South Dakota has one of the smallest populations of any state, its total energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation.24,25 However, with its energy-intensive industries and a climate typified by hot summers and exceptionally cold winters, South Dakota is one of the top 10 energy-consuming states on a per capita basis.26,27

Electricity

South Dakota's total electricity net generation in 2020 was almost two and a half times greater than it was in 2008, primarily because of increased generation from wind, hydropower, and natural gas. Hydroelectric power typically provides the largest share of South Dakota's in-state generation. In 2020, it accounted for half of the state's net generation.28 Three of South Dakota's largest power plants by capacity and by generation are hydroelectric facilities located on the upper Missouri River and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.29 All of those dams are more than 55 years old. The northernmost is the Oahe Dam, which forms the fourth-largest man-made reservoir in the nation. It began generating hydroelectric power in 1962. Downstream is the Big Bend Dam, whose power plant went into operation in 1964. The Fort Randall Dam, just north of the Nebraska state line, is the oldest of the three and first produced power in March 1954. Water released from those and other upstream dams is stored in Lewis and Clark Lake behind a fourth South Dakota dam, Gavins Point. That dam straddles the border between South Dakota and Nebraska; however, its power plant is on the Nebraska side. The Gavins Point Dam plays an important role in controlling the water flow on the 800 miles of open river between the South Dakota border and St. Louis, Missouri.30 The only other utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) hydroelectric power plant in the state has 4 megawatts of generating capacity and has been in operation since 1912.31

Hydroelectric power provided half of South Dakota's in-state electricity net generation in 2020.

South Dakota's remaining net generation comes almost entirely from wind, coal, and natural gas. In 2020, wind power supplied about one-third of the state's total electricity net generation. Coal's contribution declined from more than half of the state's net generation in 2008 to about one-tenth in 2020. Electricity generation fueled by natural gas reached an all-time high in 2020 when it supplied 7% of in-state generation. Petroleum and solar energy also contribute very small amounts.32 South Dakota does not have any nuclear power plants.33

South Dakota has a small population, and it consumes less electricity than more than four-fifths of the states.34,35 However, South Dakota's per capita electricity retail sales are greater than in about two-thirds of the states.36 In most years, South Dakotans used more electricity than is generated in the state, and additional supplies were received from the regional electric grid. In 2019, the state produced more electricity than it consumed for the first time in almost two decades.37 The residential and commercial sectors together account for almost four-fifths of electricity retail sales in South Dakota, and the rest is purchased by the industrial sector. Retail sales to the residential sector are slightly greater than those to the commercial sector.38 Per capita retail sales of electricity to South Dakota's residential sector are among the top one-third of states, in part because about one in three households uses electricity for home heating during the state's extremely cold winters.39,40,41

Renewable energy

Renewable resources supplied more than four-fifths of the electricity generated in South Dakota in 2020, mostly from hydropower and wind. In 2020, hydroelectric power accounted for about three-fifths of the state's electricity net generation from renewable resources.42 South Dakota also has some of the best onshore wind resources in the nation.43 Wind provides a larger share of in-state generation in South Dakota than in all but three other states.44 In February 2021, South Dakota had more than 2,600 megawatts of wind energy capacity at 22 active wind farms statewide, and another 400 megawatts were under construction.45,46

South Dakota's other renewable energy resources include solar energy, geothermal energy, and biomass. Moderate solar PV potential exists across most of South Dakota, with the greatest solar potential in the state's southwestern corner.47 However, South Dakota has only small amounts of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation, and half of it is from small-scale, customer-sited installations (less than 1 megawatt), such as rooftop solar panels.48 Geothermal energy is used in direct heat applications in South Dakota. It is used for district heating through distribution networks and to heat individual spas, swimming pools, residences, barns, and other buildings.49 In 2020, there was no utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy in the state.50

South Dakota also has abundant biomass resources from forest waste and from agricultural activities.51,52,53 A fuel ethanol plant in the state uses wood waste to generate power for the plant's own use.54 Wood pellets, also known as densified biomass, are manufactured from forest and mill waste and can be used for electricity generation and space heating.55 South Dakota has two wood pellet manufacturing plants that have a combined production capacity of about 83,000 tons per year.56 Almost two-fifths of South Dakota‘s agricultural economy comes from raising cattle and hogs.57,58 A renewable natural gas (RNG) project that uses animal manure from some of the state's dairy farms to produce biogas is in development. It is anticipated that the project will produce more than 200 million cubic feet of RNG each year that will be fed into the interstate pipeline system for use across the state.59 The city of Sioux Falls also uses biogas created by anaerobic digestion at its water reclamation facility to generate enough electricity to meet about 40% of the facility's needs.60

South Dakota’s ethanol plants account for about 7% of the nation’s total annual fuel ethanol output.

South Dakota also produces biofuels. The state's ethanol plants account for about 7% of the nation's total annual fuel ethanol output.61 South Dakota is one of the nation's top 10 corn producers, and the state's abundant corn crop is used, in part, to supply the feedstock for South Dakota's fuel ethanol production industry.62,63,64 Sixteen fuel ethanol plants are in operation in South Dakota, and all of them use corn as a feedstock.65,66 Those ethanol plants can produce about 33 million barrels per year, of which less than 1.2 million barrels, or almost 4%, is consumed in the state.67,68

In February 2008, South Dakota's legislature established a voluntary renewable portfolio objective. Renewable and recycled energy resources, and later energy conservation, were to provide 10% of all electricity retail sales by 2015. Many of the state's electricity providers met the goal, but others noted barriers that limited their ability to do so. Those barriers included: lack of transmission capacity for renewable projects; intermittent nature of power supplied by renewable resources; competition from other fuels, especially natural gas; and the location of many renewable resources far from transmission lines and markets.69,70 South Dakota does have state and utility policies, financial incentives, and technical resources that encourage energy efficiency and renewable electricity generation. The state also has interconnection standards but does not have net metering rules, and interconnection costs are usually paid by the generating system owner.71,72

Petroleum

South Dakota has no significant proved crude oil reserves and no oil refineries, but it does have a small amount of crude oil production.73,74,75 Although the Williston Basin extends into South Dakota from the north, its oil-rich Bakken Shale does not. Other potentially productive formations are present but unexplored.76,77 Almost all of the state's crude oil production is concentrated in the northwestern corner of the state, where Harding County produces most of South Dakota's crude oil and natural gas.78 The state's annual crude oil production has ranged between about 1 million and 2 million barrels per year for three decades. It declined from a peak of nearly 1.9 million barrels in 2013 to about 1 million barrels in 2020.79 Crude oil production in South Dakota accounts for less than 0.03% of the nation's total production.80

Two crude oil pipelines cross eastern South Dakota on the way to refineries and terminals in other states.81 A third crude oil pipeline, the Keystone XL, that would provide a shortcut for the transport of oil from the Canadian tar sands and from the U.S. Bakken shale to a pipeline interconnect in Nebraska was planned. A major portion of that pipeline's proposed route ran diagonally across South Dakota. However, in late January 2021, the Biden administration revoked the March 2019 presidential permit for construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline.82,83

Petroleum product pipelines that enter South Dakota from neighboring states bring refined products to South Dakota consumers.84 The transportation sector accounts for about three-fourths of the petroleum consumed in South Dakota, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel.85,86 The industrial sector and the residential sector consume almost all the rest of the petroleum used in the state. The industrial sector accounts for about 15% of state consumption. The residential sector, where about one in six South Dakota households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for heating, accounts for 7% of the state's petroleum use. Most of the rest is consumed in the commercial sector. The electric power sector uses a small amount of petroleum.87,88

South Dakota does not have any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air quality non-attainment areas, and conventional gasoline without ethanol can be used statewide.89 However, most motor gasoline sold is a blend with 10% ethanol, and there are about 80 fueling stations in South Dakota that sell E85, a motor gasoline blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.90

Natural gas

South Dakota does not have any significant proved natural gas reserves, and, with fewer than 100 producing wells, natural gas production in the state is modest.91,92 Natural gas is produced from wells in Harding County in the northwest corner of South Dakota.93 Gross withdrawals of natural gas in the state increased steadily from 1980 until 2013 when they reached an annual high of more than 16 billion cubic feet. They remained near that level through 2015, but then rapidly decreased as the number of producing wells declined.94,95 Since 2016, South Dakota has produced less than 500 million cubic feet of natural gas per year, and the state has accounted for less than 0.01% of U.S. natural gas gross withdrawals.96,97

In part because of its small population, South Dakota uses little natural gas. However, more natural gas is consumed in the state than is produced there.98,99 The industrial sector is South Dakota's largest natural gas-consuming sector. In 2020, it accounted for about 56% of the natural gas delivered to the state's consumers. Although almost half of South Dakota households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating, the residential sector uses only about 16% of the natural gas delivered to consumers.100 The commercial sector uses 15%, slightly less than the residential sector. The amount of natural gas used for electric power generation has increased, and in 2020 it was about 13% of the natural gas delivered to consumers, almost equal to the amount delivered to the state's commercial sector.101

South Dakota does not have any intrastate pipelines other than local distribution systems owned by natural gas utilities. A handful of major interstate pipelines bring natural gas into the state.102,103 Almost all the natural gas that enters the state comes from North Dakota. South Dakota does not have any underground natural gas storage fields, and about nine-tenths of the natural gas that enters South Dakota continues on to Minnesota.104,105

Coal

South Dakota's estimated coal reserves are small, and the state has no coal production.106 The state relies on shipments of coal from other states, mainly Wyoming, to meet its limited coal demand. About nine-tenths of the 1.9 million tons of coal consumed in South Dakota in 2019 was used for electricity generation. The rest of the coal was delivered to industrial facilities in the state.107,108

Energy on tribal lands

Almost one-tenth of South Dakota's population is Native American and almost one-tenth of the state's land is held by tribes or individual tribal members. As a result, South Dakota has the fifth-largest amount of acreage in tribal hands in the nation.109,110 The tribes on the Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud, and Standing Rock reservations are among the largest tribal landholders in the lower 48 states.111 South Dakota is home to nine federally recognized tribes on nine reservations. Two of the reservations straddle the North Dakota-South Dakota border.112,113

Although South Dakota's tribal lands do not have significant fossil energy resources, they do have some of the best onshore wind resources in the nation. Because of the state's widespread wind resources, four of the five U.S. reservations with the greatest wind-powered electricity generation potential are in South Dakota.114 In 2003, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe installed a 750-kilowatt wind turbine. It was the first tribe-owned and -operated large commercial wind turbine in the Lower 48 states.115 In 2013, six South Dakota Sioux tribes announced plans for the collaborative development of an interconnected grid of wind farms. The planned facilities will provide more than 1,000 megawatts of generating capacity.116 To expedite development of the wind project, including transmission lines, a Multi-Tribal Power Authority that will own the transmission and generating facilities was formed by the six tribes. The wind farm locations were selected because they are near existing transmission lines.117 Phase one of the development, with its first two interconnected wind power projects, will have 570 megawatts of capacity. It was initially expected to come online in 2021 but is now planned for 2024.118

South Dakota tribes also have biomass and solar resources. The Sisseton Tribe of northeastern South Dakota is one of the five tribes in the nation with the greatest biomass potential on their reservations. The Pine Ridge reservation of southwestern South Dakota and northern Nebraska has some of the largest concentrating solar power potential in the nation. The Standing Rock reservation that straddles the North and South Dakota border is one of the five reservations with the greatest utility-scale solar PV potential in the nation.119 What would be the state's largest solar farm is planned on tribal lands within the Pine Ridge reservation, on 810 acres leased from tribal members. It could provide up to 140 megawatts of power to the regional electric grid.120 Individual tribal members on several reservations in South Dakota have installed small-scale, customer-sited solar PV systems.121,122

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, South Dakota, The Geography of South Dakota, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
3 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
4 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2019 Oil and Gas Statistics, accessed April 15, 2021.
5 Geology.com, South Dakota Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed April 15, 2021.
6 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated September 29, 2017.
7 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Nebraska, Farm Operations.
8 NETSTATE, South Dakota, The Geography of South Dakota, updated February 25, 2016.
9 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in South Dakota, accessed April 15, 2021.
10 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
11 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
12 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020 State Agriculture Overview, Nebraska, Farm Operations.
13 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
14 Meneguzzo, Dacia M., and Charles S. Paulson, Forests of South Dakota, 2018, Resource Update FS-199, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station (2019), p. 3.
15 Azarga Uranium, Dewey Burdock Uranium Project, accessed April 15, 2021.
16 U.S. EIA, Domestic Uranium Production Report, Quarterly, Table 4, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status, Operating status at the end of 4th Quarter 2020.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
18 South Dakota Department of Agriculture, South Dakota Agriculture, Facts and Impacts, accessed April 15, 2021.
19 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by state, GDP in current dollars, South Dakota, All statistics in table, 2019.
20 U.S. Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, "Homestake Strikes Gold Again," Press Release (July 12, 2007).
21 NETSTATE, South Dakota, South Dakota Economy, updated December 19, 2017.
22 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousand Barrels, 2015-20.
23 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
24 U.S. Census Bureau, Evaluation Estimates, 2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
25 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C10, Total Energy Consumption Estimates, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Energy Consumption Estimates per Real Dollar of GDP, Ranked by State, 2018.
26 Todey, Dennis, South Dakota, "The Land of Infinite Variety," CoCoRaHs ‘State Climates' Series, accessed April 15, 2021.
27 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual 2001-20.
29 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2019, Tables 2A, 2B.
30 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated September 29, 2017.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, 'Generator Data' (Operable Units Only), South Dakota, Conventional Hydroelectric.
32 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual 2001-20.
33 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Dakota, updated March 19, 2020.
34 U.S. Census Bureau, Evaluation Estimates, 2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and the District of Columbia: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
35 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 5.4.B.
36 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
37U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2019, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2019.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Table 5.4.B.
39 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
40 Todey, Dennis, South Dakota, "The Land of Infinite Variety," CoCoRaHs ‘State Climates' Series, accessed April 15, 2021.
41 U.S. Census Bureau, South Dakota, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040.
42 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2020.
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy and Renewable Energy, United States—Land-Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 m (December 13, 2013).
44 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2021), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
45 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: South Dakota, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
46 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Planned Generators as of February 2021, Plant State: South Dakota, Technology: Onshore Wind Turbine.
47 Roberts, Billy J., Direct Normal Solar Irradiance, National Solar Radiation Database Physical Solar Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (February 22, 2018).
48 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation all sectors, South Dakota, All solar, Small-scale solar photovoltaic, Utility-scale photovoltaic, Annual, 2020.
49 Lund, John W., "South Dakota Geothermal Resources," Geo-Heat Center Bulletin (December 1997), p. 1, 3-5.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, South Dakota, Geothermal, Biomass, Annual, 2001-20.
51 South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Biomass Utilization, accessed April 21, 2021.
52 Roberts, Billy J., Forest Residues in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
53 Roberts, Billy J., Crop Residue in the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (January 15, 2014).
54 POET, Chancellor, SD, accessed April 29, 2021.
55 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Densified Biomass Fuel, accessed April 21, 2021.
56 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, January 2021.
57 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017 Census of Agriculture, State Profile, South Dakota.
58 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, South Dakota (July 1, 2019).
59 "New dairy methane project launched in South Dakota," Solid Waste & Recycling (February 14, 2020).
60 City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, SiouxperGrow (Biosolids) Program, accessed April 22, 2021.
61 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P1, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2018.
62 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production, 2020 Summary (January 2021), p. 11.
63 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P4, Primary Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ranked by State, 2018.
64 "U.S. Ethanol Plant, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine (December 15, 2020).
65 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020, Excel file.
66 "U.S. Ethanol Plant, RINs, Operational," Ethanol Producer Magazine (December 15, 2020).
67 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, Nameplate Capacities of Fuel Ethanol Plants, January 2020, Excel file.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
69 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective, updated June 27, 2018.
70 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, South Dakota's Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective, Report for Calendar Year 2016 (December 29, 2017), Findings.
71 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Programs, accessed April 21, 2021.
72 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Interconnection Standards, updated October 27, 2016.
73 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2019 (January 11, 2021).
74 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual as of January 1, 2020.
75 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual Thousands of Barrels, 2015-20.
76 U.S. Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Office of Oil and Natural Gas, South Dakota Natural Gas Flaring and Venting Regulations, South Dakota Producing Plays and Basins, updated May 2019.
77 South Dakota Oil and Gas Association, Resources, Industry Facts, South Dakota oil development facts, accessed April 21, 2021.
78 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2020 Oil and Gas Statistics.
79 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual (1981-2020).
80 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
81 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 21, 2021.
82 The White House, "Executive Order on Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis," Sec. 6. Revoking the March 2019 Permit of the Keystone XL Pipeline, Press Release (January 20, 2021).
83 Ballotpedia, "Keystone XL Pipeline," accessed April 29, 2021.
84 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Pipeline Map Layer, accessed April 21, 2021.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
87 U.S. Census Bureau, South Dakota, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040.
88 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
89 South Dakota Oil and Gas Association, Resources, Industry Facts, Petroleum, accessed April 21, 2021.
90 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Advanced Filters, South Dakota, Ethanol (85), accessed April 21, 2021.
91 U.S. EIA, Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2019.
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, South Dakota, Annual, 2014-19.
93 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2019 Oil and Gas Statistics.
94 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, Producing Gas Wells.
95 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Number of Producing Gas Wells, 2014-19.
96 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1967-2019.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2015-20.
98 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, 2019.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2019.
100 U.S. Census Bureau, South Dakota, House Heating Fuel, American Community Survey, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Table B25040.
101 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Dakota, Annual, 2015-20.
102 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, South Dakota Utility Providers, accessed April 22, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Overview, Natural Gas Interstate Pipeline and Natural Gas Intrastate Pipeline Map Layers, accessed April 22, 2021.
104 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, South Dakota, 2014-19.
105 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2014-19.
106 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018, and Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
107 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 (October 2020), By Coal Destination State, South Dakota Table DS-38, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.
108 U.S. EIA Annual Coal Report 2019 (October 2020), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
109 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts South Dakota, All Topics, accessed April 23, 2021.
110 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), Table D-2.
111 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), Table D-1.
112 National Conference of State Legislatures, Federal and State Recognized Tribes, updated March 2020.
113 South Dakota Indian Business Alliance, South Dakota Reservation Map, accessed April 23, 2021.
114 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 56.
115 Native, Alex Little Soldier Wind Turbine Project, accessed April 23, 2021.
116 Fried, Rona, "Sioux Tribes Collaborate on Biggest US Wind Farm," SustainableBusiness.com News (July 10, 2013).
117 Robertson, Josh, "Oceti Sakowin Power Authority: How a Six-Tribe Coalition Is Defining a New and Bigger Business Model," Native Business (November 11, 2019).
118 Cedar, Shaandiin, "A just energy transition in action: Developing 1G of wind power with tribes," GreenBiz (March 4, 2021).
119 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 36, 40, 52.
120 Balaskovitz, Andy, "Tribal Leaders Hope Large South Dakota Solar Project Becomes Model for Others," Native News Online (January 12, 2020).
121 GRID Alternatives, Students Serve Pine Ridge Veterans with Solar (August 14, 2018).
122 GRID Alternatives, Standing Rock shines a spotlight on clean energy (January 9, 2018).


Other Resources

Energy-Related Regions and Organizations

Other Websites

map