South Dakota State Energy Profile



South Dakota Quick Facts

  • South Dakota ranked sixth in the nation in ethanol production capacity in 2016, with 6.8% of the U.S. total.
  • In 2016, hydroelectric power provided the largest share (39.9%) of South Dakota's net electricity generation.
  • Wind power provided about 30% of South Dakota’s total net electricity generation in 2016.
  • South Dakotans’ price for electricity averaged 9.79 cents per kilowatthour in 2016 across all sectors, compared to the national average of 10.28 cents per kilowatthour. 
  • The National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimates that about 94% of South Dakota's land area is suitable for wind resource development using current technology. 

Last Updated: March 16, 2017



Data

Last Update: September 21, 2017 | Next Update: October 19, 2017

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Energy Indicators  
Demography South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Population 0.9 million 0.3% 2016  
Civilian Labor Force 0.5 million 0.3% Jul-17  
Economy South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 48.1 billion 48 2016  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 4,447 million 42 2016  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 48,049 24 2016  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 9,324 million miles 47 2015  
Land in Farms 43.3 million acres 5 2012  
Climate South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 48.3 degrees Fahrenheit 36 2016  
Precipitation 20.7 inches 42 2016  
Prices  
Petroleum South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 39.54 /barrel $ 42.19 /barrel Jun-17  
Natural Gas South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.60 /thousand cu ft $ 4.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Residential $ 12.11 /thousand cu ft $ 15.98 /thousand cu ft Jun-17 find more
Coal South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price -- $ 31.83 /short ton 2015  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector $ 2.21 /million Btu $ 2.10 /million Btu Jun-17  
Electricity South Dakota U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 12.57 cents/kWh 13.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Commercial 10.00 cents/kWh 10.99 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Industrial 7.75 cents/kWh 7.22 cents/kWh Jun-17 find more
Reserves & Supply  
Reserves South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) -- -- 2015 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids -- -- 2015 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines -- -- 2015 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Rotary Rigs in Operation 0 rigs 0.0% 2016  
Natural Gas Producing Wells 124 wells * 2015 find more
Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 242 trillion Btu 0.3% 2015 find more
Crude Oil 108 thousand barrels * Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 14,531 million cu ft 0.1% 2015 find more
Coal -- -- 2015 find more
Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) -- -- 2017  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 4,124 MW 0.4% Jun-17  
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 1,093 thousand MWh 0.3% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired NM 0.3 % Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas-Fired NM 32.1 % Jun-17 find more
Coal-Fired 16.9 % 30.4 % Jun-17 find more
Nuclear 0 % 18.8 % Jun-17 find more
Renewables 74.6 % 17.7 % Jun-17  
Stocks South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) 69 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-17  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 543 thousand barrels 0.4% Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage -- -- Jun-17 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 33 thousand barrels 0.1% Jun-17 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-17 find more
Production Facilities South Dakota
Major Coal Mines None find more
Petroleum Refineries None find more
Major Non-Nuclear Electricity Generating Plants Oahe (USCE-Missouri River District) ; Big Bend (USCE-Missouri River District) ; Big Stone (Otter Tail Power Co) ; Angus Anson (Northern States Power Co - Minnesota) ; Fort Randall (USCE-Missouri River District)  
Nuclear Power Plants None find more
Distribution & Marketing  
Distribution Centers South Dakota
Petroleum Ports None find more
Natural Gas Market Hubs None  
Major Pipelines South Dakota find more
Crude Oil TransCanada  
Petroleum Product Midstream Partners, Nustar, Plains All American Pipeline  
Natural Gas Liquids Nustar  
Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Northern Border Pipeline Company, Northern Natural Gas, WBI Energy Transmission Inc  
Fueling Stations South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 600 stations 0.5% 2014  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 26 stations 0.8% 2017  
Electricity 19 stations 0.1% 2017  
Ethanol 74 stations 2.6% 2017  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 0 stations 0.0% 2017  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary South Dakota U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 383 trillion Btu 45 2015 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 447 million Btu 8 2015 find more
Total Expenditures $ 3,860 million 47 2015 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 4,499 6 2015 find more
by End-Use Sector South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 66 trillion Btu 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial 63 trillion Btu 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial 154 trillion Btu 0.5% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation 100 trillion Btu 0.4% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 692 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Commercial $ 537 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Industrial $ 764 million 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Transportation $ 1,867 million 0.4% 2015 find more
by Source South Dakota Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 22.5 million barrels 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas 79.0 billion cu ft 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Coal 1.2 million short tons 0.1% 2015 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 2,305 million 0.4% 2015 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 418 million 0.3% 2015 find more
    »  Coal $ 44 million 0.1% 2015 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum NM NM Jun-17 find more
Natural Gas NM NM Jun-17 find more
Coal 121 thousand short tons 0.2% Jun-17 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) South Dakota U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 48.0 % 48.6 % 2015  
Fuel Oil 2.5 % 5.6 % 2015  
Electricity 29.0 % 37.2 % 2015  
Liquefied Petroleum Gases 16.3 % 4.8 % 2015  
Other/None 4.2 % 3.8 % 2015  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,437 MW 1.2% Jun-17  
Ethanol Plant Operating Production 1,069 million gal/year 6.8% 2017  
Renewable Energy Production South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 614 thousand MWh 2.0% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 202 thousand MWh 0.7% Jun-17  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 0 thousand MWh 0.0% Jun-17  
Distributed (Small-Scale) Solar Photovoltaic Generation * * Jun-17  
Ethanol Production 25,461 Thousand Barrels 7.2% 2015  
Renewable Energy Consumption South Dakota U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 34.6 % 4 2015  
Ethanol Consumption 1,162 thousand barrels 43 2015  
Total Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 15.0 million metric tons 0.3% 2014  
Electric Power Industry Emissions South Dakota Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 1,941 thousand metric tons 0.1% 2015  
Sulfur Dioxide 4 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2015  
Nitrogen Oxide 3 thousand metric tons 0.2% 2015  

Analysis

Last Updated: March 16, 2017

Overview

South Dakota ranks among the six largest ethanol-producing states in the nation.

South Dakota's vast prairie stretches from the lowlands in the east to the Black Hills in the west.1 Modest crude oil and natural gas production is concentrated in western South Dakota, and substantial renewable resources are found statewide.2 Nine-tenths of the state's landscape is covered by crops or pastureland,3 and high winds that blow unobstructed across South Dakota's prairie provide a significant wind energy resource.4 South Dakota also has solar resources that are greatest in the southwestern part of the state and geothermal potential that is present across much of the state's western two-thirds.5,6 The Missouri River and its many tributaries cut across the prairie, contributing to the state's hydroelectric resources.7 Along the Missouri River's course through South Dakota are several large hydroelectric dams.8 Uranium has been found in western South Dakota, although there is currently no production of that energy resource.9,10

Industry is South Dakota's leading energy-consuming end-use sector, and agriculture is the state's leading industry.11 South Dakota has more livestock than people, and one-third of the state's agricultural economy comes from raising beef cattle.12,13,14 South Dakota is also one of the nation's top 10 corn producers. The abundant corn crop is used, in part, to supply the state's ethanol-refining industry.15 The industrial sector includes several manufacturing industries in addition to South Dakota's many farms. Food processing and the manufacture of farm and construction machinery, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, and computers are the state's leading manufacturing activities.16 Although gold mining on a large scale ceased in January 2002 with the closing of the Homestake mine after almost 40 million ounces of gold had been produced there, other energy-intensive mining activities continue, including the extraction of granite, gravel, petroleum, and precious metals.17

South Dakota has one of the smallest populations of any state, and its total energy consumption is among the lowest in the nation. Nevertheless, with its energy-intensive industries and a climate typified by hot summers, exceptionally cold winters, and periodic droughts, South Dakota is one of the top 10 states in total energy consumption per capita.18,19,20,21

Petroleum

South Dakota has no significant proved petroleum reserves and no oil refineries.22,23 The state's crude oil production is less than 0.05% of the nation's total.24 Petroleum production is concentrated in the northwestern corner of the state, where Harding County produces the bulk of South Dakota's crude oil and natural gas.25 Although the Williston Basin extends into South Dakota from the north, the oil-rich Bakken Shale does not. Other potentially productive formations are present but are unexplored.26 Oil production in South Dakota has been fairly steady for decades, ranging between about 1.1 million and 1.8 million barrels per year.27

South Dakota is crossed by one major crude oil pipeline, and others are in development. Several petroleum product pipelines that enter South Dakota from neighboring states supply refined products to South Dakota consumers.28,29 The transportation sector accounts for four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in South Dakota, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel. The industrial sector uses most of the rest. Nearly one-fifth of the state's homes use some sort of petroleum product for heating, usually liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the residential sector accounts for about 5% of the state's petroleum consumption.30,31

In 2014, South Dakota’s ethanol plants produced 7.5% of the nation’s total.

South Dakota allows the statewide use of conventional gasoline without ethanol.32 However, South Dakota ranks among the six largest ethanol producers in the nation.33 The operating capacity of South Dakota's ethanol plants is slightly more than 1 billion gallons per year, but only about 50 million gallons per year are consumed in the state. In 2014, South Dakota's ethanol plants produced 7.5% of the nation's total.34,35

Natural gas

Like crude oil, natural gas production in South Dakota is modest, and the state does not have appreciable proved natural gas reserves.36 Gross withdrawals of natural gas in the state have experienced a steady increase over the past 25 years, but South Dakota accounts for only about 0.05% of U.S. natural gas production.37,38 Most of South Dakota's natural gas production is from wells in the northwestern part of the state.39,40

Although South Dakota, with its small population, uses relatively little natural gas, more natural gas is consumed in the state than is produced.41,42 A handful of major interstate pipelines bring natural gas into South Dakota.43 Almost all the natural gas that enters the state comes from North Dakota. More than nine-tenths of the natural gas received in South Dakota is shipped on to Minnesota and other states.44 South Dakota does not have any underground natural gas storage facilities.45

Industry, including agriculture, is South Dakota's largest natural gas-consuming sector. The residential sector is the second-largest consumer in the state, but it uses only about one-fourth as much as the industrial sector.46 Nearly half of South Dakota households use natural gas as their primary fuel for home heating.47

Coal

South Dakota does not have any coal production or reserves and relies on shipments of coal from other states to meet its limited coal demand.48,49 Coal is brought into the state from Wyoming, and more than four-fifths of that coal is used for electricity generation. The rest of the coal delivered to South Dakota is used at industrial facilities.50,51

Electricity

Hydroelectric power is the primary source of South Dakota's net electricity generation.

South Dakota uses a variety of resources for electricity generation, but hydroelectric power is the primary supplier of electricity in the state, accounting for two-fifths of the state's net generation.52,53 Four of the state's largest hydroelectric power plants are on the upper Missouri River and are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The northernmost dam in South Dakota is the Oahe Dam. Forming the fourth-largest man-made reservoir in the nation, the Oahe began generating hydroelectric power in 1962. Downstream are the Big Bend Dam, which went into operation in 1964, and the Fort Randall Dam, just north of the Nebraska state line. The Fort Randall Dam first produced power in March 1954. The Gavins Point Dam, completed in 1957, straddles the border between South Dakota and Nebraska and is the smallest of the Upper Missouri River Basin dams. However, it plays an important role in controlling the water flow downstream on the 800 miles of open river between Gavins Point and St. Louis, Missouri. Water released from upstream dams is stored at the Gavins Point Dam in Lewis and Clark Lake for production of hydroelectric power.54 The hydroelectric power produced in South Dakota is marketed and delivered throughout the central and western United States by the Western Area Power Administration.55

South Dakota's remaining net electricity generation is supplied almost entirely from wind and coal. Wind power supplies more than three-tenths of South Dakota's net generation.56 In 2015, wind powered 5 of the 10 largest electricity generating plants in the state.57 In contrast, coal's contribution has fallen from more than half the state's net electricity generation in 2008 to one-fifth in 2016. One-tenth of South Dakota's electricity generation is natural gas-fired.58,59

Per capita retail electricity sales in South Dakota are above the national average. The residential and commercial sectors together account for more than three-fourths of retail electricity sales in the state. Retail sales to the commercial sector are slightly greater than to the residential sector where about three-tenths of the state's households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating.60,61,62

Renewable energy

South Dakota has one of the largest wind resources in the nation.

South Dakota uses its renewable energy resources extensively. The state generates seven-tenths of its electricity from hydroelectric power and wind, with more generation from hydroelectric power than from any other source.63,64 South Dakota is among the top seven states in wind potential.65 In 2016, South Dakota ranked second in the nation after Iowa in the share of its net electricity generation provided by wind.66 Even with more than 580 wind turbines statewide, and almost 1,000 megawatts of installed capacity, South Dakota's wind potential is just beginning to be developed.67 Almost nine-tenths of the state has been identified as suitable for utility-scale wind projects.68,69

South Dakota has other undeveloped renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy has been used in direct heat applications, including district heating, geothermal heat pumps, spas, and for heating swimming pools, residences, barns, and other buildings.70 The state has no utility-scale electricity generation from geothermal energy or from biomass. As an agricultural state, South Dakota has abundant agricultural waste that can be processed into biofuels.71,72 South Dakota is among the nation's leading producers of corn and of ethanol.73,74 Sixteen ethanol plants are in operation in South Dakota, and all of them use corn as a feedstock.75 The state has only modest amounts of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation and most of it is distributed (customer-sited, small-scale) generation.76 Moderate solar PV potential exists across most of the state, with the greatest solar potential in the state's southwest corner.77

In February 2008, South Dakota's legislature established a voluntary renewable portfolio objective with the goal of obtaining 10% of all retail electricity sales from renewable and recycled energy sources by 2015. In 2009, the policy was amended to allow conserved energy as a component. The legislation applied to all retail providers of electricity in the state. Most of the electricity providers in the state have met the goal. Other providers noted barriers that limited their ability to meet the objective. Those barriers included lack of transmission capacity for renewable projects, intermittent supply, availability of low- cost natural gas, and physical location.78,79,80 South Dakota has additional regulatory policies, financial incentives, and technical resources aimed at encouraging energy efficiency and the expanded use of renewable sources for electricity generation in the state.81

Energy on tribal lands

More than 72,000 Native Americans live in South Dakota.82 Almost one-tenth of the state is land held by tribes or individual tribal members, giving South Dakota the fifth-largest amount of acreage in tribal hands in the nation.83 The state is home to nine federally recognized tribes on nine reservations. Two of the reservations straddle the North Dakota-South Dakota border.84,85 The Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud, and Standing Rock Tribes are among the largest tribal landholders in the United States.86

Although South Dakota's tribal lands do not have significant fossil energy resources, they do have substantial renewable energy resources. The Sisseton Tribe of northeastern South Dakota is one of the five tribes in the nation with the greatest biomass potential on their reservations. The Pine Ridge reservation in southwestern South Dakota has some of the greatest concentrating solar power potential, and the Standing Rock reservation that straddles the North and South Dakota border is one of the five reservations with the greatest rural utility-scale solar PV potential.87

Four of the top five tribal lands with the greatest wind-powered generation potential in the nation are in South Dakota. They are Cheyenne River, Standing Rock, Pine Ridge, and Rosebud Reservations.88 Several utility-scale wind projects are in development on South Dakota tribal lands.89 In 2003, South Dakota's Rosebud Sioux Tribe installed a 750-kilowatt wind turbine. It was the first tribal-owned and tribal-operated utility-scale commercial wind turbine in the Lower 48 states, and the tribe has continued to develop its wind resources.90,91 In 2013, six South Dakota tribes announced the collaborative development of an interconnected grid of wind farms. The planned facilities could provide up to 2 gigawatts of capacity.92 To expedite development of the wind project, including transmission lines, a tribally owned Multi-Tribal Power Authority has been formed by eight Sioux tribes in South Dakota: the Cheyenne River Sioux, Crow Creek Sioux, Flandreau Santee Sioux, Oglala Sioux, Rosebud Sioux, Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate, Standing Rock Sioux, and Yankton Sioux.93 Construction of the power project is anticipated to begin in 2019.94 In 2014, the South Dakota Crow Creek Sioux Tribe received a federal grant to begin work on a proposed 100- to 400-megawatt wind farm on 7,000 acres of its tribal land.95

Tribal leaders in South Dakota are exploring ways to lower their energy costs. South Dakota and neighboring states have abundant hydroelectric resources, much of it generated at federal dams.96 The power generated at those facilities is distributed to electric utilities by the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA). The tribes want to lower their energy costs by receiving hydroelectricity directly from the WAPA instead of through third-party utilities.97

Endnotes

1 Malo, Douglas, South Dakota's Physiographic Regions, Northern State University (1997).
2 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Geological Survey, South Dakota Oil and Gas Well, Test Hole and Permit Locations, accessed January 27, 2017.
3 Rosentrater, Kurt A., Dennis Todey, and Russell Persyn, "Quantifying Total and Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources in South Dakota—A Preliminary Assessment,' Agricultural Engineering International, Manuscript 1059-1058-1, Volume XI (2009), p. 2.
4 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, South Dakota Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
5 Roberts, Billy J., Photovoltaic Solar Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (September 19, 2012).
6 Roberts, Billy J., Geothermal Resource of the United States, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (October 13, 2009).
7 Geology.com, South Dakota Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed January 28, 2017.
8 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, accessed January 28, 2017.
9 Azarga Uranium, Dewey Burdock Uranium Project, accessed February 21, 2017.
10 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Domestic Uranium Production Report 4th Quarter 2016 (February 2017), Table 4, U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), South Dakota, Tables CT4-CT8 Energy Consumption Estimates, 2014.
12 South Dakota Governor's Office of Economic Development, Value-Added Agriculture, accessed January 29, 2017.
13 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2015 State Agricultural Overview, South Dakota, accessed January 29, 2017.
14 U.S. Census Bureau, QuickFacts, South Dakota, accessed January 29, 2017.
15 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, Largest to Smallest Capacity as of September 2016.
16 South Dakota Governor's Office of Economic Development, South Dakota Manufacturing Quick Stats, updated September 2015.
17 Jones, Shannon, "Top 5 Industries in South Dakota: Which Parts of the Economy Are Strongest?,' Newsmax (April 10, 2015).
18 City-Data, South Dakota Climate, accessed January 29, 2017.
19 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Energy Indicators, accessed January 29, 2017.
20 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Consumption and Expenditures, accessed January 29, 2017.
21 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), Table C10, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2014.
22 U.S. EIA, South Dakota, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, 2015.
23 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, Annual as of January 1, 2015.
24 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015.
25 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2015 Oil and Gas Statistics.
26 The Office of Governor Dennis Daugaard, South Dakota Oil & Gas Development/Preparedness Executive Branch Work Groups, Summary of Findings (September 2012), p. 10-11.
27 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil, 1981-2015.
28 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed January 30, 2017.
29 TransCanada, Asset Map, accessed January 30, 2017.
30 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, South Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
31 U.S. EIA, State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 through 2014, DOE/EIA-0214(2014) (June 2016), South Dakota Tables CT4, CT5, CT6, CT7, CT8.
32 Gardner, K. W., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, American Petroleum Institute, updated June 22, 2015.
33 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, Largest to Smallest Capacity as of September 2016.
34 Ethanol Producer Magazine, "U.S. Ethanol Plants,' updated January 23, 2016.
35 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Environment, accessed January 30, 2017.
36 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed January 30, 2017.
37 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1980-2015.
38 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-15.
39 Lees, Mike, 2014 South Dakota Activity Update, Williston Basin Petroleum Conference (May 20-22, 2014).
40 South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Production and Injection Data, 2015 Oil and Gas Statistics.
41 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Total Consumption, 2011-15.
42 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 2011-15.
43 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Distribution and Marketing, accessed January 30, 2017.
44 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, South Dakota, 2010-15.
45 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Number of Existing Fields, 2010-15.
46 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, South Dakota, Annual, 2011-16.
47 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, South Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
48 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 2, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2015.
49 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Profile Data, Reserves and Supply, accessed January 31, 2017.
50 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 (November 2016), South Dakota Table DS-39, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2015.
51 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2015 (November 2016), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, by Census Division, and State, 2013 and 2012.
52 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2015.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B.
54 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Lewis and Clark: Big Dam Era, updated July 1, 2015.
55 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, Hydropower, accessed January 31, 2017.
56 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
57 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2015.
58 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
59 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.4.B 1.7.B.
60 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016, Table 1, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016.
61 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 5.4.B.
62 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, South Dakota, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate.
63 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B,1.10.B, 1.14.B.
64 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2015, Table 5, Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 through 2015.
65 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, South Dakota Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
66 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.3.B, 1.14.B.
67 American Wind Energy Association, South Dakota Wind Energy, accessed February 1, 2017.
68 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, South Dakota Wind Resource Map and Potential Wind Capacity, updated September 24, 2015.
69 U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts, South Dakota, accessed February 1, 2017.
70 Lund, John W., "South Dakota Geothermal Resources,' Geo-Heat Center Bulletin (December 1997), p. 1-5.
71 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Tables 1.15.B, 1.16.B.
72 Rosentrater, Kurt A., Dennis Todey, and Russell Persyn, "Quantifying Total and Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources in South Dakota, A Preliminary Assessment,' Agricultural Engineering International, Manuscript 1059-1058-1, accessed February 1, 2017.
73 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Crop Production 2015 Summary (January 2016), p. 9.
74 Nebraska Energy Office, Ethanol Facilities Nameplate Capacity and Operating Production Ranked by State, Largest to Smallest Capacity as of September 2016.
75 Ethanol Producer Magazine, "U.S. Ethanol Plants, All Platforms, Existing,' updated January 23, 2016.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2017), Table 1.17.B.
77 U.S. EIA, South Dakota State Profile, Solar map layer, accessed February 1, 2017.
78 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective, updated October 28, 2016.
79 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, Energy, Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective Reports, accessed February 2, 2017.
80 South Dakota Public Utilities Commission, South Dakota's Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective Report for Calendar Year 2015 (December 30, 2016).
81 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, South Dakota Programs, accessed February 2, 2017.
82 U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder, South Dakota, Table B02001 Race, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
83 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-3.
84 U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs,' Federal Register, Vol. 82 No. 10 (January 17, 2017), p. 4915-20.
85 South Dakota Department of Tribal Relations, Nine Tribes in South Dakota, accessed February 2, 2017.
86 U.S. Forest Service, Forest Service National Resource Guide to American Indian and Alaska Native Relations, Appendix D: Indian Nations, The American Indian Digest (April 1997), p. D-2.
87 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 36, 40, 52.
88 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Indian Energy, Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands, Data and Resources for Tribes, DOE/IE-0015 (April 2013), p. 56.
89 Citizens Energy Corporation, Citizens Wind, Citizens Wind Projects, Sioux Projects, accessed February 2, 2017.
90 Guevara-Stone, Laurie, "Native Energy: From Fossil Fuels below to Renewables above," GreenBiz (August 4, 2014).
91 U.S. Department of Energy, Rosebud Sioux Wind Energy Project, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, DOE Grant DE-FC36-99R810676, Final Report, RST Utilities Commission (April, 2008), p. ii.
92 Fried, Rona, "Sioux Tribes Collaborate on Biggest US Wind Farm,' SustainableBusiness.com News (July 10, 2013).
93 Clinton Foundation, Clinton Global Initiative, Joint Wind Power Development Project on Tribal Lands, accessed February 2, 2017.
94 Oceti Sakowin Power Authority, The Oceti Sakowin Power Project, accessed February 2, 2017.
95 Simmons-Ritchie, Daniel, "Crow Creek receives federal grant to launch billion-dollar wind farm,' Rapid City Journal (March 18, 2014).
96 U.S. EIA, South Dakota Electricity Profile 2015, Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2015.
97 LeBeau, Tracey, "Energy Department and South Dakota Tribal Leaders Explore Ways to Lower Energy Costs,' U.S. Department of Energy (June 10, 2014).


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