Pennsylvania State Energy Profile



Pennsylvania Quick Facts

  • Pennsylvania's marketed natural gas production, primarily from the Marcellus Shale, reached almost 7 trillion cubic feet in 2019, and the state is the nation's second-largest natural gas producer after Texas.
  • Pennsylvania was the third-largest coal-producing state in the nation in 2018, and it was the second-largest coal exporter to foreign markets.
  • In 2019, Pennsylvania ranked second in the nation after Illinois in electricity generation from nuclear power. However, Pennsylvania’s natural gas-fired power plants surpassed nuclear power as the largest provider of in-state electricity for the first time in 2019.
  • About half of Pennsylvania households use natural gas as their primary home heating fuel, and its 49 underground gas storage sites--the most for any state--are key for helping to meet heating demand in winter.
  • Pennsylvania is the third-largest net supplier of energy to other states, after Wyoming and Texas.

Last Updated: September 17, 2020



Data

Last Update: September 16, 2021 | Next Update: October 21, 2021

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Energy Indicators  
Demography Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period
Population 12.8 million 3.9% 2020  
Civilian Labor Force 6.4 million 3.9% Jul-21  
Economy Pennsylvania U.S. Rank Period
Gross Domestic Product $ 780.2 billion 6 2020  
Gross Domestic Product for the Manufacturing Sector $ 89,209 million 8 2020  
Per Capita Personal Income $ 62,198 15 2020  
Vehicle Miles Traveled 102,864 million miles 9 2019  
Land in Farms 7.3 million acres 35 2017  
Climate Pennsylvania U.S. Rank Period
Average Temperature 51.2 degrees Fahrenheit 29 2020  
Precipitation 43.1 inches 19 2020  
Prices  
Petroleum Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period find more
Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase $ 64.23 /barrel $ 68.58 /barrel Jun-21  
Natural Gas Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period find more
City Gate $ 4.92 /thousand cu ft $ 4.80 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Residential $ 17.64 /thousand cu ft $ 17.76 /thousand cu ft Jun-21 find more
Coal Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period find more
Average Sales Price $ 57.11 /short ton $ 36.07 /short ton 2019  
Delivered to Electric Power Sector W $ 1.95 /million Btu Jun-21  
Electricity Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period find more
Residential 14.02 cents/kWh 13.85 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Commercial 8.76 cents/kWh 11.34 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Industrial 6.46 cents/kWh 7.27 cents/kWh Jun-21 find more
Reserves  
Reserves Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Crude Oil (as of Dec. 31) 16 million barrels * 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Dry Natural Gas (as of Dec. 31) 105,917 billion cu ft 22.8% 2019 find more
Expected Future Production of Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1,008 million barrels 4.7% 2019 find more
Recoverable Coal at Producing Mines 1,070 million short tons 7.6% 2019 find more
Rotary Rigs & Wells Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Natural Gas Producing Wells 69,025 wells 14.1% 2019 find more
Capacity Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period
Crude Oil Refinery Capacity (as of Jan. 1) 601,000 barrels/calendar day 3.2% 2020  
Electric Power Industry Net Summer Capacity 48,883 MW 4.3% Jun-21  
Supply & Distribution  
Production Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Energy 9,655 trillion Btu 9.5% 2019 find more
Crude Oil 17 thousand barrels per day 0.1% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas - Marketed 6,896,792 million cu ft 18.9% 2019 find more
Coal 50,053 thousand short tons 7.1% 2019 find more
Total Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Net Electricity Generation 21,479 thousand MWh 5.7% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Net Electricity Generation (share of total) Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period
Petroleum-Fired * 0.2 % Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas-Fired 51.4 % 39.7 % Jun-21 find more
Coal-Fired 14.5 % 23.3 % Jun-21 find more
Nuclear 30.7 % 17.7 % Jun-21 find more
Renewables 3.1 % 18.5 % Jun-21  
Stocks Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Motor Gasoline (Excludes Pipelines) -- -- Jun-21  
Distillate Fuel Oil (Excludes Pipelines) 3,020 thousand barrels 2.8% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas in Underground Storage 551,761 million cu ft 7.9% Jun-21 find more
Petroleum Stocks at Electric Power Producers 1,250 thousand barrels 5.4% Jun-21 find more
Coal Stocks at Electric Power Producers W W Jun-21 find more
Fueling Stations Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period
Motor Gasoline 3,962 stations 3.5% 2019  
Propane 56 stations 2.1% 2021  
Electricity 887 stations 2.2% 2021  
E85 142 stations 3.8% 2021  
Compressed Natural Gas and Other Alternative Fuels 52 stations 4.1% 2021  
Consumption & Expenditures  
Summary Pennsylvania U.S. Rank Period
Total Consumption 3,815 trillion Btu 7 2019 find more
Total Consumption per Capita 298 million Btu 27 2019 find more
Total Expenditures $ 45,883 million 5 2019 find more
Total Expenditures per Capita $ 3,585 33 2019 find more
by End-Use Sector Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Residential 892 trillion Btu 4.2% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial 601 trillion Btu 3.3% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial 1,405 trillion Btu 4.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation 917 trillion Btu 3.2% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Residential $ 12,435 million 4.7% 2019 find more
    »  Commercial $ 5,817 million 3.1% 2019 find more
    »  Industrial $ 8,411 million 4.3% 2019 find more
    »  Transportation $ 19,219 million 3.4% 2019 find more
by Source Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period
Consumption
    »  Petroleum 224 million barrels 3.0% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas 1,610 billion cu ft 5.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal 25 million short tons 4.3% 2019 find more
Expenditures
    »  Petroleum $ 24,437 million 3.5% 2019 find more
    »  Natural Gas $ 7,907 million 5.2% 2019 find more
    »  Coal $ 1,527 million 6.0% 2019 find more
Consumption for Electricity Generation Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Petroleum 23 thousand barrels 1.5% Jun-21 find more
Natural Gas 75,848 million cu ft 6.9% Jun-21 find more
Coal 1,612 thousand short tons 3.4% Jun-21 find more
Energy Source Used for Home Heating (share of households) Pennsylvania U.S. Average Period
Natural Gas 51.5 % 47.8 % 2019  
Fuel Oil 15.5 % 4.4 % 2019  
Electricity 23.9 % 39.5 % 2019  
Propane 4.6 % 4.8 % 2019  
Other/None 4.6 % 3.5 % 2019  
Environment  
Renewable Energy Capacity Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Total Renewable Energy Electricity Net Summer Capacity 2,956 MW 1.1% Jun-21  
Ethanol Plant Nameplate Capacity 128 million gal/year 0.7% 2021  
Renewable Energy Production Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Utility-Scale Hydroelectric Net Electricity Generation 265 thousand MWh 1.1% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Solar, Wind, and Geothermal Net Electricity Generation 262 thousand MWh 0.7% Jun-21  
Utility-Scale Biomass Net Electricity Generation 144 thousand MWh 3.1% Jun-21  
Small-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Generation 76 thousand MWh 1.5% Jun-21  
Fuel Ethanol Production 2,559 thousand barrels 0.7% 2019  
Renewable Energy Consumption Pennsylvania U.S. Rank Period find more
Renewable Energy Consumption as a Share of State Total 6.1 % 42 2019  
Fuel Ethanol Consumption 11,708 thousand barrels 5 2019  
Total Emissions Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 221.6 million metric tons 4.2% 2018  
Electric Power Industry Emissions Pennsylvania Share of U.S. Period find more
Carbon Dioxide 77,357 thousand metric tons 4.5% 2019  
Sulfur Dioxide 51 thousand metric tons 4.0% 2019  
Nitrogen Oxide 45 thousand metric tons 3.4% 2019  

Analysis

Last Updated: September 17, 2020

Overview

Pennsylvania, endowed with extensive fossil energy resources, is a leading East Coast supplier of coal, natural gas, electricity, and refined petroleum products to the nation. The Appalachian Mountains run diagonally southwest to northeast through Pennsylvania, dividing the Ohio River valley in the west from the Susquehanna and Delaware River valleys in the east, and they hold rich coal reserves.1 The Marcellus Shale, the largest U.S. natural gas field, follows the arc of the mountains and underlies about three-fifths of the state.2,3

Although three-fourths of Pennsylvania’s land is classified as rural, only about one-fourth of the state’s population lives in rural areas.4,5 Pennsylvania’s largest population areas center around Philadelphia in the southeast corner of the state and Pittsburgh in the southwest near the border with Ohio.6,7 The state’s temperate climate varies from the southeast, where it is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, to cooler areas near the Great Lakes in the northwest, where weather fronts with frigid temperatures often come from Canada.8,9

Pennsylvania is the third-largest net supplier of energy to other states.

Pennsylvania’s gross domestic product (GDP) ranked sixth among the states in 2019.10 Although the state is among the top 10 consumers of coal, natural gas, petroleum products, and electricity, Pennsylvania is the third-largest net supplier of energy to other states, after Wyoming and Texas.11,12 Its total energy consumption per capita is at the U.S. average.13 The industrial sector leads energy consumption in Pennsylvania, accounting for just over one-third of the state’s total energy use, followed by the residential sector at one-fourth, the transportation sector at just under one-fourth, and the commercial sector at about one-sixth.14 Major energy-consuming industries that are large contributors to the state’s GDP include natural gas and oil extraction and mining; metals and machinery manufacturing; chemical products; and agriculture and food processing.15

Natural gas

Pennsylvania is the second-largest natural gas-producing state.

Pennsylvania is second only to Texas in estimated proved natural gas reserves, which nearly tripled from 2012 to 2018 because of natural gas development in the Marcellus Shale.16 The Marcellus formation extends under three-fifths of Pennsylvania as well as parts of West Virginia, New York, Ohio, and Maryland.17 The Marcellus Shale has the largest estimated proved reserves of any U.S. natural gas field.18 During 2018 alone, Pennsylvania added 14.2 trillion cubic feet of proved natural gas reserves, the second-largest net increase of all the states that year after Texas.19 Pennsylvania’s marketed natural gas production was nearly 7 trillion cubic feet in 2019, more than 11 times larger than in 2010.20 The state’s annual marketed natural gas was equal to about one-fifth of total U.S. gas production, making Pennsylvania the second-largest natural gas producer in the nation, after Texas.21

Several pipeline projects in recent years have enabled Marcellus natural gas producers to transport their supplies to additional markets, and more pipeline projects are under construction or planned.22 These projects include the Rockies Express Zone 3 expansion, which entered into service in October 2016 and moves natural gas westward from southwest Pennsylvania. The Algonquin Incremental Market pipeline, which began operating in December 2016, primarily moves natural gas from northeastern Pennsylvania into New England.23 Most of the natural gas shipped by pipeline from Pennsylvania goes to New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia.24 Pennsylvania has 49 underground natural gas storage facilities, the most of any state, which help meet regional heating demand in the winter. All but one of those storage sites are in depleted natural gas fields. The state’s total natural gas storage capacity is the fourth-largest in the nation.25

Pennsylvania is also experiencing growth in the production of natural gas plant liquids (NGPLs), including ethane and propane, which typically sell at higher prices than natural gas.26,27,28 The state’s natural gas plant processing was nearly 10 times larger in 2018 compared to 2010.29 Natural gas producers are building processing plants to extract higher-priced NGPLs from natural gas and pipelines to transport the products to domestic and Canadian markets and to ports on the East Coast and the Gulf Coast for export.30,31,32 Pennsylvania’s first ethane cracker, which will make feedstocks for plastics manufacturing, is under construction near Pittsburgh.33,34,35

The electric power sector used about half of the natural gas delivered to consumers in the state. The industrial and residential sectors each accounted for about one-fifth of the state’s total natural gas use, and the commercial sector consumed most of the rest.36 About half of Pennsylvania households use natural gas as their primary heating fuel.37

Coal

Pennsylvania is the third-largest coal-producing state and is home to the 10th biggest U.S. coal mine.

Pennsylvania is the third-largest coal-producing state in the nation, after Wyoming and West Virginia, and coal has been mined in the state for more than 200 years. The state has substantial reserves of bituminous coal, which is used to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.38,39,40 The Bailey Mine, located in southwestern Pennsylvania near the West Virginia border, is the 10th largest U.S. coal mine.41 Northeastern Pennsylvania has almost all the nation's reserves of anthracite coal and anthracite production, but anthracite accounts for only about 4% of the state’s total coal production.42,43,44 Anthracite, which has a higher heat content than other types of coal and burns with little soot, is used primarily in space heating in residential and commercial buildings.45 The number of coal mines and amount of coal production in Pennsylvania has declined as less electricity has been generated from coal, coal-fired power plants have shut down, and foreign demand for coal has fallen.46,47,48,49 The state’s coal production was down 23% during the first eight months of 2020 compared to the same period a year earlier.50

Pennsylvania is also a major coal consumer, ranking sixth among the states in total coal use.51 About four-fifths of the coal consumed in the state is burned for electricity generation, and the rest is used for steelmaking and other industrial applications.52 Large volumes of coal are moved by rail, barge, and truck into and out of Pennsylvania and around the state. In 2018, almost 90% of Pennsylvania-mined coal was used for electricity generation. One-third of that coal was used at Pennsylvania power plants and the rest was transported to generating facilities in 15 other states, which, except for one, were located east of the Mississippi River.53 Pennsylvania was the second-largest coal-exporting state in 2018, after West Virginia, with about three-tenths of the state’s mined coal exported to other nations.54

Petroleum

Pennsylvania, site of the first U.S. commercial oil well in 1859, has few economically recoverable crude oil reserves but continues to produce modest amounts of crude oil—mainly paraffin-based crude oil used for making lubricants.55,56,57,58 With four petroleum refineries that can process about 600,000 barrels of crude oil per calendar day, Pennsylvania was home to nearly half the East Coast’s refining capacity.59 However, an explosion and fire in June 2019 at one of the refineries—the largest refinery on the East Coast—located on the Delaware River in south Philadelphia disrupted 335,000 barrels per calendar day of refining capacity. As a result, the owner of the refinery decided to shut down the facility permanently.60 The other large refinery in the Philadelphia area continues to process about 190,000 barrels of crude oil per day into jet fuel, motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil.61,62

Two small refineries are located in northwestern Pennsylvania. One processes crude oil into motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil and several grades of asphalt, while the other refinery processes crude oil from Pennsylvania and neighboring states into motor gasoline, fuel oil, and waxes and specialty products like resin blends and camping fuel.631,64 In addition to petroleum products from local refineries, Pennsylvania receives gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel via the Colonial Pipeline that moves refined petroleum products from the Texas Gulf Coast to 11 southern and Mid-Atlantic states.65

About one in six Pennsylvania households rely on fuel oil for home heating and makes Pennsylvania, like much of the U.S. Northeast, vulnerable to heating oil shortages and price spikes.66 In 2000, the federal government created the 1-million-barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to avert shortages in Pennsylvania and other Northeast states.67

The transportation sector is the largest petroleum consumer in Pennsylvania, accounting for nearly three-fourths of the state total, and most of that petroleum is motor gasoline.68,69 To reduce emissions of smog-forming pollutants, motorists in the heavily populated areas of southeastern Pennsylvania, including Philadelphia, are required to use reformulated motor gasoline blended with ethanol. In the summer, drivers in the Pittsburgh area must use motor gasoline that has lower evaporative emissions.70,71 Pennsylvania’s one ethanol production plant is the largest on the East Coast and has a capacity of about 128 million gallons per year, and the state ranks sixth in annual fuel ethanol consumption of 488 million gallons.72,73 The state also has two biodiesel manufacturing plants that can produce 90 million gallons annually, and it is the 11th largest biodiesel-consuming state at nearly 40 million gallons a year.74,75

Electricity

Pennsylvania is one of the top three producers of electricity in the nation and sends the most electricity to other states.

Pennsylvania is the third-largest producer of electricity in the nation, behind only Texas and Florida.76 Electricity generation regularly exceeds Pennsylvania’s power consumption, and the state sends more electricity outside its borders than any other state. Pennsylvania is part of the PJM Interconnection regional transmission organization, which manages the region’s electric grid.77,78,79 In 2019, natural gas-fired power plants were the largest provider of in-state electricity for the first time, taking over the top spot from nuclear power. Coal-fired power plants were the third-largest providers of in-state electricity.80 The residential sector is the largest consumer of electricity in Pennsylvania, accounting for nearly two-fifths of the state total.81 About one in four Pennsylvania households use electricity as their primary heating source.82

Many of Pennsylvania’s coal-fired power plants have been retired with the increased availability of competitively priced natural gas, and nearly 3,000 megawatts of the state’s coal-fired summer generating capacity shut down between 2015 and mid-2020. In the same period, almost 9,500 megawatts of natural gas-fired capacity came online, and almost all the generating capacity added in the state from the beginning of 2019 through the first half of 2020 was fueled by natural gas.83 In 2010, coal provided 48% of the state’s electricity net generation and natural gas accounted for 15%. By 2019, coal had declined to 17% of the state’s net generation and the share of natural gas generation nearly tripled to 43%.84

Pennsylvania ranks second in the nation, after Illinois, in nuclear power generating capacity. Pennsylvania’s five nuclear power plants provided 36% of the state’s electricity net generation in 2019.85,86 Pennsylvania is the site of the first commercial U.S. nuclear power plant, which came online in 1957 in Shippingport and operated for nearly 30 years.87 Some of the state’s nuclear power plants face economic challenges. The Unit 1 reactor at the Three Mile Island plant was shut down permanently in September 2019 because it was unprofitable.88,89 The state also had the nation's most serious nuclear power accident, a partial core meltdown at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor in 1979. That accident led to sweeping changes in U.S. nuclear regulation and operating standards.90

Renewables—mainly hydropower, wind energy, and biomass—provide most of state’s remaining net generation.91

Renewable energy

Hydropower is Pennsylvania’s largest renewable source for electricity generation.

In 2019, about 4% of Pennsylvania’s electricity was generated from renewable energy sources. Conventional hydropower was the state’s largest renewable source for electricity generation and provided about two-fifths of the state’s renewable electricity.92 The state's conventional hydroelectric facilities are, on average, about 60 years old, but some of them have been modernized and upgraded to operate more efficiently.93,94 Pennsylvania has two pumped storage hydropower plants, one with 482 megawatts of generating capacity and another with 1,070 megawatts of capacity. Pumped storage is used during periods of low power demand, usually at night, when less costly electricity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. Then, during periods when power demand and electricity prices are higher, the water is released from the upper reservoir and flows down through generating turbines on its way back to the lower reservoir, producing electricity.95,96

Wind energy accounted for more than one-third of Pennsylvania’s renewable electricity in 2019. Wind resources for commercial power production are found on the state’s Appalachian Mountain crests—mainly in Pennsylvania's southwest but also in the northeastern area—and along the state’s Lake Erie shoreline.97 As of mid-2020, the state had 26 operating wind farms with almost 1,500 megawatts of generating capacity. Two large wind farms, each with generating capacities of 80 megawatts, are scheduled to come online at the end of 2020.98

Pennsylvania ranks among the top dozen states in the amount of electricity generated by biomass resources, and biomass-fueled facilities accounted for about one-fifth of the state’s renewable generation in 2019.99,100 Biomass generation comes mainly from using municipal solid waste and landfill gas as fuel.101 Pennsylvania’s biomass resources from wood and forest byproducts also provide feedstock for the state’s eight wood pellet manufacturing plants, which have a combined production capacity of about 368,000 tons per year.102

Solar energy produced about 6% of the state’s total renewable electricity in 2019, and the number of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in Pennsylvania has increased.103,104 In 2019, more than four-fifths of the state’s net solar generation came from small-scale generating systems, such as rooftop solar panels with generating capacities of 1 megawatt or less, and the rest was from solar generating facilities larger than 1 megawatt.105 Several large businesses in Pennsylvania have installed solar panels for their electricity supplies, including at the home stadium of the Philadelphia Eagles professional football team.106 The state’s largest solar PV facility, the Whitetail Solar project, has 13.5 megawatts of summer generating capacity and came online in late 2019 to provide renewable electricity to Penn State University. The project is scheduled to be expanded in 2020 to a total of 54 megawatts with over 150,000 solar panels.107,108

Pennsylvania's alternative energy portfolio standard (AEPS) was enacted in 2004 and requires that 18% of the retail electricity sold in the state be generated from renewable sources by 2021, with at least 0.5% generated by solar energy.109 For the 2018 reporting year, nearly 15% of the electricity sold to the state’s retail customers was generated by qualifying alternative energy sources, and 0.34% was solar power.110 Among the renewable energy sources Pennsylvania recognizes as meeting part of its AEPS requirements are byproducts of pulping and wood manufacturing, geothermal energy, and waste coal.111 The state also requires investor-owned utilities doing business in the state to undertake energy efficiency measures to reduce peak power demand and electricity consumption, which may include helping customers install solar and geothermal technologies, insulate buildings, and upgrade appliances.112

Endnotes

1 NETSTATE, Pennsylvania, The Geography of Pennsylvania, updated February 25, 2016.
2 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), p. 4, 8.
3 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania’s Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed August 18, 2020.
4 The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Rural Pennsylvania and the 2010 Census (September 2011), p. 2.
5 The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Demographics, Quick Facts, accessed August 18, 2020.
6 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census: Pennsylvania Profile, Population Density by Census Tract.
7 Index Mundi, Pennsylvania Population by County, Population estimates, July 1, 2019.
8 City-data.com, Pennsylvania, Climate, accessed August 18, 2020.
9 Knight, Paul, “Pennsylvania: Where It Can Rain on Everyone’s Parade” Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network, State Climate Series, accessed August 18, 2020.
10 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars (SAGDP2), NAICS, All areas, All industry total, 2019.
11 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C12, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, Ranked by State, 2018.
12 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
13 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates Per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
15 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Data, GDP & Personal Income, Begin using the data, Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, GDP in Current Dollars, NAICS, Pennsylvania, All Statistics in table, 2017.
16 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31, 2013–18.
17 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, The Marcellus Shale: Pennsylvania’s Home-Grown Energy Source, accessed August 21, 2020.
18 U.S. EIA, Top 100 U.S. Oil and Gas Fields (March 2015), Changes in the top 100 gas fields, p. 4.
19 U.S. EIA, U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018 (December 2019), Natural Gas Highlights, p. 1.
20 U.S. EIA, Pennsylvania Natural Gas Marketed Production, 1967–2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Marketed Production, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2014–19.
22 U.S. EIA, U.S. natural gas pipeline projects, Natural gas pipeline projects from 1996 to 2020, Pennsylvania.
23 U.S. EIA, “Pennsylvania’s natural gas production continues to increase,” Today in Energy (April 23, 2018).
24 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Pennsylvania, 2013–18.
25 U.S. EIA, Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity, Total Storage Capacity, Annual, Total Number of Existing Fields, Annual, and Number of Depleted Fields, Annual, 2013–18.
26 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Field Production, PADD 1, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014–19.
27 U.S. EIA, “Pennsylvania’s natural gas production continues to increase,” Today in Energy (April 23, 2018).
28 U.S. EIA, Natural gas plant liquids, accessed August 21, 2020.
29 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Plant Processing, Natural Gas Processed, Annual, 1967–2018
30 Shell, Falcon Ethane Pipeline Systems, accessed August 23, 2020.
31 Chapa, Sergio, “Enterprise to expand Appalachia-to-Texas ethane pipeline,” The Houston Chronicle (October 14, 2019).
32 The Williams Companies, Ohio Valley Ethane Pipeline, Overview, accessed August 21, 2020.
33 Corkery, Michael, “A Giant Factory Rises to Make a Product Filling Up the World: Plastic,” The New York Times (August 12, 2019).
34 Shell Global, Our Growth Projects, U.S. Pennsylvania Petrochemicals Complex, accessed August 21, 2020.
35 Shrum, Rick, “Shell Plans to Stay the Course with Cracker Project,” The Weirton Daily Times (August 21, 2020).
36 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2019.
37 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Pennsylvania.
38 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2018 and 2017.
39 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Coal Mining in Pennsylvania, accessed August 21, 2020.
40 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
41 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 9, Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2018.
42 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Distribution of Pennsylvania Coals (1992).
43 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2018.
44 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 6, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2018.
45 Sunshine, Wendy Lyons, All About Anthracite Coal, Common Uses, The Balance, updated August 21, 2020.
46 U.S. EIA, Coal Data Browser, Aggregate coal mine production for all coal (short tons), 2001–18.
47 U.S. EIA, Weekly U.S. Coal Production, Year-to-date and 52 weeks ended, 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, “2019 coal production falls to its lowest level since 1978,” Today in Energy (July 28, 2020).
49 U.S. EIA, “More than 100 coal-fired plants have been replaced or converted to natural gas since 2011,” Today in Energy (August 5, 2020).
50 U.S. EIA, Weekly U.S. Coal Production, Year-to-date and 52 weeks ended, 2020.
51 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F23, Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2018.
52 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2018 and 2017.
53 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation, Pennsylvania, Table OS-19.
54 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2018 (October 3, 2019), Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by origin state.
55 American Oil & Gas Historical Society, First American Oil Well, accessed August 21, 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Pennsylvania, Annual, 2013–18.
57 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual-Thousand Barrels, 2014–19.
58 Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association, PA Oil and Gas, accessed August 21, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 22, 2020), Table 1, Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2020.
60 “Largest oil refinery on East Coast to close permanently after fire,” AP (June 26, 2019).
61 U.S. EIA, Refinery Capacity Report 2020 (June 22, 2020), Table 3, Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State and Individual Refinery as of January 1, 2020.
62 Monroe Energy, History & Today, accessed August 21, 2020.
63 United Refining Company, About United Refining, accessed August 21, 2020.
64 American Refining Group, Inc., Refinery Information, accessed August 21, 2020.
65 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Colonial, System Map, accessed August 21, 2020.
66 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2018 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, Pennsylvania.
67 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, accessed August 21, 2020.
68 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
69 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C4, Total End-Use Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
70 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Programs, Reformulated gasoline and Reid vapor pressure, accessed August 21, 2020.
71 Larson, B. K., U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil (January 2018).
72 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (August 26, 2019), Detailed nameplate capacity of fuel ethanol plants by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD District) are available in XLS.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report (July 31, 2020), Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity, by state.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2018.
76 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly (February 2020), Table 1.3.B.
77 U.S. EIA, State Electricity Profiles, Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through 2018.
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